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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

L.J. Golonka, M. Buczek, M. Hrovat, D. Belavič, A. Dziedzic, H. Roguszczak and T. Zawada

To find properties of screen printed PZT (PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 with 6 per cent of PbO and 2 per cent of Pb5Ge3O11) thick films layers on LTCC substrate.

Abstract

Purpose

To find properties of screen printed PZT (PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 with 6 per cent of PbO and 2 per cent of Pb5Ge3O11) thick films layers on LTCC substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

The influence of PZT firing time and electrode materials on electrical characteristics and microstructure were examined. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy‐dispersive X‐ray (EDS) analyser was used for the microstructural and compositional analysis.

Findings

Microstructural and compositional analyses have shown the diffusion of SiO2 from LTCC into PZT layers and the diffusion of PbO in the opposite direction. SiO2 presumably forms low permitivity lead based silicates in PZT layer. The new phase deteriorates the piezoelectric properties. The amount of diffused materials was dependent upon the electrode material and increased with increasing firing time. Better properties, i.e. higher remanent polarisation and dielectric constant were achieved for samples with PdAg electrodes and shorter firing time.

Originality/value

New information on electrical and microstructural properties of thick film PZT made on LTCC substrate.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

A. Bochenek, B. Bober, A. Dziedzic and L. Golonka

Investigations were aimed at evaluation of assembly properties of conductive layers cofired with LTCC substrates. The usefulness of these layers for low‐temperature…

Abstract

Investigations were aimed at evaluation of assembly properties of conductive layers cofired with LTCC substrates. The usefulness of these layers for low‐temperature soldering, joining with adhesives or for wire bonding was tested. The samples were manufactured from inks and glass‐ceramic sheets from three known LTCC producers. Different material combinations and various temperature‐time profiles of firing were used. The investigations were on: wettability measurements of conductive layers, evaluation of the layer resistance to dissolution, the deep analyses of particular wire bonding processes and the joint quality assessment at the time of welding, and the joint strength measurements. In the case of adhesive connections the resistance measurements of joints were applied. Scanning electron microscopy analyses were applied and metallographic examinations of sample cross‐sections were undertaken. The results of the investigations allowed us to choose films with appropriate bonding properties, and to explain the mechanism of joint failure.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Tomasz Matusiak, Krzysztof Swiderski, Jan Macioszczyk, Piotr Jamroz, Pawel Pohl and Leszek Golonka

The purpose of this paper is to present a study on miniaturized instruments for analytical chemistry with a microplasma as the excitation source.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a study on miniaturized instruments for analytical chemistry with a microplasma as the excitation source.

Design/methodology/approach

The atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge could be ignited inside a ceramic structure between a solid anode and a liquid cathode. As a result of the cathode sputtering of the solution, it was possible to determine its chemical composition by analyzing the emission spectra of the discharge. Cathodes with microfluidic channels and two types of anodes were constructed. Both types were tested through experimentation. Impact of the electrodes geometry on the discharge was established. A cathode aperture of various sizes and anodes made from different materials were used.

Findings

The spectroscopic properties of the discharge and its usefulness in the analysis depended on the ceramic structure. The surface area of the cathode aperture and the flow rate of the solution influence on the detection limits (DLs) of Zn and Cd.

Originality/value

Constructed ceramic structures were able to excite elements and their laboratory-size systems. During the experiments, Zn and Cd were detected with DLs 0.024 and 0.053 mg/L, respectively.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

L. Golonka, J. Kozlowski and K. Nitsch

The rapid assessment of thick film resistor reliability is presented. This relies on the application of constant power pulses. The long‐term stability of the resistors is…

Abstract

The rapid assessment of thick film resistor reliability is presented. This relies on the application of constant power pulses. The long‐term stability of the resistors is predicted on the basis of the value of the minimal destroyed power applied during the pulse. The results are compared with the long‐term behaviour of the tested samples.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Dominik Jurków and Grzegorz Lis

The purpose of this paper is to present the application of low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) technology in the fabrication of a novel electronic device, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the application of low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) technology in the fabrication of a novel electronic device, which consists of an antenna amplifier integrated with temperature stabilizer. The temperature controller consists of a thick‐film thermistor and heater, which has been optimized using geometry to achieve uniform temperature distribution on the whole electronic substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

LTCC technology was applied in the fabrication process of the novel device. The temperature distribution on the ceramic substrate and temperature stabilization time were analyzed using an IR camera. The heating ability of the heater was tested in a climatic chamber. The heater and thermistors parameters variability were estimated using a basic mathematical statistic.

Findings

The integrated device ensures proper temperature conditions of electronic components if the ambient temperature is lower than −40°C.

Research limitations/implications

The presented device is just a first prototype. Therefore, the fabrication of the next structures and further experiments will be needed to improve structural drawbacks and to analyze precisely the device reliability and parameters repeatability.

Practical implications

The device presented in the paper can be applied in systems working at very low ambient temperatures (even at −5°C). Moreover, a temperature stabilizer can increase the temperature of the whole device above −40°C, therefore, standard electronic components (which can work down to −40°C) can be used instead of specialized ones (which can work below −40°C).

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel temperature stabilizer.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Andrzej Dziedzic, Edward Mis, Lars Rebenklau and Klaus‐Jurgen Wolter

This paper aims to present systematic studies of a wide spectrum of geometrical and electrical properties of thick‐film and LTCC microresistors (with designed dimensions…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present systematic studies of a wide spectrum of geometrical and electrical properties of thick‐film and LTCC microresistors (with designed dimensions between 50 × 50 μm2 and 800 × 200 μm2).

