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Current practice, reified through typical IRB guidelines, has its roots in traditional positivist frameworks about research. The positivist research paradigm is traceable…
Current practice, reified through typical IRB guidelines, has its roots in traditional positivist frameworks about research. The positivist research paradigm is traceable back to Enlightenment epistemologies, which emphasized the fact-based, value-free nature of knowledge (Christians, 2000; Cunningham & Fitzgerald, 1996; Howe & Moses, 1999; Muchmore, 2000). Christians (2000) suggests that researchers who were grounded in positivist approaches used utilitarian perspectives on research ethics. The utilitarian approach suggested that a single set of moral considerations could guide all inquiry; these considerations were outlined in a generally accepted code of ethics that emphasized informed consent, privacy/confidentiality, and accuracy, and that opposed deception in research. Many of these conventions were codified in national legislation in the USA beginning in 1974, in response to several experiments that had mistreated research participants (Hecht, 1995; UCRIHS, 2004). According to Christians (2000), ‘Three principles, published in what became known as the Belmont Report, were said to constitute the moral standards for research involving human subjects: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice’ (p. 140). These principles were intended to ensure that people participated in research voluntarily and anonymously; that researchers protected the well-being of their participants; and that both the benefits and the burdens of research be distributed equitably (Christians, 2000). This legislation established requirements for IRBs that would review and monitor federally funded research conducted by universities and other institutions. Most universities and other research-conducting institutions have since expanded the purview of their IRBs to monitor all institutional research – not just that which is federally funded (Hecht, 1995).
Dalia Aralas is a doctoral research student at the University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies. Her doctoral research study, ‘Investigating Mathematical Imagination’, is supported by a four-year JPA Malaysia scholarship. She is a pure mathematician by training. She is a lecturer of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) where she was the Coordinator of mathematics and science education before she left on study leave. She had academic and administrative responsibilities for coordinating academic programmes run jointly by the two Schools (faculties) of Education and Science. She has taught many undergraduate and postgraduate courses at UMS, including mathematics education, educational foundations and issues (philosophical perspectives). She was the head of the teacher training programme in mathematics and science. She directed the first of statewide UMS mathematics camps which have been held annually. She has also tutored and examined an undergraduate class in a course in mathematics education at the University of Oxford. Besides additional training in teaching mathematics, she also has a teaching certificate in dance. Her research interests include mathematics education, particularly the philosophical strand; imagination and agency; and research methodology.
What counts as ethnography and what counts as good ethnographic methodology are both highly contested. This volume brings together chapters presenting a diversity of views on some of the current debates and developments in ethnographic methodology. It does not try to present a single coherent view but, through its heterogeneity, illustrates the strength and impact of debate.
Purpose: We critically examine the idea of neurodiversity, or the uniqueness of all brains, as the foundation for the neurodiversity movement, which began as an autism…
Purpose: We critically examine the idea of neurodiversity, or the uniqueness of all brains, as the foundation for the neurodiversity movement, which began as an autism rights movement. We explore the neurodiversity movement's potential to support cross-disability alliances that can transform cultures.
Methods/Approach: A neurodiverse team reviewed literature about the history of the neurodiversity movement and associated participatory research methodologies and drew from our experiences guiding programs led, to varying degrees, by neurodivergent people. We highlight two programs for autistic university students, one started by and for autistics and one developed in collaboration with autistic and nonautistic students. These programs are contrasted with a national self-help group started by and for stutterers that is inclusive of “neurotypicals.”
Findings: Neurodiversity-aligned practices have emerged in diverse communities. Similar benefits and challenges of alliance building within versus across neurotypes were apparent in communities that had not been in close contact. Neurodiversity provides a framework that people with diverse conditions can use to identify and work together to challenge shared forms of oppression. However, people interpret the neurodiversity movement in diverse ways. By honing in on core aspects of the neurodiversity paradigm, we can foster alliances across diverse perspectives.
Implications/ Values: Becoming aware of power imbalances and working to rectify them is essential for building effective alliances across neurotypes. Sufficient space and time are needed to create healthy alliances. Participatory approaches, and approaches solely led by neurodivergent people, can begin to address concerns about power and representation within the neurodiversity movement while shifting public understanding.
The purpose of study was to assess the impact of an online training program for a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that integrated physical health management…
The purpose of study was to assess the impact of an online training program for a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that integrated physical health management designed for use by mental health providers in the primary care setting.
In total, 19 providers from two Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers completed online training as part of a larger trial. Statistical analyses compared provider self-reported CBT knowledge and abilities at pretraining, posttraining, and long-term follow-up. Additionally, data were collected on providers’ experiences of the training.
Providers’ baseline to post-training scores improved on general CBT knowledge and ability, as well as across 11 CBT principles and techniques. Post-training scores were maintained over time.
A small sample size, sole focus on VHA data, and reliance on self-report measures are limitations of the study.
Qualitative data suggested training was feasible, acceptable, and potentially scalable; however, a one-size-fits-all approach may not be ideal.
Online training has potential for providing wider access to providers with limited access to traditional face-to-face training.
Although issuers may benefit generally from securitization, some asset securitizations transfer more credit risk than others. When a lender uses securitization to replace…
Although issuers may benefit generally from securitization, some asset securitizations transfer more credit risk than others. When a lender uses securitization to replace on‐balance‐sheet financing, that lender transfers to investors some of the risks, and, in the form of credit enhancements, some of the offsetting, i.e., claims‐paying, economic resources (e.g., assets, cashflows), as well. Therefore, securitization only reduces an issuer's net (i.e., residual) exposure to credit losses when a securitization has transferred proportionately more credit risk than claims‐paying assets. The authors discuss the distinction between “gross” versus “net” transfers of credit risk. To illustrate this point, they provide conceptual examples of the net effect of an asset securitization on the residual credit risk retained by an issuer. In these examples, providing credit enhancement (e.g., overcollateralization, subordination) may implicitly lever or delever an issuer's balance sheet. The authors outline the general conditions under which this indirect economic recourse to the issuer, in effect a form of “self‐insurance,” may result in a net dilution of the claims of unsecured creditors.
Weeding is, among all of the tasks common in librarianship, one of the most rife with conflict. The purpose of this chapter was to examine the emotions and emotional…
Weeding is, among all of the tasks common in librarianship, one of the most rife with conflict. The purpose of this chapter was to examine the emotions and emotional impact of deselection on librarians and library staff using a framework of weeding styles. The authors did a qualitative survey-based case study. They created a survey using Google Forms and deployed it to five library-related listservs and one Facebook group. All of the questions were mandatory, except for the open-answer questions. The authors also conducted an extensive literature review. The survey revealed a more harmonious practice than the literature might indicate. There were some noteworthy correlations drawn among weeding styles, emotions, and the practice of weeding. The authors discuss the implications of their findings and ideas for future research. They also provide strategies and recommendations in terms of communication in the course of deselection and how to handle emotional labor in the workplace. A literature review conducted by both authors did not reveal any other examination of this type. The chapter will fill a gap in the literature.