We examine the effect of orphan status on school enrollment in Zimbabwe, a country strongly impacted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic with a rapidly growing population of orphans. Using data from 2002, after controlling for other determinants of enrollment we find that orphans are less likely to attend school than non-orphans. Two additional results have implications for targeting: we find that the effect of being an orphan is especially large for older children and that, after controlling for previous education, the effect of being an orphan on school enrollment sharply declines.
To develop and test a measurement model for the combined study of involvement and place attachment in a tourism context.
The study was conducted in South Australia, a state that has positioned itself as a lifestyle tourism destination. Tourism involvement was conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of centrality to lifestyle, attraction, self‐expression, and food and wine. Place attachment was also conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of place identity and place dependence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to develop and test a measurement model using survey data from tourists in South Australia.
A six factor measurement model was developed and found to have a reasonable fit with the data.
The present study findings suggest that a viable theoretical, practical, and methodological basis can be established to measure the relationships among the involvement and place attachment constructs in a tourism context. This establishes a sound foundation for further examination of the predictive nature of the relationships between the constructs.
A better understanding of involvement dimensions and the extent to which tourism experiences are rooted in place may be of invaluable assistance in the marketing of tourism destinations.
Involvement and place attachment have received considerable study as individual constructs in tourism contexts, however their study in combination has been undertaken only recently, and almost exclusively in leisure and recreation contexts. This study extended the scope of the combined examination of involvement and place attachment into a tourism context.
Recognizing the effects of dropping out of high school on society, several questions still remain: (a) Why do urban, African American male students drop out of high…
Recognizing the effects of dropping out of high school on society, several questions still remain: (a) Why do urban, African American male students drop out of high school? and (b) What makes these students more prone to dropping out than their counterparts who remain in school? In an attempt to better understand the lives and circumstances of African American males, this study uses a comparative case method to examine similarities and differences in the life histories of a matched sample of African American male high school graduates and dropouts. This study, specifically, focuses on how the interrelated factors of family, neighborhood, peers, and education may shape these youths’ perspective on school. Findings reveal that, while both groups experience high levels of risk factors, high school dropouts had significantly more risk experiences in the family, community, and criminal justice domains. The dropouts also had fewer protective factors in these domain areas. Based on the findings, recommendations are offered.
Emily Hannum is Assistant Professor of Sociology and (by courtesy) Education at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on education, poverty, and social inequality, particularly in China. Recent publications include “Market Transition, Educational Disparities, and Family Strategies in Rural China: New Evidence on Gender Stratification and Development” (Demography, 2005) and “Global Educational Expansion and Socio-Economic Development: An Assessment of Findings from the Social Sciences” (with Claudia Buchmann, World Development, 2005). With Albert Park, she co-directs the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a longitudinal study that investigates family, school, and community factors that support children's education and healthy development in rural Northwest China.
The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the tribunal took great pains to interpret the intention of the parties to the different site agreements, and it came to the conclusion that the agreed procedure was not followed. One other matter, which must be particularly noted by employers, is that where a final warning is required, this final warning must be “a warning”, and not the actual dismissal. So that where, for example, three warnings are to be given, the third must be a “warning”. It is after the employee has misconducted himself thereafter that the employer may dismiss.
A review of publications in teaching and teacher education over 10 years (2000–2010) on teacher professional development is the subject of this chapter. The first part…
A review of publications in teaching and teacher education over 10 years (2000–2010) on teacher professional development is the subject of this chapter. The first part synthesises production referred to learning, facilitation and collaboration, factors influencing professional development, effectiveness of professional development and issues around the themes. The second part selects from the production nine articles for closer examination. The chapter concludes by noting how the production brings out the complexities of teacher professional learning and how research and development have taken cognizance of these factors and provided food for optimism about their effects, although not yet about their sustainability in time.