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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Yannis Lianopoulos, Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Magda Papanikolaou

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed.

Findings

The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels.

Originality/value

This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Dimitra Papadimitriou, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Kostas Alexandris and Nikos Theodorakis

The purpose of this paper is to test the psychometric properties of the Team Brand Personality Scale by Blank et al. (2013, 2018) in the context of the professional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the psychometric properties of the Team Brand Personality Scale by Blank et al. (2013, 2018) in the context of the professional football clubs in Greece, based on the perceptions of fans for their own team and the rival team. The brand personality team scores of the fans are also used to create a league map presenting the brand personality of the different teams of the Greek football Super League.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a quantitative research design, 724 Greek football fans completed an electronic questionnaire assessing demographics, brand personality, team identification, sport involvement, attitudinal loyalty and game attractiveness.

Findings

The results partially confirmed the psychometric properties of the brand personality scale and suggested that the notion of brand personality influences positively the attitudinal loyalty and game attractiveness of the fans. Based on the results, the personality structure for the football league was also created and discussed.

Research limitations/implications

This study was set to focus only on the brand personality perceptions of the highly identified fans of football teams, known in the literature as realized brand personality. However, a thorough understanding of the particular concept requires also the perspective of sport marketers who may perceive the brand personality in a different manner (i.e. intended brand personality), so as to build a holistic picture of brand personality of football teams.

Practical implications

This research confirms that football teams have already projected a unique personality among their highly identified fans which can be used by marketing practitioners while designing integrated communication strategies.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the broad brand personality literature by replicating Blank’s et al.’s sport team personality scale to the Greek context and the league level, involving both supporting fans and rivals.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Gi‐Du Kang, Jeffrey Jame and Kostas Alexandris

Internal marketing is an important approach for fostering a service‐ and customer‐oriented culture in an organization. A critical component of internal marketing is the…

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14237

Abstract

Internal marketing is an important approach for fostering a service‐ and customer‐oriented culture in an organization. A critical component of internal marketing is the provision of internal service quality. While researchers have conducted studies of internal service quality, there has been no general agreement on the measurement of the concept. Work to date has attempted to use the SERVQUAL instrument as a tool for measuring internal service quality. Researchers have not, however, demonstrated that the instrument can be reasonably modified to measure internal service quality. The current study modified the SERVQUAL instrument for a service setting and empirically tested and confirmed that it is appropriate for measuring internal service quality. While previous research has not confirmed the validity and reliability of all five SERVQUAL dimensions in a service setting, the results of the current study confirmed that all five dimensions – reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, responsiveness – were distinct and conceptually clear.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2011

Nicholas D Theodorakis, Kostas Alexandris and Yong Jae Ko

This study examines the mediating role of Overall Service Quality in the service quality-customer satisfaction relationship in the context of professional football…

Abstract

This study examines the mediating role of Overall Service Quality in the service quality-customer satisfaction relationship in the context of professional football. Quantitative data were collected from a survey of 415 spectators attending a professional football game in Greece. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to examine the validity of the scale. Multiple regression analyses was used to assess the mediation effect of Overall Service Quality. Results of the CFA and alpha test supported the psychometric property of the scale. Overall Service Quality was shown to mediate the relationship between the five dimensions of service quality and fans' satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Kostas Alexandris

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event…

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1518

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test: the applicability of Aaker’s (1997) brand personality model in the context of mountain running races; and the influence of event personality on event involvement and loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 177 runners (n=177) at two mountain running races participated in the study and filled the brand personality (Aaker, 1997) and leisure involvement (Kyle et al., 2004a, b) questionnaires.

Findings

The confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the brand personality and event involvement models. The analysis confirmed also the structural model. Four of the five personality facets (excitement, competence, ruggedness and sincerity) significantly influenced the three dimensions of event involvement, which in their turn influenced event loyalty (intention to participate and W-O-M communications).

Practical implications

The topic of brand personality is important for building brand equity and guiding market positioning in the growing running races sector. The current study provides event organizers with a tool for measuring the personality of their events. Furthermore, it explains how event personality influences the development of event involvement, which is an important variable for the development of event loyalty.