Design/methodology/approach

The geometrical parameters (average length, width and thickness, relations between designed and real dimensions, distribution of planar dimensions) are correlated with basic electrical properties of resistors (sheet resistance and its distribution, hot temperature coefficient of resistance and its distribution distribution) as well as long term thermal stability and durability of microresistors to short electrical pulses.

Findings

Fodel process gives better resolution than standard screen‐printing and leads to smaller dimensions than designed, smaller absolute error and better uniformity of planar sizes. Microresistors made in full Fodel process show much weaker dimensional effect and exhibit noticeably smaller distribution of basic electrical properties.

Originality/value

Presents systematic studies of a wide spectrum of geometrical and electrical properties of thick‐film and LTCC microresistors.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Dominik Jurków

The paper aims to present numerical modeling and technology of a very first three axial low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) accelerometer.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present numerical modeling and technology of a very first three axial low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) accelerometer.

Design/methodology/approach

Low temperature cofired ceramics technology was applied in the fabrication process of the novel device. The numerical modeling was used to predict the properties of the accelerometer, moreover, design of the experiment methodology was used to reduce time of simulation and to get as much as information from the experiment as possible.

Findings

The low temperature cofired ceramics make it possible to fabricate three axial accelerometer.

Research limitations/implications

The presented device is just a first prototype. Therefore, further research work will be needed to improve structural drawbacks and to analyze precisely the device reliability and parameters repeatability.

Practical implications

The device presented in the paper can be applied in systems working in a harsh environment (high temperature and humidity). Ceramic sensors can withstand temperatures up to 600°C.

Originality/value

This paper presents novel three axial LTCC accelerometer.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Arkadiusz Dabrowski, Karl Elkjaer, Louise Borregaard, Tomasz Zawada and Leszek Golonka

The purpose of this paper is to develop the device made of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) by co-firing both materials. In the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the device made of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) by co-firing both materials. In the paper, the technology and properties of a miniature uniaxial ceramic accelerometer are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method (FEM) is applied to predict properties of the sensor vs main dimensions of the sensor. The LTCC process is applied during manufacturing of the device. All the advantages of the technology are taken into account during designing three-dimensional structure of the sensor. The sensitivity and resonant frequency of the accelerometer are measured. Real material parameters of PZT are estimated according to measurement results and FEM simulations.

Findings

The ceramic sensor integrated with SMD package with outer dimensions of 5 × 5 × 5 mm3 is manufactured. The accelerometer exhibits sensitivity of 0.75 pC/g measured at 100 Hz. The resonant frequency is equal to about 2 kHz. Useful frequency range is limited by 3 dB sensitivity change at about 1 kHz.

Research limitations/implications

Sensitivity of the device is limited by interaction between LTCC and PZT materials during co-firing process. The estimated d parameters are ten times worse comparing to bulk Pz27 material. Further research on materials compatibility should be carried out.

Practical implications

The sensor can be easily integrated into various devices made of standard electronic printed circuit boards (PCBs). Applied method of direct integration of piezoelectric transducers with LTCC material enables manufacturing of complex ceramic systems with built-in accelerometer in the substrate.

Originality/value

The accelerometer is a sensor and a package simultaneously. The miniature ceramic device is compatible with surface mounting technology; hence, it can be used directly on PCBs for vibration monitoring inside electronic devices and systems.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

L. Golonka, J. Kozlowski, B.W. Licznerski, K. Nitsch and A. Seweryn

This paper presents experimental data associated with the properties of thick film thermistors based on a spinel‐type semiconducting oxide/RuO2/glass system. The following…

Abstract

This paper presents experimental data associated with the properties of thick film thermistors based on a spinel‐type semiconducting oxide/RuO2/glass system. The following parameters—sheet resistivity, thermistor (B) and thermal time (?) constants—have been measured, all as functions of different composition and construction variants. The thermistor properties are independent of configuration and are mainly determined by the semiconducting oxide particle chains. The correlation between B and ? for the compositions considered has been observed.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Dominik Jurków

– The paper aims to present the influence of the co-firing process conditions of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) on the deformation of thin LTCC membranes.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present the influence of the co-firing process conditions of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) on the deformation of thin LTCC membranes.

Design/methodology/approach

The statistical design of the experiment methodology was used in the frame of these investigations to reduce the time and costs of the experiments and to ensure easier interpretation of the obtained results. Moreover, this conception permits the rough estimation of the membrane deflection fired at optimal process conditions.

Findings

The applied design of the experiment methodology allowed the researchers to find the optimal co-firing process conditions and to estimate the membrane deflection at the optimal process conditions. The estimation fits well with the results of real measurement that was conducted to confirm the estimation precision.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment was conducted for only one type of LTCC, DP951. The precision of the design of the experiment optimization and estimation of the response at optimal conditions depend on the described object. Therefore, the findings of this paper do not have to be generally true for other LTCC tapes, and if other LTCC tapes deformation should be investigated, then similar analysis shall be conducted for them.

Practical implications

The deformation of LTCC membranes affects the sensitivity and repeatability of LTCC acceleration and pressure sensors. Hence, the decrease of membrane deflection increases the usability of LTCC in such applications.

Originality/value

This paper presents simple optimization of co-firing process conditions of LTCC devices using statistical design of the experiment.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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