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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Verdiana Chieffi, Marco Pichierri, Alessandro M. Peluso, Cristiana Collu and Gianluigi Guido

This study examines the effect of both objective knowledge (i.e., what arts audience members actually know about art) and subjective knowledge (i.e., what arts audiences…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effect of both objective knowledge (i.e., what arts audience members actually know about art) and subjective knowledge (i.e., what arts audiences members think they know about art) on their propensity for experience-sharing (i.e., the tendency to share art-related experiences with other individuals). In addition, the study examines the role of culture (i.e., whether arts audiences belong to an individualistic or collectivistic culture) on the above-mentioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered through a field survey at a large contemporary art museum in Italy, conducted via a structured questionnaire and analyzed using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that both subjective and objective knowledge positively affect arts audiences’ propensity for experience-sharing, such as talking to others about a visit to an art gallery. Moreover, such effects appear to vary depending on culture: objective knowledge seems to positively influence experience-sharing when audiences belong to collectivistic cultures, whereas subjective knowledge seems to positively influence experience-sharing when they belong to individualistic cultures.

Practical implications

The study’s findings could motivate arts managers to emphasize the implementation of international communication strategies aimed at reinforcing arts audiences’ subjective and objective knowledge since these variables are positively associated with their propensity for experience-sharing with others.

Originality/value

This is the first study to assess the effects of objective and subjective knowledge, alongside the cultural dimensions of individualism and collectivism, on arts audiences’ propensity for experience-sharing.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Pingjun Jiang and Bert Rosenbloom

This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences…

Abstract

Purpose

This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences among these studies that have produced conflicting results. The findings provide a benchmark for future researchers and practitioners seeking to gain insight into consumer information search processes unfolding in the new environment of online, mobile, and social networking channels.

Methodology

A meta-analysis of an extensive array of empirical studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external information search was conducted. Regression analysis was used to test whether certain characteristics in the studies can explain variability in the effect sizes in which effect sizes are entered as dependent variables and moderators as independent variables.

Findings

Objective and subjective knowledge tend to increase search, while direct experience tends to reduce search. Consumers with higher objective knowledge search more when pursuing credence products. However, they search relatively less when pursuing search products. Consumers with higher subjective knowledge are much more likely to search in the context of experience products, but as is the case for objective knowledge having little effect on search for experience products, subjective knowledge has no significant effect on information seeking for search products. In addition, objective knowledge facilitates more information search in a complex decision-making context while higher subjective knowledge fosters more external information search in a simple decision-marketing context. Finally, the findings indicate that the knowledge search relationship reflects strong linkage in the pre-Internet era.

Originality

Relatively little is known about how the relationship between knowledge and information search varies across different types of products in simple or complex decision-making contexts. This study begins to fill this gap by providing insight into the relative importance of objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, and direct experience in influencing consumer information search activities for search, experience, and credence products in simple or complex decision-making contexts.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Jochen Wirtz and Anna S. Mattila

There is a growing interest in understanding how consumer preferences and choices vary with experience in a product/service category. Previous research provides support…

Abstract

There is a growing interest in understanding how consumer preferences and choices vary with experience in a product/service category. Previous research provides support for a conceptual distinction between self‐assessed or subjective knowledge and objective knowledge. Yet relatively little is known about the impact of these two knowledge types on consumers’ pre‐purchase choice and service loyalty behaviors. To bridge that gap, this study examined the relative influence of subjective and objective knowledge on choosing a physician practicing traditional Chinese medicine, and on remaining loyal to the chosen provider. Our findings indicate that high objective knowledge translates into larger consideration sets and decreased loyalty. Although subjective knowledge also had a positive impact on evoked set size, its magnitude was smaller than that observed for objective knowledge. Furthermore, unlike its objective counterpart, self‐assessed knowledge did not reduce service loyalty.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Anna S. Mattila and Jochen Wirtz

Previous research provides evidence for a conceptual distinction between self‐assessed and objective knowledge, and relatively little is known about the relationship…

Abstract

Previous research provides evidence for a conceptual distinction between self‐assessed and objective knowledge, and relatively little is known about the relationship between knowledge and information search. The current research provides empirical evidence for differentiating the two knowledge types. Furthermore, it suggests that the relative effects of the two types of knowledge on pre‐purchase information search depend on the type of information source. Consistent with prior research, this study shows that self‐assessed knowledge is strongly linked to the consumer’s use of personal sources of information, including internal memory searches and word‐of‐mouth communication. Conversely, objective knowledge seems to have a positive impact on the consumer’s motivation to seek external information (e.g. newspaper articles, mass media sources) about the service provider. Managerial implications for professional service providers are discussed

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Karin Braunsberger, R. Brian Buckler and Michael Luckett

The purpose of the paper is to compare measures of subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage/experience measures in a credence service environment for two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to compare measures of subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage/experience measures in a credence service environment for two different samples, namely college students and non‐student adults.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from two independent samples using self‐administered questionnaires and were analyzed using correlation and reliability analyses, factor analysis, discriminant analysis and one‐way ANOVA.

