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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, S.S. Tneh, M.A. Ahmad, S.K. Mohd Bakhori and Y. Yusof

The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple physical evaporation route in which catalyst‐free zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoscrewdrivers were deposited on silicon (Si) (111…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple physical evaporation route in which catalyst‐free zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoscrewdrivers were deposited on silicon (Si) (111) substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior to the deposition, the Si (111) wafer was cut into pieces of 2×2 cm2. Then, the wafers were dipped for 1 min into mixture buffered oxide etchant to remove native oxide. Then, the samples were rinsed in an ultrasonic bath cleaned with boiling acetone, ethanol, and de‐ionized (DI) water for 10 min. Lastly, the wafers were rinsed in 25 ml DI water in stirred and then were blown dry with nitrogen. In this technique, the starting material is high‐purity metallic zinc (Zn) powder (99.99 per cent pure). Following, the Zn films were then annealed under air environment in the furnace at 500°C for 1 h deprived of any catalysts.

Findings

These ZnO samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, high‐resolution X‐ray diffraction (HR‐XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images were applied to ascertain surface morphology of produced ZnO nanoscrewdrivers. XRD pattern confirmed that the ZnO nanoscrewdrivers were of polycrystalline structure in universe with a hexagonal close packed type and c‐axis is perpendicular to the substrate. The peak at 34° correspond to the reflection planes of ZnO(002) crystallographic plane is perceived. The AFM surface images disclosed that the surfaces of produced ZnO thin films are not smooth. The PL spectrum of as‐synthesized nanoscrewdrivers shows a UV emission peak at 380 nm and a broad green emission peak at 500 nm.

Originality/value

The paper reports on a simple physical evaporation route, ZnO nanoscrewdrivers were synthesized via the thermal evaporation of the high‐purity Zn powders and annealed at 500°C under air atmosphere without introducing any hetero‐metal catalysts or other carrier gases approach.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, S.S. Tneh and S.G. Teo

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the n‐ZnO/p‐Si Schottky photodiodes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the n‐ZnO/p‐Si Schottky photodiodes.

Design/methodology/approach

A Zn film was deposited on silicon substrate by dc sputtering deposition technology from high purity zinc (Zn) targets. Then, the Zn films were then annealed under flowing oxygen (O2) gas environment in the furnace. ZnO nanorods morphologies have been successfully prepared through a simple method. No catalyst is required.

Findings

The structures and morphologies of the products were characterized in detail by using X‐ray diffraction, energy dispersive X‐ray, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to experimental results, the current‐voltage characteristics of the device show the typical rectifying behaviour of Schottky diodes. The UV photocurrent measurement was performed using an UV lamp under a reverse bias.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that the n‐ZnO/p‐Si diodes exhibit strong rectifying conduct described by the current‐voltage (I‐V) measurement under a dark and illumination conditions.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2015

Daniella Laureiro-Martínez, Vinod Venkatraman† , Stefano Cappa, Maurizio Zollo and Stefano Brusoni

This chapter discusses the practical challenges and opportunities involved in merging the two fields of cognitive neurosciences and strategic management, starting from the…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the practical challenges and opportunities involved in merging the two fields of cognitive neurosciences and strategic management, starting from the premise that the need to marry them is justified by their complementarities, as opposed to the level of analysis on which they both focus. We discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks of using methods borrowed from cognitive neurosciences for management research. First, we argue that there are clear advantages in deploying techniques that enable researchers to observe processes and variables that are central to management research, with the caveat that neuroscientific methods and techniques are not general-purpose technologies. Second, we identify three core issues that specify the boundaries within which management scholars can usefully deploy such methods. Third, we propose a possible research agenda with various areas of synergy between the complementary capabilities of management and neuroscience scholars, aiming to generate valuable knowledge and insight for both disciplines and also for society as a whole.

Details

Cognition and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-946-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, H. Abu Hassan, C.W. Chin, S.M. Thahab and S.C. Teoh

The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of novel silicon Schottky barrier (SB) photodiodes (PDs) with aluminium nitride (AlN) (100 nm) nucleation layer.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of novel silicon Schottky barrier (SB) photodiodes (PDs) with aluminium nitride (AlN) (100 nm) nucleation layer.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparison was made with conventional silicon SB PDs.

