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Few studies have adopted social psychology theories to understand the medical tourism decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to fill the said gap by…
Few studies have adopted social psychology theories to understand the medical tourism decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to fill the said gap by suggesting the adoption of two social cognition models: the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and protection motivation theory (PMT), to predict medical tourism behavioural intention, as well as compare their predictive power by integrating TBP and PMT in a single model.
A quantitative method has been adopted. There were 265 international tourists from various regions who visited Malaysia (one of the main medical tourism players in Asia), who were asked to complete the survey questionnaire. Data was analysed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling technique.
The results of this study provided support and validated the well-developed research models of TPB and PMT. Although PMT appears to be a more concrete and specific framework, the TPB model results have a slight advantage. TPB results emphasised the important roles of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control in developing behavioural intentions, and thus directly linked to the development of pull marketing strategies. PMT results emphasised the important roles of perceived threats and coping appraisal of health care in developing push strategies for medical tourism.
The research illustrates the need for rigorous examination of the ability of behavioural theories. The findings can aid in scrutinising their shortcomings and their readiness to modify, integrate and enhance in a more constructive manner when they address the health-education interventions, especially in a medical tourism context.
这项研究的结果支持并验证了TPB和PMT完善的研究模型。尽管PMT似乎是一个更具体的框架, 但TPB模型结果却有一点优势。TPB模型的结果强调了态度, 主观规范和感知的行为控制在形成行为意愿中的重要作用, 因此直接与拉动式营销策略的发展相关。 PMT结果强调了感知到的威胁和对医疗保健的应对评估在制定医疗旅游推动策略中的重要作用。
该研究阐述了严格检验行为理论能力的必要性。当研究结果针对健康教育干预措施时, 尤其是在医疗旅游领域, 这些发现可以帮助审查它们的缺点以及它们是否准备好以更具建设性的方式进行修改, 整合和改善。
医疗旅游, 游客的行为意愿, 保护动机理论, 计划行为理论, 模型比较, 马来西亚
Pocos estudios han adoptado teorías de psicología social para comprender el proceso de toma de decisiones de turismo médico. El objetivo de esta investigación es llenar dicho vacío sugiriendo la adopción de dos modelos de cognición social: la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB) y la teoría de la motivación de protección (PMT), para predecir la intención conductual del turismo médico y comparar su poder predictivo integrando TBP y PMT en un solo modelo.
se ha adoptado un método cuantitativo. Hubo 265 turistas internacionales de diversas regiones que visitaron Malasia (uno de los principales actores del turismo médico en Asia) a quienes se les pidió que completaran el cuestionario de la encuesta. Los datos se analizaron utilizando la técnica de modelado de ecuaciones estructurales de mínimos cuadrados parciales.
Los resultados de este estudio brindaron apoyo y validaron los modelos de investigación bien desarrollados de TPB y PMT. Aunque PMT parece ser un marco más concreto y específico, los resultados del modelo TPB tienen una ligera ventaja. Los resultados del TPB enfatizaron los roles importantes de las actitudes, las normas subjetivas y el control conductual percibido en el desarrollo de las intenciones conductuales y, por lo tanto, directamente vinculados con el desarrollo de estrategias de marketing pull. Los resultados de PMT enfatizaron los roles importantes de las amenazas percibidas y la evaluación de la atención médica en el desarrollo de estrategias de empuje para el turismo médico.
La investigación ilustra la necesidad de un examen riguroso de la capacidad de las teorías conductuales. Los hallazgos pueden ayudar a analizar sus deficiencias y su disposición a modificar, integrar y mejorar de una manera más constructiva cuando abordan las intervenciones de educación sanitaria, especialmente en un contexto de turismo médico.
Social media has fundamentally changed the leisure travel behavior of Singapore residents. The purpose of this paper is to focus on Facebook and its impact on travel…
Social media has fundamentally changed the leisure travel behavior of Singapore residents. The purpose of this paper is to focus on Facebook and its impact on travel behavior. The study focuses on Singapore residents.