Originality/value

It contributes to the academic literature in two ways: first, the construct of brand personality has not been previously applied in the context of outdoor sport events and especially mountain running races; and second, while it has been theoretically proposed (Aaker, 1997; Keller, 2008) and empirically supported (Eisend and Stokburger-Sauer, 2013) in the general marketing literature that brand personality is associated with positive behavioral and attitudinal (e.g. brand loyalty and brand involvement) outcomes, there has been no published research to test the relationships among brand personality, involvement and loyalty in the context of outdoor sport events.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

Mark P. Pritchard, Daniel C. Funk and Kostas Alexandris

The reason patrons cease to attend sporting events is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to examine how factors motivate and inhibit patronage from continuing.

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3015

Abstract

Purpose

The reason patrons cease to attend sporting events is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to examine how factors motivate and inhibit patronage from continuing.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of a sport franchise's fan database (n=308) is drawn. First, respondent data refines measures and tests a structural equation model of direct and indirect links to patronage. Next, content analysis classifies spectators according to self‐stated barriers to continuance. These groupings then check the moderating role constraints have on patron attitude and behaviour.

Findings

Structural work confirms both direct and indirect links but notes that consumption primarily took an indirect route, with motivational desires rousing fan involvement and media use before increasing attendance. Group differences verify constraints and limit patronage but do not dampen product‐related attitude.

Research limitations/implications

The study helps clarify the connection between media use and attendance, describing how constraints impede spectator consumption. Study limitations include a focus on one hedonic service setting and the use of cross‐sectional data to examine ongoing phenomena.

Practical implications

Negotiating barriers to repeat purchase remains largely overlooked as a foundation for guiding strategy. Practical implications consider integrating both motives and constraints when marshalling efforts that build continuance.

Originality/value

Despite early interest from marketing practitioners, factors that inhibit patronage have drawn little attention. This study employs content and path analysis to address the matter.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

K. Alexandris, S. Douka, P. Papadopoulos and A. Kaltsatou

The study aims to: measure brand associations in the context of a fitness club, test the influence of brand associations on the development of brand loyalty, and…

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8809

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to: measure brand associations in the context of a fitness club, test the influence of brand associations on the development of brand loyalty, and investigate the role of service quality on the development of brand associations.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 165 members of a managed‐owned fitness club, located in North Greece, participated in the study. They completed a 25‐item questionnaire to measure brand associations, and a 25‐item questionnaire to measure service quality.

Findings

The exploratory factor analysis revealed eight brand association factors: popularity, management, logo, escape, vicarious achievement, nostalgia, pride and affect. In terms of the relationships among brand associations, loyalty and service quality, the regression analyses revealed that: five of the eight brand associations (escape, nostalgia, pride, logo, and affect) significantly contributed to the prediction of loyalty, the service quality dimensions predicted significant amount of variances in all the eight brand associations.

Practical implications

The study provides support for the value of measuring brand associations in the fitness industry. Furthermore, various suggestions related to how fitness club managers can measure brand associations and design marketing strategies in order to develop them, are discussed.

Originality/value

The study provides empirical verification of the links among brand associations, brand loyalty and service quality, which have been theoretically proposed, but not empirically tested in the literature.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Evangelos Tsoukatos and Graham K. Rand

The purpose of this article is to investigate the path service quality → customer satisfaction → loyalty, at the level of constructs, drawing from the Greek insurance industry.

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9500

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate the path service quality → customer satisfaction → loyalty, at the level of constructs, drawing from the Greek insurance industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A SERVQUAL type service‐quality instrument is developed for Greek insurance. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses are used to determine the scale's dimensionality. Path analysis is utilized to examine a model linking service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty at the level of constructs' individual determinants.

Findings

SERVQUAL's dimensionality is not confirmed. A non‐tangibles, tangibles structure exists in Greek insurance. “Tangibles” does not affect customer satisfaction while WOM is an antecedent of repurchasing intentions. Satisfaction does not directly influence the latter.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers the limitation that it tests the fit of the model within the limits of a single service industry. Another limitation is availability sampling. However, the satisfactory fit of the estimated model allows for the study to be a reliable comparison basis for future research.

