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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Virgo Süsi and Krista Jaakson

This paper aims to explore why private equity (PE) cares about corporate social responsibility (CSR) of its investees given their relatively short investment time-horizon…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore why private equity (PE) cares about corporate social responsibility (CSR) of its investees given their relatively short investment time-horizon and how it designs corporate governance (CG) bundle to achieve both financial and CSR goals of the private firms it invests in.

Design/methodology/approach

Case study design is applied to get deeper insights on the why and how questions posed. Analysis is based on triangulation of secondary data and in-depth interviews with both PE and their investee firms.

Findings

The authors find that long-term sustainability supported by CSR increases firm value. They also outline specific CG bundle that the PE uses to achieve both its financial and CSR goals. CG mechanisms appeared to reflect agency theory, but even more resource dependence theory.

Practical implications

The outlined CG bundle could be used as a template for all types of private firm owners to improve both financial and CSR performance of the firm.

Originality/value

The paper adds to fragmented area of CG and CSR interface. The authors specifically focus on several under-researched contexts of this interface: private small and medium size firms (SMEs), emerging markets and PE investors.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Krista Jaakson, Anne Reino and Peter Bernard McClenaghan

Understanding the relationship between performance and trust in virtual teams is receiving significant attention due to “connected” virtual team contexts becoming more…

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1759

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the relationship between performance and trust in virtual teams is receiving significant attention due to “connected” virtual team contexts becoming more prevalent. This paper reports on new findings relating to the dynamics of trust and performance in virtual team contexts. The study aims to explore the evolution of trust and its mediating role in determining the performance of virtual teams, as well as to investigate if and how performance itself affected trust.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a longitudinal quantitative survey of 71 international virtual student teams working in four universities in Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Russia.

Findings

In line with swift trust and social norms theory, the authors found that relatively high levels of initial trust did not change over the period of the teams’ projects in general, but in teams where feedback on performance was negative, both trust and trustworthiness declined significantly. Trust had a small mediating effect between group performances in two consecutive measurement points, meaning that past performance had an impact on trust, which in turn impacted the teams’ next performance. However, no mediating effect was present between individual and team performance.

Practical implications

The authors conclude that managing virtual teams should concentrate on team actions and achieving and recognising small quick wins at least as much as dealing with trust, specifically. Negative performance feedback should not deteriorate members’ perception of benevolence and integrity in the team.

Originality/value

The paper distinguishes the dynamics of two trust components and tests new models with these as partial mediators in determining virtual team performance. Importantly, the authors challenge the notion that emotional component of trust, perceived trustworthiness, is less relevant in virtual teams.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Ilona Baumane-Vītoliņa, Madara Apsalone, Erika Sumilo and Krista Jaakson

The purpose of this paper is to analyse generational differences with regard to honest behaviour and honesty as a personal value in post-Soviet business environment: in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse generational differences with regard to honest behaviour and honesty as a personal value in post-Soviet business environment: in Estonia and Latvia.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 781 service employees from six retail organizations in Estonia and Latvia were surveyed to assess likelihood of dishonest behaviour and to rank their values according to the Rokeach instrumental value scale.

Findings

Older generations report higher likelihood of honest behaviour than younger generations. Post-war and early generation X, born between 1945 and 1970, also rate honesty and responsibility higher as their individual values.

Originality/value

The complexity of generational differences in ethical behaviour and honesty as a personal value has not been widely researched in post-Soviet business environment.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2019

Krista Jaakson, Hannele-Marianne Aljaste and Piia Uusi-Kakkuri

The relationship between organisational innovativeness (OI) and company performance has been studied extensively, and the associations found have mostly been positive…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between organisational innovativeness (OI) and company performance has been studied extensively, and the associations found have mostly been positive. However, as OI is a multidimensional concept, more nuanced research is needed to identify which dimensions of innovativeness companies should focus on. The purpose of this paper is to longitudinally investigate the links between dimensions of OI and company financial performance, based on a sample of Finnish and Estonian pharmaceutical biotechnology companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews inquiring about OI were conducted in 26 biotechnology companies and then their performance was measured over three subsequent years using objective financial data. Due to limited sample size, qualitative comparative analysis is employed in addition to non-parametric statistical tests.

Findings

Overall, OI did not decisively influence financial performance in the studied sector. There were, however, dimensions related to human resource policies that appeared to have more potential to positively impact financial performance, whereas the strategic dimension was actually aversive to certain performance indicators.

