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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Simona Jevšnik, Zoran Stjepanovič, Lea Heikinheimo and Karl Gotlih

Enzyme treatment technologies are frequently applied in textile processing for the modification of fabric handle appearance and other surface characteristics in regard to…

Abstract

Purpose

Enzyme treatment technologies are frequently applied in textile processing for the modification of fabric handle appearance and other surface characteristics in regard to cotton and cotton blended fabrics. The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of enzyme treatments on fabric preparation, dyeing, and finishing processes of woven fabrics. In particular, certain mechanical and surface properties of 100 percent cotton interlock knitted fabrics after treatment with a cellulase enzyme.

Design/methodology/approach

Interlock knitted fabrics were used for this research. These cotton fabrics were treated with experimental Trichoderma reesei cellulases containing different cellulase profiles and treatment was carried out under laboratory conditions. The effects of cellulase treatment on weft knitted fabric regarding mechanical and surface properties were evaluated using the KES‐FB Kawabata evaluation system. The influence of enzyme treatments, friction, and geometrical roughness on the face and reverse side of interlock knitted fabrics were discussed in comparison with untreated interlock knitted fabric.

Findings

After each of the enzyme treatments, the interlock knitted fabrics lost part of their weight and, therefore, they became thinner. Furthermore, the extension properties become higher in both directions with regard to the untreated knitted fabric for all used enzymes and carried out treatments.

Originality/value

The paper usefully analyzes changes in the extension and surface properties of enzyme‐treated interlock knitted fabrics by investigating the influence of whole or enriched endoglucanases celullases of Trihoderma reesei under different treatment conditions.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

M.N. Sun and K.P.S. Cheng

The fine gauge plain weft knitted fabrics knitted from cotton Sirospun1 yarns are more durable and suitable for summer wear. It was found that they have considerable…

Abstract

The fine gauge plain weft knitted fabrics knitted from cotton Sirospun1 yarns are more durable and suitable for summer wear. It was found that they have considerable bursting strength, superior abrasion resistance, superior pilling resistance, greater air resistance, cooler hand‐feel and greater thermal conductivity than the fabrics knitted from two‐fold yarns. The plain weft knitted fabric composed of coarser Sirospun1 yarn is also better in terms of hand‐feel measured by KES instruments.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

E. Perumalsamy, J.C. Sakthivel and N. Anbumani

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the stress-strain relationships of single-jersey knitted fabrics from uniaxial tensile test followed by deformation behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the stress-strain relationships of single-jersey knitted fabrics from uniaxial tensile test followed by deformation behavior using finite element analysis. In order to elaborate the study, high, medium and low tightness knitted fabrics were selected and deformation of fabrics analyzed in course, wales and bias directions (0, 45 and 90 degrees).

Design/methodology/approach

This study focussed on uni-axial tensile test of produced test samples using Instron 6021 tester and a development of single-jersey knitted loop model using Auto Desk Inventor software (ADI). The knitted fabric material properties and knitted loop model was imported to ANSYS 12.0 software.

Findings

Due to structural changes the tightness and thickness of knitted fabric decreases with increase in loop length The tensile result shows maximum breaking strength at course direction (13.43 kg f/mm2 at 2.7 mm) and maximum extension at wales direction (165.77 kg f/mm2 at 3.3 mm). When the loop length increases, the elongation of fabrics increased and load carrying capacity of fabrics reduced. The Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus of fabrics reduced with increase in loop length. The deformation of fabrics increased with increase in loop length. The increase in loop length gives large amount of structural changes and it is due to slacking or jamming in loops and loosening in dimensions. When comparing the deformation results, the variation within the fabric is higher and structural damage little more when increasing the loop length of the fabric.

