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1 – 10 of 27
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Samuel Tromans, Verity Chester, Eli Gemegah, Kristian Roberts, Zoe Morgan, Guiqing Lily Yao and Traolach Brugha

The purpose of the paper is to review autism identification across different ethnic groups. Diagnosis of autism may be missed or delayed in certain ethnic groups, leading to such…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to review autism identification across different ethnic groups. Diagnosis of autism may be missed or delayed in certain ethnic groups, leading to such groups being underserved relative to their needs. This can result in members of such groups being effectively denied essential avenues of support that can substantially improve the quality of life of autistic persons as well as those whom care for them.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature search for articles reporting autism identification across ethnic groups was undertaken. Data are compared, with a special focus on possible explanations for any inter-group variation.

Findings

Autism identification appears to be generally lower in minority ethnic groups relative to the majority population. Individuals presenting with autism from minority groups appear to have more severe forms of the condition.

Originality/value

There are a multitude of potential explanations for inter-ethnicity variation in autism identification, including health care-related factors, broader environmental influences, cultural factors and possible biological differences. Implications for clinical practice and public health include a need to look at means of ensuring equitable access to relevant autism diagnostic and support services across ethnic groups. Further work is required to better understand the belief systems that operate within specific ethnic groups, how this may potentially impact upon autism identification and measures to address the concerns of such groups.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2024

Anders Haug, Kent Adsbøll Wickstrøm, Jan Stentoft and Kristian Philipsen

Previous studies investigating the effects of using social media in the innovation processes of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) yield mixed results, and the conditions…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies investigating the effects of using social media in the innovation processes of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) yield mixed results, and the conditions for achieving innovation benefits from social media are unclear. The present study seeks to contribute to the understanding of this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

With a basis in the literature on open innovation and SMEs, this study develops a model that explains the role of social media in product innovation processes where technological focus and abilities are converted into product innovations. The model is tested through a survey of 305 Danish manufacturing SMEs.

Findings

Findings show that SMEs with higher technological orientation (TO) are more inclined to use social media in their product innovation processes and that social media use explains 22.4 percent of the relationship between TO and product innovation performance. On the other hand, the data did not support the assumption that SMEs with high TO achieve higher product innovation benefits than low TO SMEs for similar levels of social media use.

Practical implications

The results suggest that SMEs with lower levels of TO could increase their product innovation performance through increased use of social media in their innovation processes.

Originality/value

The study provides new knowledge on the role of social media in SMEs’ product innovation processes. As the level of TO increases, the use of social media in the innovation process becomes an increasingly important mechanism for deriving the full innovation potential from technological focus and abilities.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Thomas Friis Søgaard and Jakob Krause-Jensen

The purpose of this paper is to explore how new policies and standards to professionalise nightclub bouncing along with customer-oriented service imperatives affect bouncers’ work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how new policies and standards to professionalise nightclub bouncing along with customer-oriented service imperatives affect bouncers’ work practices and identities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on 13 months of ethnographic fieldwork among Danish bouncers and uses the concept of “emotional labour” and related ideas of “interactive service work” to explore how service imperatives play out at political/commercial and organisational levels and how such initiatives are negotiated by bouncers in their work practices.

Findings

Until recently, the nocturnal work of bouncers had been relatively unaffected by labour market service paradigms. This is now changing, as policy initiatives and the capitalist service economy colonise ever greater domains of the urban night and the work conducted here. We argue that trends towards professionalisation have landed bouncers in a double-bind situation, in which they are increasingly faced with competing and sometimes contradictory occupational imperatives requiring them both to “front up” effectively to unruly patrons and to project a service-oriented persona. We show how bouncers seek to cope with this precarious position by adopting a variety of strategies, such as resistance, partial acceptance and cultural re-interpretations of service roles.