Research limitations/implications

The study limitations are a small sample, possible managerial bias in the assessment of OI, and focus on financial measures only.

Practical implications

The study demonstrates that OI is a multidimensional construct and not all dimensions play an equal role in financial performance. Innovation-supportive human resource policies and strategic flexibility contributes to financial performance in the pharmaceutical biotechnology sector.

Originality/value

The contribution of the study is the analysis of a specific sector with a longitudinal approach by bridging quantitative and qualitative approach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Krista Jaakson, Maaja Vadi and Ilona Baumane-Vītoliņa

Employee dishonesty is problematic for businesses in general, particularly for retailers. The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse selected factors associated…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee dishonesty is problematic for businesses in general, particularly for retailers. The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse selected factors associated with the perceived likelihood of dishonest behaviour among retail employees. Specifically, the role of three negative work outcomes – insufficient pay, boredom, and perceived injustice – is investigated, as well as the effect of individual values and espoused organisational values.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 784 retail employees from six retail organisations located in Estonia and Latvia. A survey questionnaire that used manipulated scenarios of work outcomes and organisational values was administered.

Findings

The study concludes that perceived injustice produces more dishonesty than other negative work outcomes (insufficient pay and boredom), whereas boredom was a surprisingly strong trigger for the perceived likelihood of dishonest behaviour. Individual ethical values determined the perceived likelihood of dishonest behaviour as hypothesised while sensation-seeking values did not. Espoused organisational values had no significant effect on the perceived likelihood of dishonest behaviour.

Practical implications

The results imply that the breach of distributional and procedural justice simultaneously associates most with employee dishonesty, and retail employee selection is the key to curbing dishonest behaviour in the workplace.

Originality/value

The paper makes a contribution to behavioural ethics literature by studying dishonest employee behaviour in the post-communist context while addressing various forms of dishonest behaviour, in addition to stealing. Also, the effect of espoused organisational values has been scarcely studied before.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Raul Eamets and Krista Jaakson

Recent economic recession has highlighted the role of labour market flexibility as a key factor of competitiveness of a country. Despite the fact that labour mobility can…

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1298

Abstract

Purpose

Recent economic recession has highlighted the role of labour market flexibility as a key factor of competitiveness of a country. Despite the fact that labour mobility can essentially be seen as part of labour market flexibility, there is notable research gap concerning spatial mobility and other facets of labour market flexibility. The purpose of this special issue is to fill these gaps.

Design/methodology/approach –

The papers in the special issue represent various quantitative methods and databases, whereas mainly micro data (workplace, labour force or immigrant surveys, job search portal, etc.) is used. However, the type of labour market flexibility addressed is both micro- and macro-level.

Findings

It is demonstrated that labour occupational mobility is determined by the business cycle, numerical flexibility, occupational categories, and sector. Spatial mobility may have counterintuitive effects on individual occupational mobility depending on gender and it is related to various flexibilities in the workplace. It is also suggested that different types of flexibilities on a firm level are interdependent of each other.

Originality/value

The special issue adds to the labour market related knowledge by integrating labour market flexibility and mobility. Individually, both phenomena have been studied before, but not much research is devoted to their inter-linkages. The special issue also contributes by examining labour market flexibility and spatial mobility in the context of different countries, economic cycles, and institutional settings.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2013

Krista Jaakson, Jaan Masso and Maaja Vadi

Purpose — This chapter is aimed at testing the strength of three different drivers to engage in dishonest behavior at work — financial gain, response to injustice, and…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter is aimed at testing the strength of three different drivers to engage in dishonest behavior at work — financial gain, response to injustice, and escape from boredom — and shedding light to the power of individual and organizational values to hold down the effect of these drivers.Design/methodology/approach — We analyze the data of 167 service employees from a large retail organization, who responded to questionnaires which manipulated drivers and organizational values.Findings — As a result we find that the financial and injustice drivers are effectively triggering several dishonest behaviors, whereas — contrary to the expectations — boredom at work does not threaten employers with employee engagement in dishonest behavior. We do find weak moderating effect of individual values in reacting to the drivers for some forms of dishonest behaviors, but the role of organizational values was marginal.Originality/value — In this chapter dishonest behavior is divided into nine specific dishonest acts involving management and customers as the stakeholders whose interests are at stake. We attempt to associate these behaviors with particular drivers. We also look at the moderators in this process: individual and organizational values. To date, espoused values of the organization is an underexplored organizational instrument compared to other situational variables, for instance, the existence of codes of ethics.