Originality/value

From ANOVA test, stress and strain distribution was statistically significant among course, wales and bias directions at 95 percent confidence level. The values got from Instron test indicates that testing direction can alter its deformation. In deformation analysis, comparing both experimental and prediction, high amount of structural changes observed in wales direction. The used tetrahedral elements can be used for contact analysis with high accuracy. For non-linear problems, consistent approach was proposed which makes the sense to compare with experimental methods. The proposed model will make possible developments and the preliminary validation tests shows good agreement with experimental data.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Takako Inoue, Akira Nakayama and Masako Niwa

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the warm/cool feeling of the heat properties of fabrics and the subjective evaluation of the quality of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the warm/cool feeling of the heat properties of fabrics and the subjective evaluation of the quality of ladies' garment fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression analysis is conducted using stepwise block regression applied to the expert judges' judgment value total hand value, using six blocks of the mechanical properties and one block of the initial maximum values qmax of the heat flux of the heat properties of spring and summer tailored‐type jacket fabrics, as the seven blocks of fabric properties, including the secondary term of each property.

Findings

The results of the regression analysis show that the qmax values do not affect the subjective evaluation of the quality of spring and summer tailored‐type jacket fabrics. The results of the regression analysis of ladies' knitted fabric properties applied to the subjective evaluation value have confirmed that the qmax values affect the subjective evaluation of the quality of ladies' knitted fabrics.

Originality/value

This paper usefully describes the relationship between the warm/cool feeling of fabric and the subjective evaluation of the quality of ladies' knitted fabrics.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Jialu Liang, Honglian Cong, Zhe Gao, Aijun Zhang and Zhijia Dong

The weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric has the characteristics of complicated design principle and hard technical design. The purpose of this paper is to realize the…

Abstract

Purpose

The weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric has the characteristics of complicated design principle and hard technical design. The purpose of this paper is to realize the computer-aided design of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric, and provide a certain reference for the development of this type of fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

The weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric is divided into weft-knitted two-side similar pattern jacquard fabric and weft-knitted two-side independent pattern jacquard fabric. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, firstly, the structural characteristic of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric is analyzed. Then, the design principle of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric is studied. Next, the technical model of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric is established. Finally, the CAD flow chart of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric is proposed to realize the rapid product development.

Findings

Based on the above method, through the development example of weft two-side similar pattern jacquard fabric and weft two-side independent pattern jacquard fabric, the computer-aided design of the weft two-side jacquard fabric is verified.

Research limitations/implications

Because of limited research studies, three-dimensional computer-aided design of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric loop structure will be studied in the further research, and the technical design speed needs to be improved to meet the needs of large patterns and positioning patterns.

Practical implications

The computer-aided design of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric will offer a certain reference for product development, technical principles, performance research and computer simulation for the in-depth study of the fabric.

Social implications

The computer-aided design of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric will simplify the fabric design process and improve the efficiency of new fabric development, and provide the industries a time-saving and cost-saving approach for new fabrics development.

Originality/value

The author analyzes the structural characteristic of the fabric by the physical fabric, summarizes design principle of the fabric through production process, uses mathematical methods to establish a three-dimensional technical model of the fabric, and proposes the CAD flow chart of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric, which has good theoretical significance and practice of weft-knitted two-side jacquard fabric.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Virginija Daukantiene and Giedre Vadeike

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the air permeability of knitted fabrics containing elastane fibre and their seams applying both the new approach based on fabric

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the air permeability of knitted fabrics containing elastane fibre and their seams applying both the new approach based on fabric thickness measurement at different pressures and standard method.

Design/methodology/approach

Investigations were performed with commercially available eight polyester knitted fabrics containing different elastane yarn proportion. Bonded seams were laminated applying the urethane thermoplastic adhesive film of 0.175 mm thickness. Bonds were laminated by heat at 5.6 kPa pressure applying pressing device GTK DEA 25 R at 140°C temperature for 40 s duration. Sewn seams were assembled with 607 covering chain stitch applying 5.0 stitches per cm density and 512 overedge chain stitch applying 5.0 stitches per cm density. Specimens without and with the seams were conditioned in standard atmosphere conditions according to the standard LST EN ISO 139 before air permeability testing according to the standard LST EN ISO 9237. Standard thickness of the investigated knitted fabric was determined according to the standard EN ISO 5084. It is known from literature that the porosity is dominant factor influencing the air permeability of knitted fabrics. Therefore, the assumption was made that due to fabric porosity knitted fabric thickness being measured at different pressures also may differ. Thus, the permeability property may also be related to the difference between fabric’s thicknesses being measured under different pressures which may be applied with different material thickness gauges.

