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Article

N. Brännberg and J. Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE)applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metalforming, non‐metal forming and powder…

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming and powder metallurgy are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on the subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for the last five years, and more than 1100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part

Douglas Dow, Lars Håkanson and Björn Ambos

This chapter bridges the gap between two distinct approaches to the concept of psychic distance – measuring it in terms of people’s perceptions of distance or in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter bridges the gap between two distinct approaches to the concept of psychic distance – measuring it in terms of people’s perceptions of distance or in terms of exogenous national-level differences. The two approaches are reconciled in a “refined and integrative” definition of the concept, which is tested empirically using a mediating model.

Methodology

Structural equation modeling is used on a bilateral sample of 25 countries to test whether perceptions of psychic distance mediate the relationships between national-level differences and bilateral trade and investment.

Findings

By testing for alternative direct paths, the chapter confirms that for the main forms of national-level differences, culture, socioeconomic development, language, and religion, psychic distance fully mediates their relationships with both trade flows and investment patterns. However, for geographic distance, while the relationship is fully mediated for investment, it is only partially mediated for exports. Two asymmetric “distance-bridging” factors are also found to be significant antecedents of psychic distance.

Originality and implications

This chapter is the first to empirically demonstrate the mediating relationship between exogenous national-level differences and perceptions of psychic distance, and thus, provides new insights into the debate over which measurement approach is more appropriate. Perceptions of psychic distance, even if measured by expert panels rather than the actual decision-makers, fully capture the impact of national-level differences on trade and FDI flows; however, if such measures of perceptions are not available, a simple selection of four national-level differences will still capture 80% of the same effect.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

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Article

M. Poursina, C.A.C. António, C.F. Castro, J. Parvizian and L.C. Sousa

A numerical method for shape optimisation in forging is presented. The goal of the optimisation is to eliminate work‐piece defects that may arise during the forging…

Abstract

A numerical method for shape optimisation in forging is presented. The goal of the optimisation is to eliminate work‐piece defects that may arise during the forging process. A two‐dimensional finite element code has been developed for the simulation of the mechanical process. The material is incompressible and it follows the Norton‐Hoff law. To deal with contact constraint the velocity projection algorithm is used. The optimisation process is conducted using a genetic algorithm supported by an elitist strategy. A new genetic operator called adaptive mutation has been developed to increase the efficiency of the search. The developed scheme is used to design optimal preform shapes for several axisymmetric examples. Continuous and discrete design variables are considered. The objective function of the optimisation problem is associated with the quality of the final product. Comparing the obtained optimal results with the literature validates the proposed optimisation method.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Yuhui Wei, Zhaowei Su, Huashan Lu and Xue Mei Ding

The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient termination control strategy of air-vented dryer in term of energy saving, improving smoothness and reducing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient termination control strategy of air-vented dryer in term of energy saving, improving smoothness and reducing microscopic damage of fiber.

Design/methodology/approach

A simple, low cost termination control strategy is developed by testing the instantaneous humidity of exhaust air and then deducing the drying degree of fabric in process. The practicability evaluation of this novel strategy was investigated by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The effect of termination control strategy on drying efficiency and fabric apparent properties were also discussed.

Findings

Termination control strategy significantly affects drying time, energy consumption, smoothness and microscopic of fiber. Specially, a novel termination control strategy that the combination of equilibrium moisture content of fabric in ambient environment and relative humidity of exhaust air in exhaust duct is workable and can save 25.2 percent of energy consumption, 26.7 percent of the drying time and improve 0.7 grade of the appearance smoothness, as well as significantly reduce the microscopic damage of fiber compare to the original control strategy of dryer. This indicates possible ways to minimize drying energy consumption and dryer damage by reducing unnecessary migrate out of the water from the clothes.

Practical implications

The paper is helpful in not only the development of new drying product but also the optimization of appearance smoothness of fabric after drying and reduce the microscopic damage of fiber.