Details

(Dis)Honesty in Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-602-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Krista Jaakson, Anne Reino and Pille Mõtsmees

The purpose of this paper is to explore how different types of organizational culture (OC) manifest in certain corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and to…

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1298

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how different types of organizational culture (OC) manifest in certain corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and to uncover how the presence of certain OC types induces changes in CSR caused by drastic shifts in the economic environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis relies on a case study and uses qualitative and quantitative data obtained via interviews, employee survey and analysis of documents. The paper focuses on Ecoprint Ltd, a small printing house in Estonia, and analyzes its reactions to the economic downturn in 2008 and 2009 in terms of CSR. The authors then analyze the concurrence of these changes with its OC, based on a survey that relies on the Competing Values Framework.

Findings

The dominant type of OC in the organization did not predict all its CSR practices, but described rather well how adaptation in the sphere of CSR took place as a result of economic downturn. The case demonstrated that CSR activities that relate to dominant OC types are less likely to be reduced in a recession; moreover, some were even intensified. On the other hand, there were certain CSR activities that reflected less prevalent types of OC, nevertheless these were not withdrawn either.

Research limitations/implications

The method used, single case study, serves as an exploratory study. The relationship between unchanged CSR activities related to less dominant OC types is not easy to interpret and needs further investigation.

Originality/value

There is abundant literature referring to a connection between OC and CSR, but related empirical research is hard to find. The current paper empirically explores the relationship between these concepts under the extraordinary economic situation that existed in Estonia in 2008‐2009.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Krista Jaakson, Dorel Tamm and Gerli Hämmal

The biotechnology sector provides business‐to‐business service and continuous innovation is an imperative for biotechnology organisations in order to survive. The aim of…

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1062

Abstract

Purpose

The biotechnology sector provides business‐to‐business service and continuous innovation is an imperative for biotechnology organisations in order to survive. The aim of this paper is to outline the elements in Estonian biotechnology organisations that inhibit them from becoming more innovative, and based on that, suggest how managers can increase their organisational innovativeness (OI).

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on single‐respondent structured interviews that were carried out in 15 biotechnology organisations in Estonia. The questions were divided into five categories: strategic orientation to innovation, processes related to resource allocation, processes related to work organisation, behaviour related to innovation initiation and behaviour related to innovation implementation. For each category OI the score was calculated and analysed.

Findings

The study hypothesised that OI is about half of its potential and the lowest scores were expected to emerge in the resource allocation to innovation and processes related to work organisation categories. The authors found that OI was higher than expected among the study sample and the only resource allocation score was significantly lower than the scores of other categories. Surprisingly, the score of strategic orientation to innovation was the next lowest after resource allocation.

Practical implications

The results imply that Estonian biotechnology organisations could increase their innovativeness by better integrating innovation into their formal strategy and rewarding employees for innovative ideas. Also, specific aspects in other categories are elevated (rotating employees across functions/regions, introducing development discussions, etc.) that would enhance OI.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper lies in its profound overview of recent literature on OI, and the development of an interview questionnaire that covers a range of relevant issues assumed to support innovation.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Krista Jaakson

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of organizational values from the management by values perspective and develop an understanding of the features of…

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3800

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of organizational values from the management by values perspective and develop an understanding of the features of well‐functioning organizational values in the context of management by values.

Design/methodology/approach

Organizational values and management by values are analyzed using the systems theory approach, whereby organization consists of individuals and both the organization and the individuals have values interdependent of each other.

Findings

The paper concludes that there are specific features about organizational values and values statements that make it more effective to manage by values. It is argued that management by values deals with only a certain layer of organizational values – the layer that is conscious and explicit. The paper shows that, from a management by values perspective, organizational values should be instrumental (as opposed to basic), regulate employee character (as opposed to behaviour), and relate to wellbeing and the ethical (as opposed to survival) dimension.

Practical implications

There are clear implications for managers in their attempt to formulate or revise organizational values.

Originality/value

The main value of the paper lies in the thorough analysis of extensive literature that has been published in relation to organizational values and their management to date. The paper shows the state of play in the field and suggests a way forward.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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