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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Kristy Holtfreter

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of gender in white-collar crime. Directions for future research testing general and gender-specific theories are provided.

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2743

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of gender in white-collar crime. Directions for future research testing general and gender-specific theories are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior research is reviewed and critiques of general and gender-specific explanations for offending in the workplace context are advanced.

Findings

Gender-specific explanations in other offending contexts (e.g. violent crime) appear to be less applicable to the understanding of white-collar crime, a finding that lends support to general theory.

Practical implications

This paper provides an outline for future research testing criminological theory in organizational settings.

Originality/value

This paper represents a unique attempt to apply general and gender-specific theories to a variety of financial crimes in the context of organizations.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Nicholas Walker and Kristy Holtfreter

This paper aims to examine academic dishonesty and research misconduct, two forms of academic fraud, and provides suggestions for future research informed by…

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1916

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine academic dishonesty and research misconduct, two forms of academic fraud, and provides suggestions for future research informed by criminological theory.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing prior literature, this paper outlines four general criminological theories that can explain academic fraud.

Findings

While criminological theory has been applied to some studies of academic dishonesty, research misconduct has rarely been examined within a broader theoretical context.

Practical implications

This paper provides a blueprint for future theoretically informed analyses of academic fraud.

Originality/value

This paper represents a unique attempt to apply general criminological theories to diverse forms of fraud in higher education settings.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Michael D. Reisig and Kristy Holtfreter

This study aims to investigate whether low self‐control and routine activity theories explain fraud outcomes among the elderly. Specifically, the effects of low…

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1895

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether low self‐control and routine activity theories explain fraud outcomes among the elderly. Specifically, the effects of low self‐control and remote purchasing behaviors on shopping fraud targeting and victimization are empirically assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐sectional survey data from telephone interviews conducted in Arizona and Florida are used. A total of 2,000 adults aged 60 and over were surveyed. Because selection bias was observed, a two‐stage probit regression model was estimated to assess theoretical hypotheses in a multivariate context.

Findings

The results demonstrate that two forms of remote purchasing – telemarketing purchase and mail‐order purchase – increase the probability of shopping fraud targeting. Infomercial purchase and mail‐order purchase are significant correlates of shopping fraud victimization. The probability of becoming a target and victim is affected positively by reduced levels of self‐control. The effects of demographic characteristics on fraud outcomes are null.

Research limitations/implications

This research lends support to the argument that low self‐control and routine activity theories shed light on fraud victimization among elderly consumers. Future research should examine the influence of low self‐control, individual routines and lifestyles on other forms of victimization that the elderly experience.

Practical implications

The findings underscore the need for fraud prevention and increasing public awareness among elderly consumers.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine shopping fraud targeting and victimization of the elderly in a broad theoretical context.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Kristy Holtfreter, Kevin M. Beaver, Michael D. Reisig and Travis C. Pratt

The paper builds on and extends the existing research on self‐control theory and fraud. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether low self‐control…

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2370

Abstract

Purpose

The paper builds on and extends the existing research on self‐control theory and fraud. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether low self‐control increases the odds of engaging in two common forms of fraudulent behaviors: check and credit card frauds.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses these issues using a national, longitudinal sample of young adults.

Findings

The results of the multivariate logistic regression models indicate that individuals with lower levels of self‐control are more likely to engage in credit card and check frauds. These findings support Gottfredson and Hirschi's theoretical argument that fraudulent behavior is similar to acts of force in that it too is explained by the same underlying trait – low self‐control.

Research limitations/implications

The paper underscores the importance of low self‐control in the etiology of fraudulent behaviors. Future researchers should examine the relationship between low self‐control and other fraudulent behaviors, particularly those occurring in the workplace (e.g. embezzlement).

Practical implications

Suggestions for preventing credit card and check frauds through situational crime prevention are provided.

Originality/value

The paper improves upon prior research by using a more representative sample and self‐reported fraudulent behavior.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Michael D. Reisig and Kristy Holtfreter

This study seeks to identify personal characteristics that help to explain variation in consumer confidence in legal authorities' ability to effectively deal with fraud…

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526

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to identify personal characteristics that help to explain variation in consumer confidence in legal authorities' ability to effectively deal with fraud victimization in the State of Florida.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses cross‐sectional survey data from 918 adults who participated in a telephone interview in 2004 and 2005. Univariate statistics are used to describe the distribution of the dependent variable (i.e. consumer confidence in legal authorities). Hypotheses are tested using bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques.

Findings

Results show that less than one‐half of respondents (48.2 percent) report that they have either “a great deal” or “quite a bit” of confidence in the ability of legal authorities to respond to consumer fraud victimization. Bivariate correlations show that younger respondents, those with more formal education, recent fraud victims, and individuals inclined to take risks with their financial assets report lower levels of confidence. These findings persist in a multivariate context.

Research limitations/implications

Because these data were collected from survey respondents living in a single state, one should exercise caution when generalizing these findings to other settings.

Practical implications

The findings can be used to target public awareness efforts and educational campaigns to consumer groups with low levels of confidence in legal authorities. Doing so may not only help bolster confidence, but also potentially increase rates of fraud victimization reporting.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature on confidence in legal authorities to the previously unexplored crime‐related context of consumer fraud victimization.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Robert E. Holtfreter and Kristy Holtfreter

To examine identity theft in the United States and to provide an overview and assessment of recent legislation designed to assist identity theft victims and punish offenders.

