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Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2023

Ulla Eriksson-Zetterquist and Kerstin Sahlin

Collegiality is often discussed and analyzed as a challenged form of governance, a form of working that used to function well in universities prior to the emergence of…

Abstract

Collegiality is often discussed and analyzed as a challenged form of governance, a form of working that used to function well in universities prior to the emergence of contemporary and modern forms of governance. This seems to suggest that collegiality used to dominate, while other forms of governance are now taking over. The papers in volume 86 of this special issue support the notion of challenged collegiality, but also show that for the most part, nostalgic notions of “the good old days” are neither true nor helpful if we are to revitalize academic collegiality. After examining whether a golden age of collegiality ever existed, we discuss why collegiality matters. Exploring what are often described as limitations or “dark sides” of collegiality, we address four such “dark sides” related to slow decision-making, conflicts, parochialism, and diversity. This is followed by a discussion of how these limitations may be handled and what measures must be taken to maintain and develop collegiality. With a brief summary of the remaining papers under two headings, “Maintaining collegiality” and “Revitalizing collegiality,” we preview the rest of this volume.

Details

Revitalizing Collegiality: Restoring Faculty Authority in Universities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-818-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2022

Matthew M. Mars

This study used qualitative discourse analysis to explore how researchers use the concept of ingenuity to understand the everyday work of social entrepreneurs. Data were drawn…

Abstract

This study used qualitative discourse analysis to explore how researchers use the concept of ingenuity to understand the everyday work of social entrepreneurs. Data were drawn from a sample of 69 research articles published across 41 academic journals between 1998 and 2018. The findings showed ingenuity to be an underdeveloped concept in the social entrepreneurship literature and revealed a paucity of research on the everyday work performed by social entrepreneurs. A framework for studying the work of social entrepreneurs at the “scale of the everyday” through the lens of ingenuity is proposed, and recommendations for future research are provided.

Details

How Alternative is Alternative? The Role of Entrepreneurial Development, Form, and Function in the Emergence of Alternative Marketscapes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-773-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

A. Calahorra, S. Sali, L. Drori and S. Kenig

The insulation resistance of polyurethane and poly (para dichloroxylelene) conformal coating was characterised following exposure to hygrothermal environment. Three types of test…

Abstract

The insulation resistance of polyurethane and poly (para dichloroxylelene) conformal coating was characterised following exposure to hygrothermal environment. Three types of test specimens were used—the standard Y type pattern, the ‘comb’ pattern and the ‘twin’ conductor type. The PCB with the comb pattern has been found to be the best testing specimen for the evaluation and comparison of conformal coating materials and processes. Using this type of PCB, the effects of predrying and thickness in polyurethane coated PCBs have been studied. While predrying has proved to be beneficial for preventing degradation of insulation resistance upon exposure to hygrothermal conditions, only marginal improvement of resistance is obtained when the polyurethane coating thickness has been doubled from 50 to 100 µm. Tin‐plated copper exhibited enhanced insulation resistance compared with bare copper for both polyurethane and polyxylelene coatings. Finally, a thin polyxylelene coating has demonstrated improved moisture barrier properties compared with a thicker polyurethane coating as determined from the resistance degradation with exposure duration to heat and humidity.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Jean‐François Lalonde

The purpose of this paper is to fill gaps in the literature in entrepreneurship by studying the impact of the Arab culture on the process of starting a new venture. The unique…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill gaps in the literature in entrepreneurship by studying the impact of the Arab culture on the process of starting a new venture. The unique perspective of an entrepreneurial team composed of four Arab immigrants and one non‐Arab business partner is used to study this phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

A very participative observation methodology was used to analyse the impact of Arab culture on the creation of a new venture by a multiethnic entrepreneurial team. Because the author is also part of the team, the degree of participation is considered as very high. Although, this kind of methodology has been used before in anthropology and sociology, to the author's knowledge it has never been employed in entrepreneurship. Since long‐term involvement in the field is required by this ethnographic method, it should be noted that the author participated in this entrepreneurial team for two years.

Findings

In this article, culturally‐driven behaviors related to new venture creation were observed and analyzed. The main result lies in the demonstration that the influence of the Arab culture on enterprise creation processes is significant. In general, this impact is similar to the one on management. However, there are some differences which are presented and explained.