Originality/value

While existing research on nightclub bouncers has primarily focussed on bouncers’ physical regulation of unruly guests, this paper provides a theoretical framework for understanding current policy ambitions to “domesticate” bouncers and shows how attempts to construct bouncers as civilised “service workers” is fraught with paradoxes and ambiguities.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Kristian Kreiner

This article discusses both the management of tacit knowledge and the tacit approach to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge must be made manageable by being explicated and…

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Abstract

This article discusses both the management of tacit knowledge and the tacit approach to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge must be made manageable by being explicated and separated from the knowledge workers, so that the knowledge resources do not go home at night. However, the less knowledge leaving in the evening, the less knowledge will return the following morning. Making the organization as independent as possible of the tacit knowledge of its knowledge workers is an ironic program for knowledge management, since it advocates a reduction of the total resource pool for the sake of managerial control. The article searches for alternatives to knowledge management exercised from a position of control and ownership. A case study of product development is analyzed. This specialized context focuses attention on knowledge mobilization rather than knowledge control and sharing. The artifact provides sufficient pressure for order and coordination to emerge spontaneously. Knowledge management can in such circumstances become tacit without losing its value.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Lorenzo Massa and Fredrik Hacklin

Business model innovation (BMI) constitutes a priority for managers across industries, but it represents a notoriously difficult innovation, with several challenges, many of which…

Abstract

Business model innovation (BMI) constitutes a priority for managers across industries, but it represents a notoriously difficult innovation, with several challenges, many of which are cognitive in nature. The received literature has variously suggested that one way to overcome challenges to BMI, including cognitive ones, and support the cognitive tasks is using visual representations. Against this background, we aim at offering a contribution to the emerging line of inquiry at the nexus between business models (BMs), cognition and visual representations. Specifically, we develop a new method for visual representation of the BM in support of simplification of the cognitive effort and neutralisation of cognitive barriers. The resulting representation – a network-based representation, anchored on the activity-system perspective and offering complementarity and centrality/periphery measures – allows to visually represent an existing BM as a network (nodes and linkages) of interdependent activities and to express information related to the degree of centrality/periphery of single activities (nodes) with respect to the rest of a BM configuration. This information, we argue, is potentially very valuable in supporting the cognitive tasks involved in business model reconfiguration (BMR). We guide the reader to progressively appreciate how the development of the proposed method for visual representation is anchored to two main characteristics of BMR, namely the discovery-driven nature of BMR and the path-dependent nature of BMR. We offer initial insights on the cognitive value of such a type of representation in relationship to the simplification of the cognitive effort and the neutralisation of cognitive barriers in BMR.

Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Gail P. Clarkson and Mike A. Kelly

The implications and influence of different cognitive map structures on decision-making, reasoning, predictions about future events, affect, and behavior remain poorly understood…

Abstract

The implications and influence of different cognitive map structures on decision-making, reasoning, predictions about future events, affect, and behavior remain poorly understood. To-date, we have not had the mechanisms to determine whether any measure of cognitive map structure picks up anything more than would be detected on a purely random basis. We report a Monte Carlo method of simulation used to empirically estimate parameterized probability outcomes as a means to better understand the behavior of cognitive map. Using worked examples, we demonstrate how the results of our simulation permit the use of exact statistics which can be applied by hand to an individual map or groups of maps, providing maximum utility for the collective and cumulative process of theory building and testing.

Details

Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2023

Kristian Steensen Nielsen, Tina Joanes, Dave Webb, Shipra Gupta and Wencke Gwozdz

This study aims to examine the conceptual distinction of two clothing orientations – style orientation and fashion orientation. Style and fashion orientations both express…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the conceptual distinction of two clothing orientations – style orientation and fashion orientation. Style and fashion orientations both express identity and individuality, but the fashion orientation may more strongly reflect materialistic values, which extensive evidence shows are detrimental to well-being. This study investigates how the clothing orientations are associated with materialism and subjective well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual distinction between style and fashion orientations and their associations with materialism and subjective well-being were investigated via an online survey (N = 4,591) conducted in Germany, Poland, Sweden and the USA. Participants aged 18–65 were recruited based on national representative quotas for age, gender, education and region.

Findings

The regression results support a conceptual distinction between the style and fashion orientation. Style orientation was positively associated with subjective well-being compared to fashion orientation. Both the style and fashion orientations were positively correlated with materialism, but the association was much stronger for fashion orientation and materialism exhibited a strong negative association with subjective well-being. Interestingly, materialism moderated the association between fashion orientation and well-being but not between style orientation and well-being.