Findings

There was shown that fabric assemblies make the significant influence on the textile permeability to air. The results obtained indicate that the air permeability of the investigated knitted fabrics depends not only on their structure parameters but also on the fabric seam type. Air permeability of the specimens with the seams was lower than one of specimens without the seams. The highest decrease in permeability which ranged from 19.9 per cent up to 60.0 per cent was determined for the bonds. Fabric specimens with 607 covering chain stitch seam were in the second place with regard to the previously considered parameter. And, their permeability was decreased from 0.6 per cent up to 52.6 per cent. Changes in the air permeability of the specimens with 512 overedge chain stitch seam were lowest in the range of investigated assemblies. Based on the determined results, it was concluded that the thickness difference of the specimens with and without seams measured at different pressures is related to fabric porosity which makes the significant influence on the air permeability.

Practical implications

The samples of investigated fabrics were taken from the two companies which manufactures leisure clothing and sportswear such as skiing or swimming costumes, etc. Thus, the obtained investigation results are significant not only for clothing science but also leads the improvement of clothing quality in fashion industry.

Originality/value

Assuring the comfort of the human body is one of the most important functions of clothing, especially of sportswear and leisure wear. Knitted fabrics should not only be elastic, but also have high air permeability for easily transmit of the perspiration from the skin to the atmosphere, thus making the wearer to feel comfortable. In this research, the air permeability of commercially available polyester knitted fabrics containing different amount of elastane was investigated and the influence of fabric assemblies on the air permeability property was evaluated. A new approach based on the fabric thickness measurement at different pressures and the standard methods for the evaluation of air permeability were used.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Bahadur Goonesh Kumar, Satyadev Rosunee and Mark Bradshaw

In this research project, electrical conductive yarns were knitted together with 100 per cent cotton yarns to create knitted fabrics that would be used as electromagnetic…

Abstract

Purpose

In this research project, electrical conductive yarns were knitted together with 100 per cent cotton yarns to create knitted fabrics that would be used as electromagnetic (EM) shielding materials. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

1×1 plain fabrics knitted on double-bed hand knitting machines of five and seven gauges. Several strands of the cotton yarns were used together in order to knit samples with good handling properties. The electrical conductive yarn has six plies and each ply has 29 filaments with Naño-coating of silver and having an electrical resistance of 4 Ohms per 100 mm and a count of 96 Tex. The knitted fabrics have similar texture but vary in term of specific weight, fabric density, loop length, Tex, tightness factor, thickness and electrical conductivity. These variations affected the properties of the fabrics, determining factors of a good shielding or not. A special designed Faraday cage was built to measure the EMSE of each knitted fabrics. The EM waves were sent through the signal generator at different frequencies as from 400 to 1,100 MHz and with three different power inputs of 10, 20 and 30 dBm. EMSE measurements were also carried out after the knitted samples were rotated clockwise.

Findings

Good EMSE shielding results were achieved with the knitted samples, however in this study it was found that different knitted fabrics shielded better at specific frequencies and power inputs.

Practical implications

Knitted fabrics can be used to develop comfortable garments that can be used to shield EM waves and protect the wearer.

Originality/value

The choice of using the conductive yarns is exclusive. In addition the EMSE were measured with fabrics knitted in the same structure but on different knitting machine gauge. Three different power inputs were considered and EMSE measurements were taken using frequencies as from 400 to 1,100 MHz. A new method for measuring the electrical resistance on the knitted fabrics and the method used for measuring the EMSE for each knitted fabric were considered.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Selin Hanife Eryuruk and Fatma Kalaoglu

Knitted fabrics containing elastane provide high level of comfort and ease of usage because of the elastic and drape properties over the body. Knitted fabrics respond to…

Abstract

Purpose

Knitted fabrics containing elastane provide high level of comfort and ease of usage because of the elastic and drape properties over the body. Knitted fabrics respond to every movement of the body and return back to its original shape easily so they are used widely for apparel production. The most important properties required from the elastic knitted garments are wear comfort, fit, breathability and durability. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of elastane yarn count and ground yarn count on the performance properties of 12 single jersey knitted fabrics were analysed after dying.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design for this study consists an experimental study. In all, 12 fabrics containing half plating and full plating elastane were produced using 30/1-40/1 Ne yarn counts. Bursting strength, stretch recovery, residual extension, air permeability, spirality and drape properties of fabrics were evaluated.

