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The purpose of this paper is to understand motivation of young consumers to use artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as chatbots, voice assistants and augmented reality…
The purpose of this paper is to understand motivation of young consumers to use artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as chatbots, voice assistants and augmented reality in shopping by generating Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation using grounded theory approach.
Grounded theory approach has been used to develop the Vroom’s expectancy theory. Initially data were collected through participant interviews using theoretical sampling. These data were analyzed and coded using the three step process, i.e. open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The categories created during coding were integrated to generate Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation.
The findings indicate that Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation can be used to explain motivation of young consumers to use AI tools as an aid in taking shopping decisions. The motivation may be intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation or force choice motivation. Expectancy represents the ease of using the tools, instrumentality represents competence of tools in performing desired tasks while valence represents satisfaction, rewarding experience and trust in using of tools.
The findings of the study are based on grounded theory approach which is an inductive approach. Alternate research methodologies, both inductive and deductive, need to be employed to strengthen the external validity and generalize the results. The study is limited to shopping motives of young consumers in India. A comparison with other consumer motivational studies has not been done. Hence no claim is made regarding the advantage of Vroom’s theory over other motivational theories.
The study has strong implications for retailers in developing countries which are seen as an emerging market for retail and have introduced AI tools in recent years. The Vroom’s expectancy theory will help retailers to understand consumer motivation in using AI tools or shopping.
Vroom’s expectancy theory to understand consumer motivation to use AI tools in shopping was generated using the grounded theory approach.
Management post graduate and corporate executives.
ProdVal Flow Controls Pvt Ltd was company in the SME sector in India. The company focused on quality products and timely delivery. The major challenge for ProdVal was increasing their production capacity. They had no control over their existing suppliers resulting in delay in raw materials delivery. Retention of vendors had an effect on inventory carrying cost. The company had limited production facilities and the workers were outsourced. The company operated with unskilled workers. The case presents the various issues faced by the company based on which strategies to practice and plan the company's future plans could be designed. This is a disguised case and all excerpts from interviews have been anonymized.
Expected learning outcomes
This case study will give an insight to students to understand how inventory management; impacts production. It even gives an idea about how ProdVal has used the strategy of outsourcing of technology and labour and maintained a good growth rate.
Social implications -
Production management in small scale industry.
Organization structure of a manufacturing unit.
Concept of outsourcing HR and technology in an SME.
Teaching notes are available, please consult your librarian to access.
The purpose of study is to understand the motivation of academic library users by developing Vroom’s expectancy theory in the context of academic libraries using the…
The purpose of study is to understand the motivation of academic library users by developing Vroom’s expectancy theory in the context of academic libraries using the grounded theory approach.
The grounded theory approach has been used for data collection, analysis and development of theory. The data were collected through the process of theoretical sampling. Interviews of faculty and students belonging to government and private universities in India were recorded and transcribed till theoretical saturation was achieved. The interviews were analysed in three stages, i.e. open coding, axial coding and selective coding, to identify concepts of Vroom’s theory and integrate them into a theoretical model.
The components of Vroom’s theory, i.e. motivation, expectancy, instrumentality and valence were generated from data. The motivation to visit an academic library can be classified as intrinsic motivation and force choice motivation. Expectancy in the context of academic libraries is related to ease or difficulty in accessing library and its resources which relates to ease of location access, timing access, remote access, access to siblings and discipline norms for access. Instrumentality is related to infrastructure, information, service and promotion. Valence is related to pleasure and satisfaction. The concepts were integrated into a theoretical model.
The study is limited to academic libraries under state universities and private universities in India. Hence, the study cannot be generalised across institutions enjoying autonomy by the Government of India. Users of academic libraries may be motivated by several factors other than those considered with respect to motivation, expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The findings are based on the grounded theory approach which is an inductive approach. Alternate research methodologies, both inductive and deductive, need to be used to strengthen the external validity.
The understanding of user motivation through Vroom’s theory will help academic libraries to increase user motivation, thereby increasing usage of library resources.
Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation in the context of academic libraries was developed using the grounded theory approach.