A total of 16 input and five output variables were tested, with a sample of 203 Facebook users residing in Singapore. Primary data modeling was done using ADANCO, a structural equation modeling tool that uses composite modeling approach for hypothesis testing. The analysis performed an estimated structural model and then determined the best model fit by measuring reliability, validity and path analysis and estimating model parameters.
Research findings indicate that Facebook has had a strong behavioral influence on the frequency of travel, itinerary planning and social sharing, while it had no impact during the destination-selection stage of travel planning.
Facebook’s influence on leisure travel behavior confirms the theory of planned behavior proposed by Icek Ajzen. From Facebook’s perspective, the outcome of this study is helpful in recommending the best use of the platform for destination providers.
This paper aims to study the factors that influence customer loyalty toward the internet service providers in Malaysia. The five factors used are corporate image…
This paper aims to study the factors that influence customer loyalty toward the internet service providers in Malaysia. The five factors used are corporate image, perceived quality, perceived value, price fairness and promotion. The mediating variable of this study is customer satisfaction, while customer loyalty is the study variable.
The primary data collection has been done by distributing survey questionnaires to 338 internet users in Malaysia. The data collected have been analyzed with SAS software.
The results showed that perceived quality has the strongest influence on customer satisfaction toward internet service providers in Malaysia. However, corporate image has no relationship with customer satisfaction toward internet service providers in Malaysia. Furthermore, customer satisfaction has a significant and positive relationship to customer loyalty toward the internet service providers in Malaysia.
European Customer Satisfaction Index has been adopted and combined with price fairness and promotion as a new research model that other researchers may look into it further. This research may also serve as a guide to internet service providers as they may learn about the underlying factors that affect the satisfaction and loyalty of customers and which factor has the strongest impact.
The success of self-assessment tax system is voluntary compliance with the tax laws. When tax evasion is seen as unacceptable, taxpayers will tend to evade tax less…
The success of self-assessment tax system is voluntary compliance with the tax laws. When tax evasion is seen as unacceptable, taxpayers will tend to evade tax less. Hence, the understanding of taxpayers’ attitude on tax morality towards a tax system has to be enhanced to minimize tax evasion cases. The purposes of this study are to examine the relationship between tax fairness, tax knowledge, enforcement level and social exchange towards taxpayers’ attitude of tax morality under the self-assessment system in Malaysia and also to identify the relationship between taxpayers’ attitude of tax morality and taxpayers’ perceptions on tax evasion.
Data were collected from 400 taxpayers through a questionnaire and analysed.
From the analysis, it has been found out that tax knowledge is the most important tax system characteristic that affects taxpayers’ attitude of tax morality. In addition, taxpayers’ attitude of tax morality is significant to taxpayers’ perceptions on tax evasion in Malaysia.
The findings of this study would be useful for the government to further improve the present tax system to increase voluntary tax compliance.
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether different corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimensions, namely, workplace economic responsibility, legal…
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether different corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimensions, namely, workplace economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility, have different influence on job pursuit intention among undergraduate students in Malaysia.
The target respondents are undergraduate business students from five leading private universities in Malaysia. Primary data were collected through survey questionnaires via face-to-face method. Five-point Likert scale was used to assess the variables and to measure the items. Collected data were tested through SAS software and analysed with descriptive and inferential analyses.
Four out of the five CSR dimensions significantly influence job pursuit intention with ethical responsibility being the exception.
This study proved that the adoption of CSR in an organisation will become a competitive advantage to attract new talents. Also, this is an improved research model by adopting multi-dimensional perspectives of CSR.
This proposed framework with a combination of five CSR dimensions (workplace economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility) is useful to future researchers as it enables them to have a broader view on CSR and its effect on job pursuit intention.
