Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during…
Research examining the experiences of women in the workplace has, to a large extent, neglected the unique stressors pregnant employees may experience. Stress during pregnancy has been shown consistently to lead to detrimental consequences for the mother and her baby. Using job stress theories, we develop an expanded theoretical model of experienced stress during pregnancy and the potential detrimental health outcomes for the mother and her baby. Our theoretical model includes factors from multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, sociocultural, and community) and the role they play on the health and well-being of the pregnant employee and her baby. In order to gain a deeper understanding of job stress during pregnancy, we examine three pregnancy-specific organizational stressors (i.e., perceived pregnancy discrimination, pregnancy disclosure, and identity-role conflict) that are unique to pregnant employees. These stressors are argued to be over and above the normal job stressors experienced and they are proposed to result in elevated levels of experienced stress leading to detrimental health outcomes for the mother and baby. The role of resilience resources and learning in reducing some of the negative outcomes from job stressors is also explored.
A long-standing question is how group perception, which is the perception of a whole group, becomes an exaggerated perception of the individuals who comprise the group…
A long-standing question is how group perception, which is the perception of a whole group, becomes an exaggerated perception of the individuals who comprise the group. The question receives scant attention within computer-mediated communication (CMC), which is increasingly a communication mode for groups and a research tool to study groups. I address this gap by examining bias in group perception when rating copresence, which is the sense of being together, with the group.
I model bias as occurring when perceivers differentially weigh ratings of individual group members on a variable while rating the whole group on the same variable. I analyzed how the degree of bias in participants’ ratings of copresence with a status-differentiated group varied by the availability of visual cues during CMC in an experiment. I also examined how the group’s status hierarchy impacted bias.
Bias increase as the availability of visual cues decreased and ratings of middle status members were weighed more in group perception than ratings of other members.
Middle status was based on possessing inconsistent statuses. Inconsistency, and not status position, may have rendered these members more salient than others.
Interventions that target group perception may benefit from targeting the group’s middle status members. Researchers and practitioners can minimize bias in group perception through increasing the availability of visual cues in CMC.
The findings illustrate the underpinnings of copresence with an entire group. This is important because copresence shapes several group processes during CMC.
Contact problems are among the most difficult ones in mechanics. Due to its practical importance, the problem has been receiving extensive research work over the years. The finite element method has been widely used to solve contact problems with various grades of complexity. Great progress has been made on both theoretical studies and engineering applications. This paper reviews some of the main developments in contact theories and finite element solution techniques for static contact problems. Classical and variational formulations of the problem are first given and then finite element solution techniques are reviewed. Available constraint methods, friction laws and contact searching algorithms are also briefly described. At the end of the paper, a bibliography is included, listing about seven hundred papers which are related to static contact problems and have been published in various journals and conference proceedings from 1976.
This chapter develops a structural framework for the analysis of scoring procurement auctions where bidder’s quality and bid are taken into account. With exogenous…
This chapter develops a structural framework for the analysis of scoring procurement auctions where bidder’s quality and bid are taken into account. With exogenous quality, the authors characterize the optimal mechanism whether the buyer is private or public and show that the optimal scoring rule need not be linear in the bid. The model primitives include the buyer benefit function, the bidders’ cost inefficiencies distribution and cost function, and potentially the cost of public funds. We show that the model primitives are nonparametrically identified under mild functional assumptions from the buyer’s choice, firms’ bids and qualities. The authors then develop a multistep kernel-based procedure to estimate the model primitives and provide their convergence rates. Our identification and estimation results are general as they apply to other scoring rules including quasi-linear ones.
To address the impact of adding insulated plate extensions at the entrance of an isoflux vertical parallel‐plate channel on the thermal performances of natural convection…
To address the impact of adding insulated plate extensions at the entrance of an isoflux vertical parallel‐plate channel on the thermal performances of natural convection in air for these systems.
The model relies on the full elliptic conservation equations which are solved numerically in a composite three‐part computational domain by means of the finite‐volume method.
Results are reported in terms of wall temperatures, induced mass flow rates, as well as velocity and temperature profiles of the air for various thermal and geometric parameters. The wall temperatures increase when the extensions are appended at the inlet of the channel. Wall temperature profiles strongly depend on the Rayleigh number and the dependence of the heated channel aspect ratio is weaker than the extension ratio. Velocity and temperature profiles modify inside the heated channel due to the thermal development. In addition, correlation equations for main engineering quantities, such as the induced mass flow rate, average Nusselt number and dimensionless maximum wall temperature in terms of the channel Rayleigh number, channel aspect ratio and extension ratio are presented.
The investigation has been carried out in the following ranges: 103‐105 for the Rayleigh number, 5.0‐15.0 for the channel aspect ratio and 1.0‐5.0 for the extension ratio. The hypotheses on which the present analysis is based are: two‐dimensional, laminar and steady‐state flow, constant thermophysical properties with the Boussinesq approximation.
Thermal design of heating systems in manufacturing processes, evaluation of heat convective coefficients and maximum attained wall temperatures.
Evaluation of the thermal and velocity fields and correlation equations for the Nusselt number and maximum dimensionless temperatures in natural convection in air for vertical channels. The paper is useful to thermal designers.