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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Krystyna Bukat, Janusz Sitek, Marek Koscielski, Zbigniew Moser, Wladyslaw Gasior and Janusz Pstrus

The purpose of this article is to establish why the wetting on PCBs with SnCu (HASL) and Snimm finishes in the presence of a flux is better than the wetting of those on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to establish why the wetting on PCBs with SnCu (HASL) and Snimm finishes in the presence of a flux is better than the wetting of those on a copper substrate. The practical aspect of the obtained results is the main goal of these investigations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied the wetting balance method for the wetting measurements at 230 and 250°C, in nitrogen atmosphere, in the presence of the ORM0 type flux. The PCBs with the SnCu (HASL) and Snimm finishes were investigated in the state “as received”. To establish the wetting properties of the SnCu (HASL) and Snimm finishes on the PCBs, wetted by the investigated SnZnBiIn alloys, the SEM and EDX analyses were performed.

Findings

The authors obtained very good wetting results of the PCBs with the SnCu and Snimm finishes, wetted by the SnZn7Bi3In4 alloys. By applying the SEM and EDX methods, it was possible to establish that the barrier layer which was created during the HASL process between the copper and the SnCu solder is efficient enough to protect the copper against the influence of the Zn atoms from the SnZn7Bi3In4 solder. This is the reason for an improvement of the wetting properties. An immersion tin finish does not create such barrier layer with the copper. It results in a worse wetting than for the SnCu finishes but a better one than that for the copper. Immersion tin dissolves in the alloys during the soldering and this process delays the reaction between the copper and the Zn atoms from the SnZn7Bi3In4 solder.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that further studies are necessary for the confirmation of the practical application, but they should be limited to the reliability of the solder joint performance.

Practical implications

The best wetting results of the PCBs with “tin finishes”, especially with SnCu, wetted by the SnZn7Bi3In4 alloy, at 230 and 250°C and in nitrogen atmosphere, suggest a possibility of a practical usage of the tin‐zinc‐bismuth‐indium alloys for soldering in electronics.

Originality/value

The wetting balance method combined with the SEM and EDX analyses were used as the quickest way to determine the mechanism of the better wettability properties in the case of the PCBs with the SnCu and Snimm finishes, wetted by the SnZn7Bi3In4 alloy, compared to those of the PCBs on the Cu substrate.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2013

Krystyna Bukat, Janusz Sitek, Marek Koscielski, Wojciech Niedzwiedz, Anna Mlozniak and Malgorzata Jakubowska

The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of carbon nanotube additions to solder paste on the solder joints mechanical strength and their microstructure. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of carbon nanotube additions to solder paste on the solder joints mechanical strength and their microstructure. In our investigation, the basic solder paste contains 85 wt.% of the commercial Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 powder (with the particle sizes in the range of 20‐38 μm) and 15 wt.% of the self‐prepared middle activated rosin flux. To this paste we added the 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% of the self‐modified CNT by functionalized them by mineral acid and than esterificated by methanol (FCNTMet) or polyethylene glycol 400 (FCNTPG). After the pastes had stabilized, the reflow soldering process of “zero ohm” chip resistors on PCBs with Ni/Au and SAC (HASL) finishes was carried out and then shear strength of the solder joints was measured. The correlations between the mechanical strength of solder joins without and with the carbon nanotubes and their microstructure were analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

For shear strength measurement of solder joints, the printed circuit boards with Ni/Au and SAC (HASL) finishes was applied. The SAC solder paste with different carbon nanotubes and the basic SAC solder paste as reference were used for this experiment. The automatic SMT line was applied for the paste screen printing; “zero ohms” chip resistors: 0201, 0402, 0603 and 0805 were placing on PWBs and then reflowing according to appropriate time – temperature profile. The shear strength of the solder joints was measured. For the solder joints microstructure analysis, the standard metallographic procedures were applied. Changes in the microstructure, the thickness of the intermetallic compounds and their chemical compositions were observed by means of the SEM equipped with EDS.

