Search results

1 – 10 of over 66000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

N. Brännberg and J. Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE)applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metalforming, non‐metal forming and powder…

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming and powder metallurgy are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on the subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for the last five years, and more than 1100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Ioannis N. Lagoudis

There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming…

Abstract

There is significant amount of literature tackling different issues related to the port industry. The present chapter focuses on a single business unit of seaports aiming at the documentation of works related to container terminals.

An effort to review, collect and present the majority of the works present in the last 30 years, between 1980 and 2010, has been made in order to picture the problems dealt and methods used by the authors in the specific research field. To facilitate the reader, studies have been grouped under five categories of addressed problems (productivity and competitiveness, yard and equipment utilization, equipment scheduling, berth planning, loading/unloading) and four modelling methodologies (mathematics and operations research, management and economics, simulation, stochastic modelling).

The analysis shows that most works focus on productivity and competitiveness issues followed by yard and equipment utilisation and equipment scheduling. In reference to the methodologies used managerial and economic approaches lead, followed by mathematics and operations research.

In reference to future research, two fields have been identified where there is scope of significant contribution by the academic community: container terminal security and container terminal supply chain integration.

The present chapter provides the framework for researchers in the field of port container terminals to picture the so far works in this research area and enables the identification of gaps at both research question and methodology level for further research.

Details

Maritime Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-340-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from…

Abstract

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.

The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.

The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2017

Matt Bower

The ability for learners to interact online via their avatars in a 3-D simulation space means that virtual worlds afford a host of educational opportunities not offered by…

Abstract

The ability for learners to interact online via their avatars in a 3-D simulation space means that virtual worlds afford a host of educational opportunities not offered by other learning technology platforms, but their use also raises several pertinent issues that warrant consideration. This chapter reviews the educational use of virtual worlds from a design perspective. Virtual-world definitions are explored, along with their key educational characteristics. Different virtual-world environments are briefly contrasted, including Second Life, Active Worlds, Open Sim, and Minecraft. A wide variety of virtual-world uses in schools and universities are examined so as to understand their versatility. Key educational benefits of virtual worlds are distilled from the literature, such as the ability to facilitate 3-D simulations, role-plays, construction tasks, and immersive learning. Emergent issues surrounding the use of virtual worlds are also analyzed, including cognitive load, safety, and representational fidelity. One higher education and one school level vignette are provided in order to offer more detailed insight into the use of virtual worlds in practice. Recommendations for learning design and implementation are presented, based on the thematic analysis of contemporary virtual-worlds research.

Details

Design of Technology-Enhanced Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-183-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Dilupa Nakandala, Henry Lau and Jingjing Zhang

Logistics practitioners must continually improve inventory management processes as they daily respond to the twin drivers of customer satisfaction and cost efficiency. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Logistics practitioners must continually improve inventory management processes as they daily respond to the twin drivers of customer satisfaction and cost efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the scenario of sourcing goods through lateral transshipments in a periodic-review policy setting, against a backdrop of cost optimization objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop decision rules that make cost-optimized selection between backordering and combined reactive and proactive lateral transshipment options possible. This necessarily takes account of the trade-off between purchasing, holding and backorder cost components. In addition, the authors use simulation studies to illustrate the superior performance of the proposed decision options.

Findings

According to results of the simulation studies, the proposed two-step decision rule generates the lower inventory cost than the alternative decisions rules. The outperformance of proposed two-step decision rule is valid in different scenario.

Practical implications

This study develops the decision rules to assist wholesaler logistics practitioners to make optimized decisions with regard to whether they should proactively lateral transshipments and if selected, the optimum size of the extra lateral transshipment.