Research limitations/implications

The four examined countries were Western, and, thus, the findings cannot be generalized to other populations. In addition, this study specifically examined relationships in a clothing context. To enable wider generalization, the relationships tested must be explored in other countries, especially non-Western, and also across other product categories.

Practical implications

The findings of this study can help retailers develop their marketing programs, product and service offerings and specifically their communications more closely targeted to consumers’ clothing orientations.

Originality/value

This study contributes by conceptually distinguishing between clothing style and fashion orientations and investigating their divergent associations to materialism and subjective well-being. This research also raises the question of whether fashion orientation is independent or rather, an aspect of materialism, which has implications for other consumption domains as well.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Magnus Kristian Gregersen and Trine Susanne Johansen

The aim is to review and discuss main conceptualizations, themes and assumptions within organizational-level visual identity (VI) in order to identify potential avenues of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to review and discuss main conceptualizations, themes and assumptions within organizational-level visual identity (VI) in order to identify potential avenues of theoretical advancement of VI as an independent construct.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrative review approach offers a structured, nuanced perspective on the concept by synthesizing extant literature through an iterative, critical and qualitative process.

Findings

The synthesis identifies three overlapping terms [corporate visual identity (CVI), visual brand identity (VBI) and VI] and two main themes (visual consistency and authenticity). The dominant assumptions underpinning consistency and authenticity are challenged by alternative understandings, which provide a platform for perceiving visual consistency and authenticity in new ways.

Research limitations/implications

The review offers an overview of organizational-level VI that helps define the concept as well as critical reflections which open up for additional research avenues that may develop it and point to potential areas for exploration.

Practical implications

The review provides practitioners with a platform for discussing how to approach visual identities with regards to consistency and authenticity.

Originality/value

The review contributes with a synthesis of VI literature covering 50 years. It offers a structured presentation of and critical discussion on the underlying, dominant assumptions. By challenging these dominant assumptions, a palette of future research opportunities, with potentials to nuance and develop the concept as a unique construct, are presented.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Emilio Bellini and Silvia Castellazzi

This chapter explores the role of individual cognitive abilities in the radical innovation of business models and their value proposition. The focus on a specific cognitive…

Abstract

This chapter explores the role of individual cognitive abilities in the radical innovation of business models and their value proposition. The focus on a specific cognitive construct – metacognition – contributes to understanding the specificities of “criticism,” an approach relevant to addressing the challenges of the radical innovation of value drivers. Based on empirical data, this exploratory research identifies the characteristic elements of criticism from a metacognition perspective, pinpointing the key moments and attitudes of innovators, i.e., cognition of own cognition. The analysis of the findings shows that successful innovators are able to leverage the perception and control of own cognition to more effectively develop and negotiate the radical innovation of the business model in their organization, going beyond the dichotomy between rational and affective mental states. This chapter concludes with a discussion and future research outlook.

Details

Business Models and Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-063-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 April 2024

Júlia Palik

What kinds of support do interstate rivals provide to domestic actors in ongoing civil wars? And how do domestic actors utilize the support they receive? This chapter answers…

Abstract

What kinds of support do interstate rivals provide to domestic actors in ongoing civil wars? And how do domestic actors utilize the support they receive? This chapter answers these questions by comparing Iranian and Saudi military and non-military (mediation, foreign aid and religious soft-power promotion) support to the Houthis and to the Government of Yemen (GoY) during the Saada wars (2004–2010) and the internationalized civil war (2015–2018). It also focuses on the processes through which the GoY and the Houthis have utilized this support for their own strategic purposes. This chapter applies a structured, focused comparison methodology and relies on data from a review of both primary and secondary sources complemented by 14 interviews. This chapter finds that there were less external interventions in the conflict in Saada than in the internationalized civil war. During the latter, a broader set of intervention strategies enabled further instrumentalization by domestic actors, which in turn contributed to the protracted nature of the conflict. This chapter contributes to the literature on interstate rivalry and third-party intervention. The framework of analysis is applicable to civil wars that experience intervention by rivals, such as Syria or Libya.

Details

A Comparative Historical and Typological Approach to the Middle Eastern State System
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-122-6

Keywords

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