Search results

1 – 10 of 22
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Kirstin Hallmann, Paul Downward and Geoff Dickson

Given the increasing demands placed on a sport event workforce in servicing the needs of spectators, to attract and recruit volunteers to the industry, it is important for sport…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increasing demands placed on a sport event workforce in servicing the needs of spectators, to attract and recruit volunteers to the industry, it is important for sport event managers to know what is driving how much time volunteers allocate to an event. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the individual and macro-level factors influencing the allocation of time to volunteer at sport events.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from volunteers at 25 sport events (n=2,303). Multi-level modelling was used to identify common effects controlling for event differences.

Findings

Male gender significantly influences time allocated to an event at the individual level. At the macro-level, the number of local inhabitants has a significant negative effect whereas the status of an international event and duration contribute positively to time allocation.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide clear evidence that macro-level variables can stimulate interest in event volunteering opportunities.

Originality/value

This paper uses a multi-level approach to assess the influence of micro- and macro-level variables on time allocation by sport event volunteers. Using this approach, event heterogeneity can be controlled.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2022

Kosuke Takata and Kirstin Hallmann

This study aimed to examine how sport fans' nostalgia influenced their revisit intention to stadiums. Using data collected during the Covid-19 pandemic, the study further analyzed…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine how sport fans' nostalgia influenced their revisit intention to stadiums. Using data collected during the Covid-19 pandemic, the study further analyzed the moderation effect of sport fans' match attendance on the relationship between nostalgia and revisit intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an online survey querying baseball and football fans in Japan (n = 863). These leagues completed their 2020 regular season with and without crowds due to the pandemic. Nostalgia was measured using three dimensions: sports team, environment and socialization. The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). Multigroup SEM also investigated the moderating effect of match attendance in 2020.

Findings

In the proposed model, nostalgia for sport teams significantly influenced sport fans' intention to revisit stadiums. Nostalgia for sport teams encouraged fans who attended live sport matches during the pandemic more than fans who did not attend the live matches. Nostalgia for sport environment and socialization did not significantly affect sport fans' intentional behavior. However, the results revealed that non-attending fans were stimulated to return to stadiums by nostalgia for the environment.

Originality/value

This study examined the individual impacts of the sport fans' nostalgia dimensions. These nostalgia dimensions were omitted in previous studies. Our findings and proposed model may be used by practitioners in sports teams and leagues to deal with fans' perceived loss of the sport during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer and Julia Rietz

Combining sport event tourism and experience economy has led to an experience-based explanation of sport tourists' behavior and the creation of experiencescapes. This study aims…

1334

Abstract

Purpose

Combining sport event tourism and experience economy has led to an experience-based explanation of sport tourists' behavior and the creation of experiencescapes. This study aims to analyze the interdependence of perceived experiences and revisit intention across three events.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey, data (n = 986) were collected from spectators at the ice hockey world championships, the table tennis world championships and motorsport events (e.g. German-touring car championship). Entertainment, esthetics, escapism and education served as dimensions defining the experience at sport events and their association with revisit intention. The models were tested using confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The four dimensions of experience were confirmed. Yet, they differ across the three sport events. For instance, whereas entertainment loaded highest on experience for all events, education had the second-highest factor loading for the table tennis event and esthetics for the ice hockey and motorsports events.

Practical implications

Sport event marketers must understand spectators' experiences and the influence on post-consumption behavior. For motorsports, the promotional material should emphasize the esthetics of an experience, for ice hockey the entertainment, and for table tennis education is at the core of the experience.

Originality/value

This study employed the four realms of experience to a sport event setting, which is new. The results suggested that the three sport events provide distinct experiencescapes for the spectators.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Kirstin Hallmann and Anita Zehrer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential interrelationship between different types of volunteer involvement (event involvement and community involvement) and…

2430

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential interrelationship between different types of volunteer involvement (event involvement and community involvement) and their impact on the behavioural intentions of different types of events.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a survey, data from an one-off sport event (n=316), including volunteer tourists, and from annual sport events (n=278) in Germany were collected. Structural equation modelling was employed for data analysis.

Findings

Findings show that event involvement and community involvement are significantly correlated. Both influence future behavioural intentions for one-off events. But only event involvement and not community involvement influences behavioural intentions for annual events.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are underpinning the rationale of social identity theory from a theoretical perspective.

Practical implications

Volunteer managers learn that not only the volunteers’ involvement with event organisations, but also with the community (i.e. hosting destination) seems to be a key contributor of behavioural intentions and should therefore be fostered during the recruitment process and prior to the event.

Originality/value

This study is the first to compare involvement with two objects for different types of events. Therefore, this study adds to the rare literature looking at different event types in which an individual can volunteer.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Julia Rietz and Kirstin Hallmann

Esports is rapidly growing in popularity and viewership. The study's purpose was threefold: (1) to provide a systematic review and synthesis of esports spectatorship research. (2…

1454

Abstract

Purpose

Esports is rapidly growing in popularity and viewership. The study's purpose was threefold: (1) to provide a systematic review and synthesis of esports spectatorship research. (2) to provide a reference for the psychology of consumer behavior in esports live streaming and esports event attendance. (3) to deliver a clear picture of the factors that impact consumer behavior in esports online and on-site consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The study systematically reviews motivational aspects of online and on-site spectatorship using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA). SCOPUS and Google Scholar were selected as social science databases. Twenty-five papers met the inclusion criteria: (1) published between 2000 and 2022, (2) empirical investigation, (3) focus on online and/or on-site esports spectatorship/events. Five papers implemented randomization to assess common method bias.