Originality/value

Knowledge about Arab entrepreneurs is sparse and even more so regarding the influence of Arab culture on entrepreneurship. This article describes the impact of Arab culture on entrepreneurship processes and contributes to furthering knowledge about the experience of Arab entrepreneurs. It could also help improve public support provided to Arab entrepreneurs.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2023

Logan Crace, Joel Gehman and Michael Lounsbury

Reality breakdowns generate reflexivity and awareness of the constructed nature of social reality. These pivotal moments can motivate institutional inhabitants to either modify…

Abstract

Reality breakdowns generate reflexivity and awareness of the constructed nature of social reality. These pivotal moments can motivate institutional inhabitants to either modify their social worlds or reaffirm the status quo. Thus, reality breakdowns are the initial points at which actors can conceive of new possibilities for institutional arrangements and initiate change processes to realize them. Studying reality breakdowns enables scholars to understand not just how institutional change occurs, but also why it does or does not do so. In this paper, we investigate how institutional inhabitants responded to a reality breakdown that occurred during our ethnography of collegial governance in a large North American university that was undergoing a strategic change initiative. Our findings suggest that there is a consequential process following reality breakdowns whereby institutional inhabitants construct the severity of these events. In our context, institutional inhabitants first attempted to restore order to their social world by reaffirming the status quo; when their efforts failed, they began to formulate alternative possibilities. Simultaneously, they engaged in a distributed sensemaking process whereby they diminished and reoriented necessary changes, ultimately inhibiting the formulation of these new possibilities. Our findings confirm reality breakdowns and institutional awareness as potential drivers of institutional change and complicate our understanding of antecedent microprocesses that may forestall the initiation of change efforts.

Details

Revitalizing Collegiality: Restoring Faculty Authority in Universities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-818-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

A. Calahorra, S. Sali, Z. Hamish and H. Dodiuk

Peel adhesion of an epoxy filleting compound and Parylene C conformal coating to plasma treated, solder mask coated substrates and the apparent contact angle of water on the…

Abstract

Peel adhesion of an epoxy filleting compound and Parylene C conformal coating to plasma treated, solder mask coated substrates and the apparent contact angle of water on the treated surfaces were evaluated. No significant improvement was achieved in the case of the epoxy filleting adhesive for most solder mask coatings studied. On the other hand, Parylene C peel adhesion significantly increased after substrates were treated with air plasma and reached the level of Silane coupling agent primed substrates. This was in contrast to the decrease in Parylene adhesion to argon plasma treated substrates in comparison with the non‐treated substrates. This was related to the oxygen functionalities created on the surfaces by the air plasma versus the ablative nature of the argon plasma. No clear correlation was found between peel strength and the water contact angle in the case of the epoxy adhesive, while for the Parylene conformal coating peel strength achieved its maximum value at the middle of the contact angle range which resulted from the pretreatments applied in this study. It is concluded that air plasma is a very efficient solder mask pretreatment for Parylene conformal coating that can replace Silane primer. Also, if a calibration curve is established for each solder mask‐adhesive and solder mask‐coating system, the apparent water contact angle can serve as a convenient quality control tool for printed circuit finishing processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Huihuang Zhao, Jianzhen Chen, Shibiao Xu, Ying Wang and Zhijun Qiao

The purpose of this paper is to develop a compressive sensing (CS) algorithm for noisy solder joint imagery compression and recovery. A fast gradient-based compressive sensing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a compressive sensing (CS) algorithm for noisy solder joint imagery compression and recovery. A fast gradient-based compressive sensing (FGbCS) approach is proposed based on the convex optimization. The proposed algorithm is able to improve performance in terms of peak signal noise ratio (PSNR) and computational cost.

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike traditional CS methods, the authors first transformed a noise solder joint image to a sparse signal by a discrete cosine transform (DCT), so that the reconstruction of noisy solder joint imagery is changed to a convex optimization problem. Then, a so-called gradient-based method is utilized for solving the problem. To improve the method efficiency, the authors assume the problem to be convex with the Lipschitz gradient through the replacement of an iteration parameter by the Lipschitz constant. Moreover, a FGbCS algorithm is proposed to recover the noisy solder joint imagery under different parameters.

