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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Christine Irvine and Sonia Mawhinney

As rates of dangerous drinking increase, services must improve their understanding of the needs of people with alcohol‐related brain damage such as Korsakoff syndrome

Abstract

As rates of dangerous drinking increase, services must improve their understanding of the needs of people with alcohol‐related brain damage such as Korsakoff syndrome (KS). This study looked at indications of change in key functioning areas for four people with KS living in a new supported living environment. The research highlighted the individualised and complex needs of people with KS and suggests that three specific factors may influence changes in functioning.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Stephen Nutt and Lauren Limb

This paper seeks to report the key findings of two studies which were undertaken by Rare Disease UK to: understand patients' and their families' experiences of living with…

277

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to report the key findings of two studies which were undertaken by Rare Disease UK to: understand patients' and their families' experiences of living with a rare disease; identify issues preventing research and access to good quality information, care, treatment and support; identify examples of good practice; and develop recommendations to improve service provision for patients with rare diseases and encourage research.

Design/methodology/approach

Across the two reports discussed, a range of methods were used including: a survey of patients/family members; five multi‐stakeholder working groups; conference workshops; a consultation paper; interviews; and desk research.

Findings

There are a number of detailed findings across the two reports. At a broad level, the findings identify that despite the diverse range of rare diseases each with different symptoms and prognoses, patients often face similar issues. The report also identifies a number of possible solutions to facilitate research, speed up diagnosis, improve co‐ordination of care and ensure high‐quality information is available to patients and professionals.

Practical implications

The findings and recommendations in the two reports discussed are informing the development of a UK plan for rare diseases by all four of the UK's health departments. This plan will be the first strategic approach to improving service provision for all patients with rare diseases in the UK.

Originality/value

Very little research has been conducted into the experiences of patients with rare diseases or on how to improve service provision for all rare diseases in the UK. As a result, the two reports offer a substantial body of new evidence.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2010

Rebecca Dawber

Alcohol‐related brain damage (ARBD) is an increasing challenge for service providers working with older people and adults. It has a complex aetiology and does not progress…

Abstract

Alcohol‐related brain damage (ARBD) is an increasing challenge for service providers working with older people and adults. It has a complex aetiology and does not progress in the same way as other causes of dementia. The devastating effects of ARBD undermine a person's ability to lead an independent life, yet it is thought that with the right interventions, a degree of recovery can be seen in 75% of sufferers. People with ARBD do not neatly fit into an existing category of care; they ‘fall through the net’ at multiple points in the care pathway. Using a patient synopsis drawn from clinical practice the author illustrates the impact of an advanced practice role in relation to the nursing care of patients with ARBD, as well as making suggestions for the provision of education and support for mainstream services.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Liam North, Louise Gillard‐Owen, Debbie Bannigan and Chris Robinson

This paper provides an overview of the evidence base for alcohol‐related brain injury (ARBI) and describes how this has been used to develop a pilot programme for the…

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the evidence base for alcohol‐related brain injury (ARBI) and describes how this has been used to develop a pilot programme for the treatment of ARBI. Key components include: detoxification, assessment, social behaviour network therapy, cognitive rehabilitation and systematic instruction. The programme is being delivered and evaluated in the north of England by Swanswell, a national drug and alcohol treatment charity.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Charlie Place

The purpose of this paper is to argue that alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) is a neglected problem. ARBD is a term that has begun to be used over the past decade to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) is a neglected problem. ARBD is a term that has begun to be used over the past decade to describe prolonged cognitive impairment caused by alcohol use, including Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome, alcohol dementia and alcohol-related brain injury.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an overview of ARBD describing the research around its prevalence and prognosis. There is a consensus in the literature that there is little research and a lack of awareness of this condition. The author uses case studies from his own experience working with people with ARBD to describe the difficulties in accessing appropriate assessment and care for this group, and suggests that they are often excluded in a way that is familiar from the experience of the person with “dual diagnosis”.

Findings

Recommendations are made including raising awareness, improving screening for cognitive impairment and developing specialist services.