Originality/value

A novel termination control strategy of dryer is applied to improve drying efficiency of dryer and reduce fabric damage.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

A.R. Khoei, Sh. Keshavarz and A.R. Khaloo

The purpose of this paper is to present a shape optimization technique for powder forming processes based on the genetic algorithm approach. The genetic algorithm is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a shape optimization technique for powder forming processes based on the genetic algorithm approach. The genetic algorithm is employed to optimize the geometry of component based on a fixed‐length vector of design variables representing the changes in nodal coordinates. The technique is used to obtain the desired optimal compacted component by changing the boundaries of component and verifying the prescribed constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical modeling of powder compaction simulation is applied based on a large deformation formulation, powder plasticity behavior, and frictional contact algorithm. A Lagrangian finite element formulation is employed for large powder deformations. A cap plasticity model is used in numerical simulation of nonlinear powder behavior. The influence of powder‐tool friction is simulated by the use of penalty approach in which a plasticity theory of friction is incorporated to model sliding resistance at the powder‐tool interface.

Findings

Finally, numerical examples are analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed optimization algorithm for designing powder components in the forming process of powder compaction.

Originality/value

A shape optimization technique is presented for powder forming processes based on the genetic algorithm approach.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Felicitas Evangelista and Lancy Mac

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of deliberate learning, learning from experience and relevant learning co-variates in pursuing market…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of deliberate learning, learning from experience and relevant learning co-variates in pursuing market learning, and to assess the impact of market learning on export performance in smaller firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model was initially developed and subsequently tested using survey data. The standard two step approach of first testing the measurement model and then estimating the structural model was adopted.

Findings

The results provide concrete evidence that among SMEs, deliberate learning has a greater impact on export market learning as compared to experience accumulation, and that market learning has a significant effect on export performance. The results also show that absorptive capacity and commitment to learning are significant co-variates of market learning.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the role of deliberate learning vis-a-vis learning by experience in achieving foreign market learning and export performance in smaller firms. It addresses a major limitation of organisational learning studies which tend to focus mainly on experiential learning and organisational learning in large organisations.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article

Jaroslav Mackerle

To provide a selective bibliography for researchers working with bulk material forming (specifically the forging, rolling, extrusion and drawing processes) with sources…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a selective bibliography for researchers working with bulk material forming (specifically the forging, rolling, extrusion and drawing processes) with sources which can help them to be up‐to‐date.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published (1996‐2005) works, which aims to provide theoretical as well as practical information on the material processing namely bulk material forming. Bulk deformation processes used in practice change the shape of the workpiece by plastic deformations under forces applied by tools and dies.

Findings

Provides information about each source, indicating what can be found there. Listed references contain journal papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject.

Research limitations/implications

It is an exhaustive list of papers (1,693 references are listed) but some papers may be omitted. The emphasis is to present papers written in English language. Sheet material forming processes are not included.

Practical implications

A very useful source of information for theoretical and practical researchers in computational material forming as well as in academia or for those who have recently obtained a position in this field.

Originality/value

There are not many bibliographies published in this field of engineering. This paper offers help to experts and individuals interested in computational analyses and simulations of material forming processes.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Julia Fernanda Urbano Marinho, Marcella Chalella Mazzocato, Fabricio Luiz Tulini, Marluci Palazzolli Silva, Elaine Cristina Pereira de Martinis and Carmen Sílvia Fávaro-Trindade

The purpose of this study was the development and the nutritional, physical-chemical and sensorial characterization of probiotic and synbiotic sorbets elaborated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was the development and the nutritional, physical-chemical and sensorial characterization of probiotic and synbiotic sorbets elaborated with jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis), Lactobacillus spp. and polydextrose.

Design/methodology/approach

Five formulations of jussara sorbets (one control, two probiotics and two synbiotics) were produced and evaluated according to their centesimal composition, pH, soluble solids, instrumental color, overrun, apparent density, sensory acceptability and purchase intent.

Findings

All sorbets exhibited low calorific value, with no difference between them (p =0.96). The synbiotic samples (S3 and S5) showed the higher carbohydrate (30.4 and 30.2 per cent) and crude fiber content (0.4 and 0.5 per cent). Regarding to sensory acceptance, the probiotic samples (S2 and S4) presented greater global acceptability (averages acceptance 6.4 and 6.6, respectively) while the polydextrose samples (S3 and S5) showed low values (5.9 for both samples), although this prebiotic was able to increase the overrun to values above 40 per cent.