Findings

As the authors expected, the SAC solder paste with the carbon nanotubes addition improve the solder joints shear strength of the chip resistors mounted on PCBs with Ni/Au and SAC (HASL) finishes. The carbon nanotubes addition positive effects on IMCs thickness because of blocking their excessive growth.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that further studies are necessary for the confirmation of the practical application, especially of the reliability properties of the solder joints obtained using solder paste with chosen carbon nanotubes.

Practical implications

Taking into account the shear strength data, the best results of the “nano” SAC solder pastes were obtained for the lowest addition of the carbon nanotubes modified by esterification process, especially by the methanol compared to the polyethylene glycol 400.

Originality/value

The obtained results made it possible to draw conclusions regarding the correlation between the output of the mechanical results and the amount of the added carbon nanotubes, and also the microstructure and thickness of the IMCs of the “nano” solder joints. It can be useful from practical point of view.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Janusz Sitek, Dubravka Ročak, Krystyna Bukat, Janeta Fajfar‐Plut and Darko Belavič

The European Commission has decided that from the second half of 2006 only lead‐free solder pastes will be permitted for use in the electronics industry. Earlier results…

Abstract

The European Commission has decided that from the second half of 2006 only lead‐free solder pastes will be permitted for use in the electronics industry. Earlier results of testing showed that lead‐free solder pastes may not be appropriate for both printed‐circuit‐board (PCB) and hybrid‐circuit applications, because of the materials' compatibility with the soldering process and with the solder pads. The basic properties of the investigated pastes show which of the tested solder pastes can be used for both applications. After selection of the appropriate solder pastes, reliability tests were conducted. The surface insulation resistance was tested for both the hybrid circuits and PCBs, whereas the mechanical strength of the soldered joints of components was only tested for the PCBs.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Przemyslaw Fima, Tomasz Gancarz, Janusz Pstrus, Krystyna Bukat and Janusz Sitek

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of copper concentration in near‐eutectic liquid SAC solders on their thermophysical properties: viscosity, surface…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of copper concentration in near‐eutectic liquid SAC solders on their thermophysical properties: viscosity, surface tension, density; as well as wetting behavior on copper substrates at 523 K.

Design/methodology/approach

Viscosity, surface tension, and density were studied over a broad range of temperatures with the recently developed Roach‐Henein method. The obtained results were compared with the data from modified capillary, maximum bubble pressure, wetting balance and dilatometric measurements. Wetting angles measured with wetting balance method were compared with the results of sessile drop measurements.

Findings

The results obtained indicate that increasing concentration of copper in the alloy results in higher density, surface tension and viscosity, but differences resulting from copper concentration on wettability are relatively small. At 523 K, the density is: 7.097, 7.186, 7.232 g cm−3, the surface tension is: 538.1, 553.5, 556.7 m Nm−1, the viscosity is: 2.173, 2.227, 2.467 mPas, respectively, for alloys containing 0.41, 1.01 and 1.61 wt% of Cu. Wetting angles on copper substrates are similar within a margin of error for all compositions. The results of present study are compared with the available literature data and a relatively good agreement is observed.

Originality/value

This paper provides the data of thermophysical properties of widely‐used SAC solders including viscosity, of which there is little data in the literature. It is confirmed that the increased copper concentration increases viscosity, yet this effect is small and does not correlate with the wetting behavior.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

K. Bukat, J. Sitek, M. Kościelski, Z. Moser, W. Gąsior and J. Pstruś

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of Bi additions on the wetting properties of SnZn7Bi alloys (Bi=1 and 3 per cent by mass) on a copper substrate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of Bi additions on the wetting properties of SnZn7Bi alloys (Bi=1 and 3 per cent by mass) on a copper substrate and printed circuit boards (PCBs) with lead‐free finishes (SnCu, immersion Sn, Ni/Au, organic solderability preservative) in the presence of fluxes. The practical implications of the results is the main purpose of these investigations.

Design/methodology/approach

A wetting balance method was used for wetting measurements at 230 and 250°C in nitrogen and air atmospheres in the presence of ORM0‐ or ROL0‐type fluxes. The PCBs were investigated ‘as received’ and after accelerated aging. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis was performed in order to explain how the main factors of the experiments (the Bi content in the alloy (1 or 3 per cent), the test temperature and the test atmosphere) influenced the wetting ability of SnZn7Bi on Cu substrates.