Originality/value

ARBD appears to have been neglected in the “dual diagnosis” world and this paper attempts to address this, and so should be of interest to a wide range of professionals working with substance use, mental health, homelessness and social work.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2009

Margherita Grotzkyj‐Giorgi

While many of the most widely used treatment interventions engage with the psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of addiction, some of the biological aspects can…

Abstract

While many of the most widely used treatment interventions engage with the psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of addiction, some of the biological aspects can at times be neglected. It is increasingly being recognised that there is a close, exacerbating relationship between problematic substance use and poor nutrition.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2010

Costa Vakalopoulos

Although first rank symptoms focus on positive symptoms of psychosis they are shared by a number of psychiatric conditions. The difficulty in differentiating bipolar…

Abstract

Although first rank symptoms focus on positive symptoms of psychosis they are shared by a number of psychiatric conditions. The difficulty in differentiating bipolar disorder from schizophrenia with affective features has led to a third category of patients often loosely labeled as schizoaffective. Research in schizophrenia has attempted to render the presence or absence of negative symptoms and their relation to etiology and prognosis more explicit. A dichotomous population is a recurring theme in experimental paradigms. Thus, schizophrenia is defined as process or reactive, deficit or non-deficit and by the presence or absence of affective symptoms. Laboratory tests confirm the clinical impression showing conflicting responses to dexamethasone suppression and clearly defined differences in autonomic responsiveness, but their patho-physiological significance eludes mainstream theory. Added to this is the difficulty in agreeing to what exactly constitutes useful clinical features differentiating, for example, negative symptoms of a true deficit syndrome from features of depression. Two recent papers proposed that the general and specific cognitive features of schizophrenia and major depression result from a monoamine-cholinergic imbalance, the former due to a relative muscarinic receptor hypofunction and the latter, in contrast, to a muscarinic hypersensitivity exacerbated by monoamine depletion. Further development of these ideas will provide pharmacological principles for what is currently an incomplete and largely, descriptive nosology of psychosis. It will propose a dimensional view of affective and negative symptoms based on relative muscarinic integrity and is supported by several exciting intracellular signaling and gene expression studies. Bipolar disorder manifests both muscarinic and dopaminergic hypersensitivity. The greater the imbalance between these two receptor signaling systems, the more the clinical picture will resemble schizophrenia with bizarre, incongruent delusions and increasingly disorganized thought. The capacity for affective expression, by definition a non-deficit syndrome, will remain contingent on the degree of preservation of muscarinic signaling, which itself may be unstable and vary between trait and state examinations. At the extreme end of muscarinic impairment, a deficit schizophrenia subpopulation is proposed with a primary and fixed muscarinic receptor hypofunction.

The genomic profile of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia overlap and both have a common dopaminergic intracellular signaling which is hypersensitive to various stressors. It is proposed that the concomitant muscarinic receptor upregulation differentiates the syndromes, being marked in bipolar disorder and rather less so in schizophrenia. From a behavioral point of view non-deficit syndromes and bipolar disorder appear most proximate and could be reclassified as a spectrum of affective psychosis or schizoaffective disorders. Because of a profound malfunction of the muscarinic receptor, the deficit subgroup cannot express a comparable stress response. None -theless, a convergent principle of psychotic features across psychiatric disorders is a relative monoaminergic-muscarinic imbalance in signal transduction.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Aditi Agrawal, Rayah Touma Sawaya, Margaret Ojeahere, Vanessa Padilla and Samer El Hayek

This study aims to review the presentation of substance use disorders in older adults, how addiction intertwines with neurocognitive disorders and how to approach this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review the presentation of substance use disorders in older adults, how addiction intertwines with neurocognitive disorders and how to approach this vulnerable population.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic data searches of PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Library (years 2000–2021) were performed using the keywords “neurocognitive,” “dementia,” “substance use,” “addiction,” “older adults” and “elderly.” The authors, in consensus, selected pivotal studies and conducted a narrative synthesis of the findings.

Findings

Research about substance use disorders in older adults is limited, especially in those with superimposed neurocognitive disorders. Having dual diagnoses can make the identification and treatment of either condition challenging. Management should use a holistic multidisciplinary approach that involves medical professionals and caregivers.

Originality/value

This review highlights some of the intertwining aspects between substance use disorders and neurocognitive disorders in older adults. It provides a comprehensive summary of the available evidence on treatment in this population.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Gabor Kelemen

140

Abstract

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

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