Practical implications

The functional jussara sorbets are a promising possibility for diversification of the probiotic foods already offered. The combination of its probiotic, prebiotic and bioactive properties can provide technological improvement and superior nutritional quality, with good sensorial acceptance. Likewise, jussara pulp showed nutritional properties favorable to its application in the food industry, which can help preserve its endangered palm tree.

Originality/value

The probiotics and synbiotics jussara sorbets showed to be adequate as a lactose-free and low-calorie functional product, with high nutritional, commercial and ecological value. Also, it was possible to notice that while the addition of probiotics improved the sensorial acceptance of jussara sorbets, polydextrose raised the technological quality by increasing its overrun.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Khairy A.H. Kobbacy and Sunil Vadera

The use of AI for operations management, with its ability to evolve solutions, handle uncertainty and perform optimisation continues to be a major field of research. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of AI for operations management, with its ability to evolve solutions, handle uncertainty and perform optimisation continues to be a major field of research. The growing body of publications over the last two decades means that it can be difficult to keep track of what has been done previously, what has worked, and what really needs to be addressed. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the use of AI in operations management aimed at presenting the key research themes, trends and directions of research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds upon our previous survey of this field which was carried out for the ten‐year period 1995‐2004. Like the previous survey, it uses Elsevier's Science Direct database as a source. The framework and methodology adopted for the survey is kept as similar as possible to enable continuity and comparison of trends. Thus, the application categories adopted are: design; scheduling; process planning and control; and quality, maintenance and fault diagnosis. Research on utilising neural networks, case‐based reasoning (CBR), fuzzy logic (FL), knowledge‐Based systems (KBS), data mining, and hybrid AI in the four application areas are identified.

Findings

The survey categorises over 1,400 papers, identifying the uses of AI in the four categories of operations management and concludes with an analysis of the trends, gaps and directions for future research. The findings include: the trends for design and scheduling show a dramatic increase in the use of genetic algorithms since 2003 that reflect recognition of their success in these areas; there is a significant decline in research on use of KBS, reflecting their transition into practice; there is an increasing trend in the use of FL in quality, maintenance and fault diagnosis; and there are surprising gaps in the use of CBR and hybrid methods in operations management that offer opportunities for future research.

Originality/value

This is the largest and most comprehensive study to classify research on the use of AI in operations management to date. The survey and trends identified provide a useful reference point and directions for future research.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article

Rakesh Kumar Malviya and Ravi Kant

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop the relationships among the green supply chain management enablers (GSCMEs), to understand mutual influences of these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop the relationships among the green supply chain management enablers (GSCMEs), to understand mutual influences of these GSCMEs on green supply chain management (GSCM) implementation, and to find out the driving and the dependence power of GSCMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has identified 35 GSCMEs on the basis of literature review and the opinions of experts from academia and industry. A nationwide questionnaire-based survey has been conducted to rank these identified GSCMEs. The outcomes of the survey and interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology have been applied to evolve mutual relationships among GSCMEs, which helps to reveal the direct and indirect effects of each GSCMEs. The results of the ISM are used as an input to the fuzzy Matriced’ Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquéeá un Classement (MICMAC) analysis, to identify the driving and the dependence power of GSCMEs.

Findings

Out of 35 GSCMEs 29 GSCMEs (mean⩾3.00) have been considered for analysis through a nationwide questionnaire-based survey on Indian automobile organizations. The integrated approach is developed, since the ISM model provides only binary relationship among GSCMEs, while fuzzy MICMAC analysis provides precise analysis related to driving and the dependence power of GSCMEs.

Research limitations/implications

The weightage for ISM model development and fuzzy MICMAC are obtained through the judgment of few industry experts. It is the only subjective judgment and any biasing by the person who is judging might influence the final result.

Practical implications

The study provides important guidelines for both practitioners, as well as the academicians. The practitioners need to focus on these GSCMEs more carefully during GSCM implementation. GSCM managers may strategically plan its long-term growth to meet GSCM action plan. While the academicians may be encouraged to categorize different issues, which are significant in addressing these GSCMEs.

Originality/value

Arrangement of GSCMEs in a hierarchy, the categorization into the driver and dependent categories, and fuzzy MICMAC are an exclusive effort in the area of GSCM implementation.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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