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771

Abstract

Purpose

To examine identity theft in the United States and to provide an overview and assessment of recent legislation designed to assist identity theft victims and punish offenders.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistics on the prevalence of identity theft are included, as well as details from a fact‐based, fairly typical case of identify theft. An overview of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA) and the Identity Theft Penalty Act (ITPEA) are provided, and the provisions of each act are analyzed.

Findings

It will take time to determine to what extent the provisions in FACTA and ITPEA will prevent or reduce identity theft. No doubt, in the future, there will amendments to both acts.

Research limitations/implications

Future empirical studies could inform all interested parties by examining the impact of the FACTA and ITPEA over a multi‐year time frame. Moreover, cross‐cultural comparisons focusing on the ways in which other nations address identity theft will also shed light on the issues discussed herein.

Originality/value

The topic of identity theft remains salient to researchers as well as criminal justice practitioners and victim advocates. Public education to increase knowledge of identity theft, and to provide information and resources for victims, will be critical in the future.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2004

Kristy Holtfreter

Focuses on a type of white‐collar crime known as occupational fraud, which is estimated to amount to 6% of total revenues in the USA. Describes the control mechanisms that…

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1158

Abstract

Focuses on a type of white‐collar crime known as occupational fraud, which is estimated to amount to 6% of total revenues in the USA. Describes the control mechanisms that US organisations use to control and prevent this crime, including background checks, internal and external audits, and more recently, the use of anonymous reporting aimed to make employees turn in fraudulent co‐workers. Reviews the literature on this topic and describes the methodology used in the research, which examines the four types of control mechanism. Concludes that the study validates previous research in finding that the direct costs of occupational fraud are extensive, that there exist related societal effects which are however unmeasurable with any accuracy, that virtually no US organisational setting is immune from internal fraud, and that a variety of measures are needed to control this crime.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Katelyn A. Golladay

This paper aims to examine factors that influence the decision to report by victims of identity theft victimization. The study of victim decision-making is not new within…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine factors that influence the decision to report by victims of identity theft victimization. The study of victim decision-making is not new within the field of criminology; however, a majority of the research has focused on decision-making surrounding victims of intimate partner violence and other violent offenses. With the increase of identity theft, knowledge on how a growth in such a crime influences victims is of great concern.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Donald Black’s theory of the behavior of law, this study will use the 2012 Identity Theft Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to identify factors that influence whether victims of identity theft report the crime to credit agencies and/or authorities.

Findings

This study finds that measures that influence reporting behaviors differ based on the method of reporting (i.e. reporting to a credit card company, law enforcement or a credit bureau). These findings provide little support for Black’s theory of law, but have several theoretical and policy implications.

Originality/value

This study provides a partial test of Black’s theory of law, as it applies to identity theft victims. While providing little support for the theory, the findings identify many areas that agencies and researchers can use to help further inform their studies and practices.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2020

Norah Ylang

This paper aims to examine demographic differences between individuals who do not take measures to protect themselves from identity theft victimization and those who do. A…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine demographic differences between individuals who do not take measures to protect themselves from identity theft victimization and those who do. A majority of the research on identity theft has focused on predictors of victimization, reporting behaviors of the victims and their health and mental outcomes. However, little remains known about the individuals who choose to take any identity-theft measures despite concerns over this fast-growing breed of crime.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Felson and Cohen’s routine activities theoretical framework (1979), this study uses the 2014 Identity Theft Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to identify the demographic characteristics that influence the use of self-protection measures among individuals in the general population.

Findings

This study finds that these individuals are much more likely to be white, older, female and highly educated. The decision to undertake protection against identity theft is also influenced by the following factors: prior experience of misuse, possession of a bank account in the prior 12 months, current possession of at least one credit card and awareness that one is entitled to a free copy of one’s credit report.

Originality/value

This study addresses the gap in scholarship on identity theft prevention by applying the concept of guardianship in Cohen and Felson’s routine activity theory (1979) to the usage of self-protection measures in a general population. Future findings will identify the areas which agencies and researchers can focus on to inform policies that foster individuals’ own initiatives to take self-protection measures against potential identity theft.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Kamal Lochan Jena, Dillip K. Swain and K.C. Sahoo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the scholarly communications in Journal of Financial Crime (JFC) during the last five years and to study the key dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the scholarly communications in Journal of Financial Crime (JFC) during the last five years and to study the key dimensions of its publication trends.

Design/methodology/approach

For the analysis of the study, five volumes containing 20 issues of Journal of Financial Crime during the years 2006 to 2010 have been taken up for evaluation. The authors employ necessary bibliometric measures to analyze different publication parameters.

Findings

It is found that the contribution of articles to each volume of JFC is very consistent and the journal has published around 30 articles per year. Single authored papers are found to be the highest, followed by two‐authored and then three‐authored papers. The degree of collaboration in JFC is found to be 0.246. In regards to ranking of country productivity, the UK topped the list followed by the USA, Canada and Australia. Journal of Financial Crime, which is the source journal, leads the table followed by Journal of Business Ethics, Crime Law and Social Change and Journal of Money Laundering Control.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focuses on the publication traits of Journal of Financial Crime over a five‐year period. Patterns of research output in 155 publications are analyzed. Further studies can include other journals in the field of economics.

Practical implications

Scholars can benefit from insights into the scholarly contributions of Journal of Financial Crime that has accommodated 220 authors from 41 different countries of the world.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable insights into the nature of academic publishing of Journal of Financial Crime. It can help JFC readers to understand the most striking contributions, highly cited journals, the most prolific authors, country productivity, and assorted parameters.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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