Findings

For the student sample, the results show that even though measures of subjective product knowledge, objective product knowledge, and product usage are correlated with one another, each represents one unique dimension of total product knowledge. The results for the non‐student sample show that subjective and objective knowledge converge into one dimension, product usage is a second dimension, and vicarious product knowledge a third dimension.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the present study is that its results are anchored in the context of hospitals and might thus be most relevant to this particular choice of service. In terms of implications, the “vicarious” component of total product knowledge the study uncovers for non‐students is a promising field for future studies because it is identified as one of the dimensions of total knowledge for those non‐student consumers who have a fairly low degree of objective knowledge and direct product experience.

Practical implications

Marketing managers should to take into account that, for adults, subjective knowledge is a better indicator of their objective knowledge than for students (or perhaps similar segments).

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first studies to investigate simultaneously the three dimensions of consumer product knowledge in a credence service environment.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Joris Aertsens, Koen Mondelaers, Wim Verbeke, Jeroen Buysse and Guido Van Huylenbroeck

Although the organic market has expanded in recent years, it remains small. Some researchers argue that consumers' lack of knowledge concerning organic food is an…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the organic market has expanded in recent years, it remains small. Some researchers argue that consumers' lack of knowledge concerning organic food is an important factor slowing down growth. This paper aims to focus on the factors influencing objective and subjective knowledge with regard to organic food production and the relationship between both types of knowledge and consumer attitudes and motivations towards organic food and its consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review is presented, relating to the impact of knowledge on behaviour in general and, more specifically, on organic food consumption. Several hypotheses are formulated concerning the relationship between objective and subjective knowledge, attitudes and organic food consumption and these are tested on organic vegetable consumption in Flanders (Belgium). Multiple regression models, a probit model and an analysis of variance are applied to a sample of 529 completed questionnaires (response rate=44 per cent). The respondents were selected in January 2007 using a convenience sampling technique. Socio‐demographic variables are used to check representativeness.

Findings

In the sample, the level of objective knowledge regarding organic vegetables is high. Attitudes towards the consumption of organic vegetables are generally positive. The strongest motivations for consuming organic vegetables are that they are produced without synthetic pesticides, are better for the environment, healthier, of higher quality and taste better. The strongest perceived barriers are overly high prices and lack of availability. Objective and subjective knowledge with regard to organic food production show a positive correlation. Higher levels of objective and subjective knowledge concerning organic food are positively related to a more positive attitude towards organic food, greater experience of it and a more frequent use of information. Membership of an “ecological organisation” (VELT) is also related to higher levels of knowledge. Some variables have a significant positive relationship with subjective knowledge, but not with objective knowledge. Attitude is significantly and positively influenced by subjective knowledge, VELT‐membership, norm, motivations and female gender. Perceived barriers have a significant negative influence on attitude. The likelihood of consuming organic vegetables is significantly and positively influenced by VELT‐membership, subjective knowledge, attitude, motivations and the presence of children in the household. Whilst objective knowledge, norm and female gender have a significantly positive influence on attitude towards organic vegetables, they have no significant influence on the likelihood of actually consuming organic vegetables.

Originality/value

Whilst several researchers argue that knowledge may be a very important factor in increasing organic food consumption, few have studied the mechanisms behind it. To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper describing the impact of knowledge on organic food consumption in such detail. By assessing the impact of knowledge, as well as other factors, on organic food consumption, greater insight is gained with regard to organic food consumption behaviour.

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

Mira Lehberger and Christine Becker

The purpose of this paper is to identify which plant protection practices consumers prefer and why. The authors focused on beneficial insects, genetically modified (GM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify which plant protection practices consumers prefer and why. The authors focused on beneficial insects, genetically modified (GM) plants, synthetic chemical pesticides, biological plant protection, mechanical-physical plant protection as well as biotechnical plant protection. The authors studied the effects of the risk perception and both subjective and objective knowledge on preference.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected cross-sectional data from n = 1,223 people living in Germany. For this, the authors used an online panel and quoted participation after age, gender, income and region. The authors used multiple regression analyses and also explored moderation effects of knowledge on risk perception to explain participants' preferences.