The topic of visitor consumption is of great interest to international organizations and scientific research because of its particular significance. The analysis of…
The topic of visitor consumption is of great interest to international organizations and scientific research because of its particular significance. The analysis of tourism activity's economic impact on the host country might be carried out by implementing ex post methods and approaches based mainly on the System of National Accounts. These methods refer to the tourism contribution to the national economy and the analysis of direct and indirect economic effects. The aim of this kind of tourism expenditure's analysis is to obtain the necessary information and to acquire the knowledge needed to formulate and implement the appropriate economic policy, as well as to elaborate the adequate planning and rational tourism management. Tourism activity has specific characteristics rendering its economic analysis a difficult task. In the present paper the main methods attempting to estimate the tourism's economic impact are reviewed, with emphasis on those allowed to obtain the most reliable results; tourism satellite accounts and input‐output analysis. This review is followed by a presentation of the evaluation criteria permitting to estimate their value. In the second section we summarise the scientific debate on tourism economic impact, which primarily focuses on two main issues — the theoretical approach and the adequate methodological instrument. The paper concludes by highlighting the actual state of art in this research field.
This case is in four parts, highlighting the crossroads at which the protagonist Savita finds herself in and the difficulties she faces in balancing her career aspirations…
This case is in four parts, highlighting the crossroads at which the protagonist Savita finds herself in and the difficulties she faces in balancing her career aspirations with family responsibilities. A Fellow of Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Ahmedabad, Savita's dilemmas concern working in a prestigious management institute in Kolkata versus getting a job in Mumbai in order to psychologically and financially support her family and get married; joining her husband in China on his posting versus going to the US on a prestigious fellowship prioritizing her career, and finally, starting a family versus postponing the decision till the couple were together and reasonably settled in their respective careers.
This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences…
This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences among these studies that have produced conflicting results. The findings provide a benchmark for future researchers and practitioners seeking to gain insight into consumer information search processes unfolding in the new environment of online, mobile, and social networking channels.
A meta-analysis of an extensive array of empirical studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external information search was conducted. Regression analysis was used to test whether certain characteristics in the studies can explain variability in the effect sizes in which effect sizes are entered as dependent variables and moderators as independent variables.
Objective and subjective knowledge tend to increase search, while direct experience tends to reduce search. Consumers with higher objective knowledge search more when pursuing credence products. However, they search relatively less when pursuing search products. Consumers with higher subjective knowledge are much more likely to search in the context of experience products, but as is the case for objective knowledge having little effect on search for experience products, subjective knowledge has no significant effect on information seeking for search products. In addition, objective knowledge facilitates more information search in a complex decision-making context while higher subjective knowledge fosters more external information search in a simple decision-marketing context. Finally, the findings indicate that the knowledge search relationship reflects strong linkage in the pre-Internet era.
Relatively little is known about how the relationship between knowledge and information search varies across different types of products in simple or complex decision-making contexts. This study begins to fill this gap by providing insight into the relative importance of objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, and direct experience in influencing consumer information search activities for search, experience, and credence products in simple or complex decision-making contexts.
The present study is aimed at understanding the survival strategies of Subsistence-type Rural Independent retailers, henceforth called SRIs, in the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid…
The present study is aimed at understanding the survival strategies of Subsistence-type Rural Independent retailers, henceforth called SRIs, in the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid (BoP) markets of developing economies through a qualitative study. SRIs constitute a pivotal channel of distribution of goods to BoP consumers living in the rural areas of developing economies. A process of long interviews was chosen for data gathering to allow SRIs to go into details to allow them to expound upon their beliefs, life-situations, and societal norms. Narratives were collected verbatim from SRIs. The concept of socio-economic embeddedness is used as the central concept to interpret and connect the elements, discerned from the narratives, into a conceptual framework. The aforesaid theory combines the neo-classical economic concept of utility maximization with behavioral economics and economic sociology. The analysis of the narratives is interpretive against the identified elements of the concept of economic embeddedness. The survival strategies of SRIs seem to stem from sociological, psychological, and utility-maximizing behaviors. The elements of SRIs’ responses to its environment provide valuable insights into their purchase motivations.