Findings

It was found that smaller dark current could be achieved with AlN nucleation layer. It was also found that effective SB height increased from 0.65 to 0.71 eV with the insertion of the AlN layer. The dark leakage current for the Schottky PDs with the AlN layer was shown to be about two orders of magnitude smaller than that for the conventional silicon SB PDs.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible that the detrimental effect of interface states situated near the metal semiconductor interface was less pronounced for the sample owing to the insertion of the AlN nucleation layer.

Originality/value

There is believed to be no other report on silicon SB PDs capped with an AlN layer in the literature. This paper describes the fabricated silicon SB PDs and reports on the electrical characteristics of the devices with an AlN nucleation layer grown at low temperature.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan and H. Abu Hassan

This paper aims to report on the use of radio frequency nitrogen plasma‐assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF‐MBE) to grow high‐quality n‐type In0.47Ga0.53N/GaN on Si(111…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on the use of radio frequency nitrogen plasma‐assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF‐MBE) to grow high‐quality n‐type In0.47Ga0.53N/GaN on Si(111) substrate using AlN as a buffer layer.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural analyses of the InGaN films were performed by using X‐ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and Hall measurement. Metal‐semiconductor‐metal (MSM) photodiode was fabricated on the In0.47Ga0.53N/Si(111) films. Electrical analysis of the MSM photodiodes was carried out by using current‐voltage (IV) measurements. Ideality factors and Schottky barrier heights for Ni/In0.47Ga0.53N, was deduced to be 1.01 and 0.60 eV, respectively.

Findings

The In0.47Ga0.53N MSM photodiode shows a sharp cut‐off wavelength at 840 nm. A maximum responsivity of 0.28 A/W was achieved at 839 nm. The detector shows a little decrease in responsivity from 840 to 200 nm. The responsivity of the MSM drops by nearly two orders of magnitude across the cut‐off wavelength.

Originality/value

Focuses on III‐nitride semiconductors, which are of interest for applications in high temperature/power electronic devices.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan and H. Abu Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new structure of GaN based metal‐semiconductor‐metal (MSM) photodiode, in which a thin unintentionally doped n‐type AlGaN layer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new structure of GaN based metal‐semiconductor‐metal (MSM) photodiode, in which a thin unintentionally doped n‐type AlGaN layer is added on the conventional GaN on Si(111) device structure.

Design/methodology/approach

A thin Al0.50Ga0.50N cap layer of 100 nm was incorporated in GaN MSM photodiode to enhance the effective Schottky barrier height and reduce the dark current. When the incident light with photon energy higher than the band edge of GaN but lower than the bandgap of AlGaN illuminates the front face of photodiode, the light can be transparent in the top AlGaN layer and is only absorbed by the GaN layer. As a result, the photogenerated carriers in the GaN layer would be influenced by the interface states of AlGaN/GaN. It is known that the density of the interface states is normally lower than that of surface states, so the recombination of photogenerated electron‐hole pairs will be reduced. A barrier height of 0.54 eV for normal GaN MSM photodiode was increased to the effective barrier height of 0.60 eV.

Findings

The resulting MSM photodiode shows a dark current of as low as 8.0×10−4 A at 5 V bias, which is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of normal GaN (1.0×10−2 A at 5 V bias) MSM photodiode.

Originality/value

The paper reports on barrier enhanced GaN Schottky MSM photodiode using a thin AlGaN cap layer. AlGaN cap layers were found to effectively suppress the leakage current of the GaN Schottky MSM photodiode, resulting in improved device characteristics. The dark current for the Schottky contact with the AlGaN cap layer was shown to be about about two orders of magnitude smaller than that of conventional GaN Schottky MSM photodiode.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Mubeen Zafar, Muhammad Naeem Awais, Muhammad Asif, Amir Razaq and Gul Amin

The purpose of this research work is to harvest energy using the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires (NW). Fabrication and characterization of the piezoelectric…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research work is to harvest energy using the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires (NW). Fabrication and characterization of the piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG), based on Al/ZnO/Au structure without using hosting layer, were done to harvest energy. The proposed method has full potential to harvest the cost-effective energy.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnO NW were fabricated between the thin layers of Al- and Au-coated substrates for the development of piezoelectric NG. To grow ZnO NW, ZnO seed layer was prepared on the Al-coated substrate, and then ZnO NW were grown by aqueous chemical growth method. Finally, Au top electrode was used to conclude the Al/ZnO/Au NG structure. The Al and Au electrodes were used to establish the ohmic and Schottky contacts with ZnO NW, respectively.