Findings

Experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm can achieve better results on PNSR with fewer computational costs than classical algorithms like Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP), Greedy Basis Pursuit (GBP), Subspace Pursuit (SP), Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit (CoSaMP) and Iterative Re-weighted Least Squares (IRLS). Convergence of the proposed algorithm is with a faster rate O(k*k) instead of O(1/k).

Practical implications

This paper provides a novel methodology for the CS of noisy solder joint imagery, and the proposed algorithm can also be used in other imagery compression and recovery.

Originality/value

According to the CS theory, a sparse or compressible signal can be represented by a fewer number of bases than those required by the Nyquist theorem. The new development might provide some fundamental guidelines for noisy imagery compression and recovering.

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Galit Meisler, Eran Vigoda-Gadot and Amos Drory

This chapter builds on previous research that conceptualized organizational politics as an organizational stressor. After reviewing the studies that integrated the occupational…

Abstract

This chapter builds on previous research that conceptualized organizational politics as an organizational stressor. After reviewing the studies that integrated the occupational stress literature with the organizational politics literature, it discusses the negative implications of the use of intimidation and pressure by supervisors, implications that have generally been overlooked. Specifically, the chapter presents a conceptual model positing that the use of intimidation and pressure by supervisors creates stress in their subordinates. This stress, in turn, affects subordinates’ well-being, evident in higher levels of job dissatisfaction, job burnout, and turnover intentions. The stress also reduces the effectiveness of the organization, reflected in a high absenteeism rate, poorer task performance, and a decline in organizational citizenship behavior. The model also maintains that individual differences in emotional intelligence and political skill mitigate the stress experienced by subordinates, resulting from the use of intimidation and pressure by their supervisors. In acknowledging the destructive implications of such behavior in terms of employees’ well-being and the productivity of the organization, the chapter raises doubts about the wisdom of using it, and advises supervisors to rethink its use as a motivational tool. Implications of this chapter, as well as future research directions, are discussed.

Details

Power, Politics, and Political Skill in Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-066-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Huihuang Zhao, Yaonan Wang, Zhijun Qiao and Bin Fu

The purpose of this paper is to develop an improved compressive sensing algorithm for solder joint imagery compressing and recovery. The improved algorithm can improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an improved compressive sensing algorithm for solder joint imagery compressing and recovery. The improved algorithm can improve the performance in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of solder joint imagery recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike the traditional method, at first, the image was transformed into a sparse signal by discrete cosine transform; then the solder joint image was divided into blocks, and each image block was transformed into a one-dimensional data vector. At last, a block compressive sampling matching pursuit was proposed, and the proposed algorithm with different block sizes was used in recovering the solder joint imagery.

Findings

The experiments showed that the proposed algorithm could achieve the best results on PSNR when compared to other methods such as the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, greedy basis pursuit algorithm, subspace pursuit algorithm and compressive sampling matching pursuit algorithm. When the block size was 16 × 16, the proposed algorithm could obtain better results than when the block size was 8 × 8 and 4 × 4.

Practical implications

The paper provides a methodology for solder joint imagery compressing and recovery, and the proposed algorithm can also be used in other image compressing and recovery applications.

Originality/value

According to the compressed sensing (CS) theory, a sparse or compressible signal can be represented by a fewer number of bases than those required by the Nyquist theorem. The findings provide fundamental guidelines to improve performance in image compressing and recovery based on compressive sensing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2017

Peter Walgenbach, Gili S. Drori and Markus A. Höllerer

We argue for major re-orientation when applying a neo-institutional perspective within the domain of international business (IB), and in research on the multinational corporation…

Abstract

We argue for major re-orientation when applying a neo-institutional perspective within the domain of international business (IB), and in research on the multinational corporation (MNC), in particular. On the one hand, we suggest re-conceptualizing MNCs as globally oriented organizations that nonetheless remain firmly anchored in local cultural settings. On the other hand, it seems crucial for institutionalist IB literature to engage more thoroughly with the core underlying assumptions, theoretical constructs, and recent extensions of neo-institutional theory. We present an overview and systematic evaluation of the current state of institutional approaches toward the MNC, and contrast it with research foci that will emerge from a phenomenological-institutional analysis.

Details

Multinational Corporations and Organization Theory: Post Millennium Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-386-3

Keywords

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