Findings

As a result of study it was found a certain effect as the elastane amount and count changed. For all types of knitted fabrics, bursting strength values increased and fabric spirality values decreased as the elastane amount and elastane yarn count increased. Also it was found a significant relationship between elastane amount and count with air permeability, spirality, bursting strength and drape.

Originality/value

As a result of the literature review, it was seen that the effects of elastane amount, elastane yarn count and fabric yarn count on the performance properties of knitted fabrics has not been studied broadly.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Zimin Jin, Lei Lei, Haitao Meng, Li Gao and Yuxiu Yan

The purpose of this paper is to measure the thermal and moisture resistance of the knitted upper fabrics with the foot model, which provided basis for designing and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the thermal and moisture resistance of the knitted upper fabrics with the foot model, which provided basis for designing and producing sports shoes with thermal-moisture comfort.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, different yarn materials and fabric stitches were selected as the changing factors. The three kinds of yarn materials and the three kinds of fabric stitches were combined to design and weave eight pieces of knitted upper fabrics. Human sweating was simulated by the thermal-moisture comfort foot model, and then tested the thermal and moisture resistance of eight pieces of fabrics in different parts of the foot. Finally, the relationship between yarn material, fabric stitch, and the thermal and moisture resistance in different parts of the foot was analyzed by data.

Findings

The composition of the yarn material and fabric stitch has certain effect on the thermal-moisture comfort in different sections of the foot. When the yarn material of the four parts of the lateral arch, medial arch, ankle and heel is composed of 31.1tex moisture wicking polyester/33.3tex spandex coated yarn, the yarn material of the instep and toes is composed of 31.1tex ordinary polyester/33.3tex spandex coated yarn, and all parts of fabric stitch choose single-sided loop transfer stitch, the knitted sports shoes have the best thermal-moisture comfort.

Originality/value

The study used the thermal-moisture comfort foot model to simulate the human body metabolism and sweating system. Through the quantitative analyze of the thermal and moisture resistance of knitted upper fabrics to provide basis for the producers to design and product knitted sports shoes with good thermal-moisture comfort.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Arunangshu Mukhopadhyay, Vinay Kumar Midha and Nemai Chandra Ray

This study aims to optimize the parametric combination of injected slub yarn to achieve least abrasive damage on fabrics produced from it.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to optimize the parametric combination of injected slub yarn to achieve least abrasive damage on fabrics produced from it.

Design/methodology/approach

Single base injected slub yarn structural parameters, vis-à-vis slub length, slub thickness and slub frequency, were varied during preparation of yarn samples under this research work. A total of 17 yarn samples were produced according to the Box and Bhenken design of the experiment. Subsequently knitted and woven (using injected slub yarns in the weft only) fabric samples were prepared from these yarns. Yarn and fabric samples were abraded with standard instruments to see the impact of yarn structural parameters on abrasive damage of fabric in terms of fabric mass loss and appearance deterioration. From the test results, empirical models relating to slub parameters and fabric abrasion behavior were developed through a backward elimination regression approach. Subsequently, a set of optimal parametric combinations was derived with multi-objective evolutionary algorithms by using MATLAB software. This was followed by ranking all optimal solutions through technique for order preference by similarity to idle solution (TOPSIS) score analysis.

Findings

The injected slub yarn’s structural parameters have a strong influence on the abrasive damage of knitted and woven fabric. It is seen that the best suitable parametric combination of slub parameters for achieving the least abrasive damage is not the same for knitted and woven fabric.

Practical implications

The spinner can explore this concept to find out the best suitable parametric combination during pattern making of injected slub yarn through MATLAB solution followed by TOPSIS score analysis based on their priority of criteria level to ensure better abrasion behavior of fabric produced.

Originality/value

Optimization of parametric combination of injected slub yarns will help to ensure production of fabric with most resistance to abrasion for specific applications. The studies showed that the optimal solution for woven and knitted fabrics is different. The result indicates that in the case of knitted fabric, comparatively lesser slub thickness is found to be suitable for getting better fabric abrasion resistance, whereas in the case of woven fabric, comparatively higher slub thickness is found suitable for the same.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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