Findings

Twenty-five papers qualified for subsequent analysis. The papers were mostly quantitative. They included a theoretical framework and investigated online esports spectatorship. Significant antecedents for motivation to watch esports online and/or on-site were fanship, tension release, entertainment, escaping everyday life and unique features like chat and direct communication. No consensus was found concerning similarities or differences between online and on-site esports spectatorship and traditional sports spectatorship.

Originality/value

This research contributed to a new theoretical, methodological and practical agenda. A more comparative approach analyzing contextual, structural and demographic cues could lead to a holistic picture of esports spectator motivation.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

Annika Linsner, Brad Hill, Kirstin Hallmann and Popi Sotiriadou

This study identifies important dimensions of the athlete brand identity construct incorporating the athlete perspective. It also uses Rasch analysis to provide a practical tool…

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies important dimensions of the athlete brand identity construct incorporating the athlete perspective. It also uses Rasch analysis to provide a practical tool (the Athlete Brand Identity Scale) to measure how closely an athlete's personal brand identity is aligned with their perceived brand image.

Design/methodology/approach

Reference to existing athlete branding measurement tools and consultation with ten athlete experts generated (74) items considered important to an athlete brand. Two different response scales were then used to test those items in wider surveys of athletes and consumers. This allowed for further scale development and measurement of congruence between an athlete's self-image and the brand image held by consumers (within the same survey). Factor analysis and Rasch analysis were carried out to refine the item pool and assess item measurement properties to establish a concise scale for determining athlete brand identity.

Findings

Results show successful identification of four dimensions of athlete brand identity measurement: athletic integrity, athletic success, fan engagement and character traits, informed development of the Athlete Brand Identity Scale (ABIdS). The unique and significant aspect of the ABIdS is its capacity to incorporate the athlete's perspective into brand management.

Practical implications

The ABIdS can be utilised by early-career athletes to plan and prioritise branding efforts whilst established athletes can identify incongruence between self-image and consumer perceptions. Such gaps can be evaluated and branding activities modified accordingly. This will enable athletes to better access corporate support/sponsorship thereby reducing reliance on public funds.

Originality/value

The major difference between the ABIdS and other existing scales in the athlete brand research domain is the focus on the athlete perspective, as opposed to the consumer perspectives. Evaluating consumer perspectives does not explain how athletes perceive their own brand or how their own perception of their brand compares to that of people external to the brand (fans and consumers). The ABIdS developed in this study has the potential to achieve this objective as its design was driven by athlete perceptions but tested on both athletes and consumers.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2018

Kirstin Hallmann, Christoph Breuer, Michael Ilgner, Thomas Giel and Lea Rossi

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success of elite athletes by applying the concept of career success to a sporting context. The concept of career…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success of elite athletes by applying the concept of career success to a sporting context. The concept of career success includes extrinsic (i.e. tangible) career accomplishments like medals as well as intrinsic factors referring to subjective judgements about career attainments. Thereby, a holistic perspective is taken which has not been studied extensively before.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on previous literature, a theoretical model was derived outlining how human capital, motivation, organisational characteristics and socio-demographics affect both intrinsic and extrinsic career success. To measure the impact of these factors, primary (n=1,249) and secondary data of elite athletes were collected. Regression analyses indicated that all factors included in the theoretical model were associated with extrinsic and intrinsic success.

Findings

Institutional support was an important driver for intrinsic career success while financial support affected extrinsic career success. There was no significant influence of extrinsic career success on intrinsic career success.

Practical implications

These findings imply that policy makers should offer enhanced dual career options, such as mentoring programmes, aspects like sport-psychological support and nutrition counselling, and long-term, stable financial support for athletes to maximise career success.

Originality/value

This paper applies the construct of career success to sports. A focus on the athletes’ intrinsic career success is placed as this area has been neglected in past research.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kirstin Hallmann, Kyriaki Kaplanidou and Christoph Breuer

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active…

1228

Abstract

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active and passive sports tourists at four marathon races in Germany. Some differences in the perception of event images were found for active and passive sports tourists as well as for different types of destinations. For active sports tourists, emotional, physical and organisational image associations were clustered closer. For passive sports tourists, social and historical image associations were clustered closer. The type of destination elicited different event images among active and passive sports tourists.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small‐scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants.

3180

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small‐scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted at different sport events hosted by destinations in a rural setting. The data are analysed using confirmatory factor analyses and correspondence analyses.

Findings

The results suggest several differences between the image perception of participants and spectators. These can be attributed to different levels of involvement, which is very high for participants. The perception of the qualitative image aspects showed that unique features were associated with the destination, such as sport themes or organizational aspects of the sport event visited. Further, it is shown that the quantitatively measured indicators of affective destination image have a great influence on the image of rural sport event tourism destinations.

Research limitations/implications

A research limitation could arise due to the sample, as almost all sport tourists were German. A more international sample might have shown different results. Future research should analyse samples of different sports, concluding whether the sport performed also influences behaviour.

Practical implications

For marketing communications it is essential to utilise emotions to promote the destination, as they are a very essential element of destinations hosting sport events.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the understanding of images held by spectators and participants of small‐scale sport events hosted in rural destinations. The value is the large sample, consisting of various rural destinations, which allows for general patterns of the perceived image to be drawn.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

1 – 10 of 22