Findings

Surface morphology of the fabricated device was done by using scanning electron microscopy, and electrical characterization of the sample was performed with digital oscilloscope, picoammeter and voltmeter. The energy harvesting experiment was performed to excite the presented device. The fabricated piezoelectric-sensitive device revealed the maximum open circuit voltage up to 5 V and maximum short circuit current up to 30 nA, with a maximum power of 150 nW. Consequently, it was also shown that the output of the fabricated device was increased by applying the stress. The presented work will help for the openings to capture the mechanical energy from the surroundings to power up the nano/micro-devices. This research work shows that NGs have the competency to build the self-powered nanosystems. It has potential applications in biosensing and personal electronics.

Originality/value

The fabrication of simple and cost-effective piezoelectric NG is done with a structure of Al/ZnO/Au without using hosting layer. The presented method elucidates an efficient and cost-effective approach to harvest the mechanical energy from the native environment.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ying Zhang, Yuran Li, Mark Frost, Shiyu Rong, Rong Jiang and Edwin T.C. Cheng

This paper aims to examine the critical role played by cultural flow in fostering successful expatriate cross-border transitions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the critical role played by cultural flow in fostering successful expatriate cross-border transitions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop and test a model on the interplay among cultural intelligence, organizational position level, cultural flow direction and expatriate adaptation, using a data set of 387 expatriate on cross-border transitions along the Belt & Road area.

Findings

The authors find that both organizational position level and cultural flow moderate the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adaptation, whereby the relationship is contingent on the interaction of organizational position status and assignment directions between high power distance and low power distance host environments.

Originality/value

Previous research has shown that higher levels of cultural intelligence are positively related to better expatriate adaptation. However, there is a lack of research on the effect of position difference and cultural flow on such relationship. Our study is among the first to examine how the interaction between cultural flow and organizational position level influences the cultural intelligence (CI) and cultural adjustment relationship in cross-cultural transitions.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Ying Zhang, Xialing Wei and Wei Zhou

This paper aims to examine the asymmetric effect of cultural distance on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment through the mechanisms of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the asymmetric effect of cultural distance on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment through the mechanisms of conflict management styles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conceptualizes a model depicting the interplay between culture intelligence, conflict management styles, cultural flows and expatriate adjustment.

Findings

The authors argue that the integrating style aggravates the positive effects of cultural intelligence on expatriate adjustment, while the avoiding style may undermine such effects. There is also a possible moderating effect of cultural distance asymmetry on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment such that, the positive influence of cultural intelligence on adjustment is reinforced when the expatriate is sent from a loose cultural environment to adjust to a tight cultural environment, and that the positive influence of cultural intelligence on adjustment is diminished when the expatriate is sent from a tight cultural environment to adjust to a loose cultural environment.

Originality/value

This paper explicates the mediating effect of conflict management styles and the moderating roles of cultural distance asymmetry on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment. The authors suggest that the level of adjustment is contingent on the direction of cultural flows that the assignment operates in.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Ying Zhang and Edward Oczkowski

The expansion of the phenomenon of two-way flow expatriation due to the accelerated process of globalization has resulted in an increasing need for a better understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

The expansion of the phenomenon of two-way flow expatriation due to the accelerated process of globalization has resulted in an increasing need for a better understanding of cross-cultural transitions. Given the absence of convincing a priori theoretical explanations, as part of an inductive discovery process, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between cultural intelligence (CQ), job position, and cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) for expatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

Explicit consideration is given to uncovering the potential importance of cultural distance asymmetry (CDA) effects. Structural equation modelling techniques are employed to analyse survey data from a two-flow sample of expatriates between Australia and China.

Findings

Results indicate that motivational CQ has a statistically significant effect on CCA. CDA is found to moderate the relationship between job positions and expatriate adjustment, such that the relationship depends on the direction of cultural flow between more and less authoritarian cultural contexts.

Originality/value

These findings discover and highlight the potential importance of identifying the direction of cultural flows of expatriation in understanding successful expatriates’ CCA.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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