Findings

The most preferred plant protection practice in the study sample was the application of beneficial insects. The authors found evidence that risk perception, as well as objective and subjective knowledge, can have a pivotal direct effect on preferences. Additionally, subjective as well as objective knowledge typically moderated the effect of risk perception, depending on the plant protection practice in focus. Overall, the authors found that levels of subjective and objective knowledge of plant protection practices were rather low among German participants.

Originality/value

While studies on consumer preferences for GM or organic food are abundant, preferences regarding other types of common plant protection practices are hardly investigated. To tackle this research gap, the authors focused on six different and common plant protection practices and compare results.

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Debbie Ellis and Albert Caruana

What consumers know about a product affects many aspects of their behaviour and is particularly important for marketers to understand when it comes to developing marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

What consumers know about a product affects many aspects of their behaviour and is particularly important for marketers to understand when it comes to developing marketing strategy. The purpose of this paper is to understand the components of consumer knowledge of wine and to investigate these as a potential basis for wine market segmentation and targeting.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative, descriptive research design is adopted. An online survey consisting of three sections, measuring objective knowledge, subjective knowledge and classificatory variables, was developed and fielded, and data were collected from US wine consumers via Amazon.com’s MTurk platform. The psychometric properties of the measures used were determined, and a two-dimensional segmentation typology was developed.

Findings

The study supported the positive relationship between objective and subjective wine knowledge, while the combination of the two components led to the identification of four groups of consumers titled: neophytes, snobs, modest and experts.

Practical implications

In a market that is highly fragmented, consumer knowledge about wine has been shown to provide a useful basis for wine market segmentation allowing for different marketing activities to target the four groups identified.

Originality/value

While other research has considered either objective or subjective knowledge on its own, this study’s major contribution is the investigation of the wine consumer segments on the basis of the combination of objective and subjective consumer knowledge. A consumer knowledge type grid is developed that has implications for marketing segmentation and targeting. Implications of this new typology for future research are identified.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Fábio Lotti Oliva, Marcelo Henrique Gomes Couto, Ricardo Fernandes Santos and Stefano Bresciani

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the integration between knowledge management and dynamic capabilities in contexts that demand organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the integration between knowledge management and dynamic capabilities in contexts that demand organizational agility contributes to the management by objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the proposed objective, the present paper adopts the single case study in the startup Effecti. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, analyzed a posteriori through the technique of content analysis. From the loads of evidence observed, a model was presented that consists of different management theories and that guides the management by objectives process of a startup.

Findings

The proposed model proves to be able to describe the modus operandi of a startup and enables it to develop the cycles of testing, measurement and seizure of knowledge, largely stimulated and inherent to the creation process of new businesses in dynamic and uncertain contexts.

Practical implications

It is expected that the research results presented in details can illustrate concrete examples of application of the main concepts: agile organization, dynamic capabilities, knowledge management, performance assessment, enterprise risk management and management by objectives.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is focused on the integration of conceptual triad and its application in the case study of a startup: agile organization, dynamic capabilities and knowledge management.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Debbie Vigar-Ellis, Leyland Pitt and Albert Caruana

– This paper aims to determine whether exploratory wine purchasing behaviour is affected by consumers’ objective and subjective wine knowledge.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine whether exploratory wine purchasing behaviour is affected by consumers’ objective and subjective wine knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed using recognised scales for exploratory consumer tendencies, objective and subjective wine knowledge. The survey was administered using the MTurk platform. A factor analysis was first used to test the psychometric properties of the measures of the three constructs. Once the robustness of the measures was ascertained, cross-tabulations and testing via ANOVA’s of the demographics of age, gender, weekly wine consumption and education on the constructs was undertaken. In addition the causal relationship of subjective and objective wine knowledge on exploratory purchase behaviour was investigated via the use of multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The results show that consumers with more real (objective) knowledge of wines are more likely to participate in exploratory wine purchasing. Objective wine knowledge is greatest amongst older consumers and those who consume more wine.

Research limitations/implications

While attempts were made to limit biases due to the research approach, the results may lack generalisability because a US sample only, was used. Recommendations for future research extending the sample population as well as for changes to the question formats are suggested.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have implications for wine marketers in that marketing strategies and activities (labelling, distribution, media, etc.) may need to be adapted depending on the exploratory purchasing behaviour and wine knowledge of their target customers.

Originality/value

Exploratory wine acquisition behaviour is important to wine marketers. This behaviour encourages trial but, at the same time, impacts brand loyalty. This paper identifies the characteristics of consumers in terms of wine knowledge, consumption and demographics most likely to exhibit this behaviour and provides support for the need for marketers to identify these consumers and adapt their marketing activities targeting them.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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