The cases highlight the challenges in running a new start-up especially by women in a developing nation such as India in a high growth industry. The success of a business…
The cases highlight the challenges in running a new start-up especially by women in a developing nation such as India in a high growth industry. The success of a business depends on employee motivation, sales, marketing, functional coordination and coordinated efforts from all the executives. Experten Office Supplies Pvt. Ltd. (EXOS) was women empowered entrepreneurial startup (printing) in Mumbai established themselves as a trustable brand among their clientele for their office stationeries need. At Initial stages, they started with a good pace and growth in revenue. Directors of EXOS, Komal and Upasana Sanjay Kumar, were facing a downturn, their declining sales and were stressed regarding the resignation of their core member Pravin. The reasons for the situation were many, including unplanned motivational factors, non-risk-taking ability, no proper sales management (organization structure), planning process issues, lack of reward system and dependency on a person, less marketing initiative. These issues must be resolved to come back in the business, increase its sales, better sales organization structure. After the case analysis, students should be able to: know the key role of marketing and sales as a management function. Develop motivation policies for the salesforce and key team members in the organization. Understand the salesforce retention strategies of the organization.
In September 2019, directors of EXOS, Komal and Upasana Sanjay Kumar were discussing the downturn of EXOS and were stressed regarding their declining sales and profit margin. Both were disappointed at the resignation of their Business Manager. They were in worry as the new deal that they were about to get which could have made them earn, but Pravin resigned from the job in short notice. The case has short- and long-term aspects. The short-term aspect is about the decision related to EXOS’s top performer, Pravin, how to retain him, which motivational factor will help him to rethink his resignation. The long-term aspect deals with framing a motivation model that will prevent the organization from a similar situation in the future. The case outlines the human resource management issues and particularly the importance of motivation to retain the talent of a small startup firm. Directors recognize the importance of Pravin and they have a realization that the deal on which Pravin is working is critical. Under this situation, Upasana has to stop Pravin.
Complexity academic level
Undergraduate, Master of Business Administration (MBA) or in the Management Development Programs.
Teaching notes are available for educators only.
CSS: 8 Marketing.
The purpose of this paper is to improve the properties of shellac by blending with novolac and to study the thermal behaviour of the blends with an ultimate aim to use as…
The purpose of this paper is to improve the properties of shellac by blending with novolac and to study the thermal behaviour of the blends with an ultimate aim to use as surface coating material.
Novolac was synthesized by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in a molar ratio of 1:0.8, in acidic condition. Blending of shellac with novolac was done in solution and films of the blends, prepared on glass slides and tin panels, were baked at 150°C for 15 minutes. Properties of the films were studied as per standard procedures.
Films of shellac‐novolac blends showed improvement in gloss and impact resistance compared to those of shellac alone. Gloss of blends increased with the increase in concentration of novolac and further increased on baking the films. Scratch hardness of shellac decreased on blending with novolac. Baked films of the blends showed resistance to heat and water. Films of shellac‐novolac blends were found to be more resistant to polar solvents compared to non‐polar solvents.
Shellac, prepared from kusmi seedlac, was used in the study. Besides shellac, dewaxed decolorized lac (DDL), dewaxed lac (DL) and bleached lac (BL) could also be used for study on blending with novolac.
Blending of shellac with novolac improved the film properties of shellac. The study suggests that the compositions can be utilised in developing formulations of coating material with improved properties for metal surfaces.
The formulations based on modification of shellac with novolac and study of the film properties utilising various instruments are novel. The formulations based on shellac and novolac can find applications in the field of surface coating with desired purposes.
The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac–epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient…
The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac–epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient temperature for its use as a coating material.
Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin with epichlorohydrin. Novolac resin was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Shellac was blended with the epoxidised-novolac resin in solution in varying ratios and treated the blends with MF resin in fixed ratio. Coating properties of the treated compositions were studied using a standard procedure. The compositions were characterised with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) spectroscopy.
Treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blends with MF resin improved water and alkali resistance of the blends, besides enhancing gloss. Gloss in all the blends was uniformly increased on treatment with MF resin. Water resistance of the blends tremendously improved after treatment with MF resin. Contact angle of the blends against water increased while decreased against ethylene glycol and dioxane. The compositions were more resistant to polar solvent than non-polar ones, suggesting that the compositions shifted to hydrophobic (lipophilic) nature on treatment with the MF resin.
A specified concentration of MF resin was used in the study. Different concentrations of the MF resin can also be tried for treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blends to see the effect of the resin on the blends.
Treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blend with MF resin improved the coating properties of the blends. The formulation SeNB-64 is the best with high gloss, good impact, scratch hardness and water resistance, and hence can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.
Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin and treatment of the blends with the MF resin was done for the first time. The formulation SeNB-64 can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.