Originality/value

This study has made a significant contribution to the existing knowledge base as it develops decision rules for a combined proactive and reactive approach using lateral transhipments to meet both urgent demand and a part of the demand expected during the supplier lead time in a cost-efficient way.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Kening Liu and Huaming Song

This paper focuses on how the producer inspires his cooperative research partner to reduce carbon emission, by developing a menu of incentive contracts both in research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focuses on how the producer inspires his cooperative research partner to reduce carbon emission, by developing a menu of incentive contracts both in research and development (R&D) stage and recycling stage.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed mechanism combines the researcher with the producer in a two-staged closed-loop system. Based on the concept that the producer takes the environmental responsibility, this paper designs a dynamically updating contract for the producer to encourage low-carbon efforts. Meanwhile, the producer offers a menu of contracts against the asymmetric information, that is, the R&D partner owns private information on his low-carbon R&D capability. According to incentive mechanism, the researcher decides whether to tell the truth and how much effort she would exert in R&D and recycling stages.

Findings

Discriminating between different types of researchers hurts the producer’s profit. But the updated screening contract can inspire researchers to tell the truth and is beneficial in reducing carbon emissions in the two stages. The results give the optimal solutions of the incentive mechanism. The low-type researcher only obtains reservation profit, whereas the high-type is given more to induce the information.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a strategy of updating the contract factors for avoiding adverse selection and moral hazard. Considering the environmental responsibility of waste products, the producer would like to encourage low-carbon designs among the R&D partners in a closed-loop supply chain.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Javad Feizabadi, David M. Gligor and Somayeh Alibakhshi

Drawing on complementarity theory, this paper aims to examine the type and effect of interdependencies/interaction (i.e. complementarity or substitutability) between the…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on complementarity theory, this paper aims to examine the type and effect of interdependencies/interaction (i.e. complementarity or substitutability) between the supply chain capabilities of agility, adaptability and alignment.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey research design is adopted to collect primary and secondary data from 182 international firms. The complementarity (or substitutability) of three As (agile, adaptable and aligned) were analyzed in three-way and pairwise interactions; both, correlation and performance differences methods of testing the type of interactions among the system’s elements were used. Supply chain-centric and firm-centric performance metrics were used to examine the interaction types.

Findings

The study did not find empirical evidence of three-way complementarity between the three As. However, this paper did find evidence of complementarity in bivariate interactions for alignment and adaptability. Moreover, in the performance difference method, the study found a substitute relationship between all pairs of As.

Practical implications

The findings related to the substitutability between the three As offer managers guidance on how to allocate their limited resources to avoid unnecessary over-or under-investing in either one of the three As.

Originality/value

This study helps refine prior findings related to the three As by offering evidence that firms can still achieve their performance-related goals with reduced investment commitments by taking advantage of the substitutability relationship existent between these capabilities. That is, instead of concomitantly developing all three As as past studies have suggested, managers can use the findings to determine how to prioritize their resource allocation better. Furthermore, understanding the actual interaction among the supply chain variables generally provide insights for designing the supply chain, change management in the supply chain, developing supply chain strategy and adopting best practices in the supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Peter G. Roma and Wendy L. Bedwell

To better understand contributing factors and mediating mechanisms related to team dynamics in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments.

Abstract

Purpose

To better understand contributing factors and mediating mechanisms related to team dynamics in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments.

Methodology/approach

Literature review.

Findings

Our primary focus is on cohesion and adaptation – two critical aspects of team performance in ICE environments that have received increased attention in both the literature and funding initiatives. We begin by describing the conditions that define ICE environments and review relevant individual biological, neuropsychiatric, and environmental factors that interact with team dynamics. We then outline a unifying team cohesion framework for long-duration missions and discuss several environmental, operational, organizational, and psychosocial factors that can impact team dynamics. Finally, we end with a discussion of directions for future research and countermeasure development, emphasizing the importance of temporal dynamics, multidisciplinary integration, and novel conceptual frameworks for the inherently mixed work and social setting of long-duration missions in ICE environments.

Social implications

A better understanding of team dynamics over time can contribute to success in a variety of organizational settings, including space exploration, defense and security, business, education, athletics, and social relationships.

Originality/value

We promote a multidisciplinary approach to team dynamics in ICE environments that incorporates dynamic biological, behavioral, psychological, and organizational factors over time.

1 – 10 of over 66000