Practical implications

Insurance managers may use GIQUAL for measuring the quality of insurance services offered. They must improve the intangible rather than the tangible elements of service and direct their support mechanisms towards developing customers willing to engage in positive WOM. The proposed model can be used to provide comparable findings across sectors, countries and time provided that, in each case, an appropriately customized SERVQUAL type scale is used.

Originality/value

This study explores the service quality, satisfaction, and loyalty path at the level of specific dimensions drawing from Greek insurance.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Achilleas Boukis, Kostas Kaminakis, Anastasios Siampos and Ioannis Kostopoulos

The purpose of this study is to explore how the adoption of an internal marketing (IM) programme in a retail banking setting enhances some positive employee behaviours…

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2352

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how the adoption of an internal marketing (IM) programme in a retail banking setting enhances some positive employee behaviours that promote customer perceived service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

A multilevel research design is adopted which draws evidence from branch managers, employees and customers in order to investigate whether branch manager’s adoption of an IM philosophy affects front-line employee responsiveness to the firm’s IM strategies and their levels of motivation, empowerment and organizational identification (OI), respectively.

Findings

Results indicate that manager’s IM adoption can enhance employee adoption of IM and raises their levels of motivation, empowerment and OI. The moderating role of manager-employee dissimilarity is also discussed. Finally, findings confirm that employee motivation, empowerment and OI affect customer perceptions of service quality.

Originality/value

This study provides an important shift by formally including IM into multilevel marketing research and establishes another link in the IM-organizational performance relationship, uncovering some behavioural routes through which the positive effects of IM can add to the achievement of firm’s external marketing objectives.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Mamoun N. Akroush, Amjad A. Abu‐ElSamen, Ghazi A. Samawi and Abdelhadi L. Odetallah

The purpose of this paper is to examine an empirical model of internal marketing (IM) and internal service quality (ISQ) in tourism restaurants operating in Jordan.

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8854

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine an empirical model of internal marketing (IM) and internal service quality (ISQ) in tourism restaurants operating in Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured and self‐administered survey was employed targeting managers and employees of tourism restaurants operating in Jordan. A sample of 334 of tourism restaurants managers and employees were involved in the survey. A series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the research constructs dimensions, unidimensionality, validity and composite reliability. Structural path model analysis was also used to test the hypothesised interrelationships of the research model.

Findings

The empirical findings indicate that IM consists of six dimensions: staff recruitment, staff training, internal communications, staff motivation, job security and staff retention. Staff recruitment, staff training, and internal communications positively and significantly affected staff motivation. Staff recruitment and internal communications positively and significantly affected ISQ. Staff motivation positively and significantly affected job security, and job security positively and significantly affected staff retention. Finally, staff retention has positively and significantly affected ISQ. Staff recruitment exerted the strongest effect on both staff motivation and ISQ.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically, the authors examined only six components of IM that lead to ISQ; meanwhile other components could affect ISQ. There could also be other factors that affect the practice and components of IM and ISQ. This research has also examined the effect of IM and ISQ only. The potential effect of ISQ on business performance needs to be examined.

Practical implications

Tourism restaurants managers should have a holistic approach for IM and ISQ. Three dimensions of ISQ – reliability, assurance and empathy – loaded on one factor named “interaction quality”. This finding has important implications since it reveals that “internal customers” (employees) have “working needs” that should be met in order to meet and satisfy external customers’ needs. Managers and executives can benefit from the research findings while designing their IM and ISQ strategies to achieve long‐term organisational objectives.

Originality/value

This is the first research effort devoted to examining the interrelationships of IM and ISQ in tourism restaurants. Executives and managers can benefit from the research findings while designing their IM and ISQ strategies to achieve long‐term organisational objectives. International tourism organisations planning to expand their operations Jordan's tourism industry have now valuable empirical evidence regarding two important concepts in this industry – IM and ISQ.

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