Findings

As expected, a higher temperature and a higher Bi content in the alloy favoured the wetting of the copper substrate in the presence of the ORM0‐type flux in a nitrogen atmosphere. These results were confirmed by ANOVA analysis. Very good results were also obtained for the SnZn7Bi3 alloy's wettability on “tin coatings” on PCBs (SnCu and immersion Sn) both “as received” and after aging, in the presence of the ORM0‐type flux, for all the applied testing conditions (in both temperatures and N2 and air atmospheres). The less active flux (ROL0) caused a worsening of the alloy's wettability properties; however, the PCBs with SnCu and immersion Sn finishes maintained their wettability, even after aging, at very good and good levels, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that further studies are necessary for confirmation of the practical application, but they should be limited to the soldering of SnZnBi3 on PCBs with “tin coatings” and the quality of the solder joint performance.

Practical implications

The best SnZn7Bi3 wetting results on PCBs with “tin coatings” (SnCu and immersion Sn) at 230 and 250°C and in N2 and air atmospheres suggest the possibility of a practical usage of the tin‐zinc‐bismuth alloys for soldering in electronics using both the ORM0‐type flux and the even less active ROL0‐type flux, which are currently used in industrial lead‐free soldering processes.

Originality/value

The wetting balance method, combined with ANOVA was used as the quickest way to determine the wettability properties of SnZn7Bi on Cu substrates. Wettability measurements were also performed on the SnZn7 and SnZn7Bi alloys with different lead‐free finishes, in different experimental conditions.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available
89

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Martin Goosey

196

Abstract

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

K. Bukat, J. Sitek, M. Kościelski, M. Jakubowska, M. Słoma, A. Młożniak and W. Niedźwiedź

The purpose of this paper is to study the manufacturing of SAC 305 solder paste with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) before and after structure modification and also to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the manufacturing of SAC 305 solder paste with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) before and after structure modification and also to investigate the added carbon nanotubes' influence on the technological properties and the microstructure of “nano” solder pastes. This work is a continuation of similar previous studies of SAC solder pastes with silver nanopowder additions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied functionalization and esterification methods for the structural modification of the carbon nanotubes. The “nano” solder paste preparation was performed with the use of a two‐stage method of carbon nanotube dispersion in “own‐manufactured” SAC 305 solder paste. To determine the technological properties of the “nano” solder paste, slump, solder ball, wetting and spreading tests were applied according to the existing standards. Standard metallographic procedures were applied for microstructural analysis.

Findings

As expected on the basis of the previous studies of SAC solder pastes with silver nanopowders, positive results were obtained for the own‐manufactured SAC 305 solder paste with carbon nanotubes by applying the dispersion method. Also applied were functionalization and esterification methods, whose results showed microstructural changes in the carbon nanotubes. The “nano” SAC solder pastes showed a positive influence on the slump properties, compared to the basic SAC solder paste. The authors proved a negative influence of the carbon nanotubes' addition (dependent on their concentration) on the spreading and wetting of the SAC solder paste on a copper substrate, which provoked the non‐wetting and dewetting phenomena. A slight improvement was observed for the “nano” SAC solder pastes with modified carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes' presence in the solder paste showed a positive effect on the growth reduction of the IMCs' thickness, which depended on the type.

Research limitations/implications

The authors intend to verify the reinforcement effect of the alloys with carbon nanotubes suggested in the literature (the aim of Part II). For this purpose, an assembly process with RC electronic elements on PCBs with Ni/Au and SAC (HASL) finishes will be performed, with the use of the SAC 305 solder paste with modified carbon nanotubes, for the purpose of reflow soldering. Next, measurements of the mechanical strength of the solder joints and their microstructures will be conducted.

Practical implications

It is suggested that further studies of the mechanical properties and the reliability of solder joints are necessary for the practical implementation of the “nano” SAC solder pastes, but taking into account the wetting data, the investigation should be performed only for “nano” pastes with the lowest additions of modified carbon nanotubes.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates a method of “nano” solder paste preparation by means of a two‐stage dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the own‐manufactured SAC 305 solder paste and a comparison study of the properties of “nano” pastes with the basic SAC solder paste.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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