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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Melissa A. Baker and Kawon Kim

Customer incivility is commonplace across service industries. Yet, there is little that is known about how uncivil customers affect employees. The purpose of this study is…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer incivility is commonplace across service industries. Yet, there is little that is known about how uncivil customers affect employees. The purpose of this study is to examine how uncivil customer interactions affect employees’ cynicism, depersonalization and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 uses the qualitative critical incident technique to content analyze employee perceptions of customer incivility and how it affects their job performance. Study 2 uses a 2 (incivility frequency: high vs low) × 2 (co-worker support: high vs low) × 2 (service rule commitment: high vs low) quasi-experimental between-subjects design.

Findings

Results find that there is a significant interaction effect of customer incivility frequency, co-worker emotional support and service rule commitment on employee cynicism and depersonalization, which leads to decreased job performance and more harmful experiences to other customers.

Practical implications

The findings provide practical implications on the importance of managing customer incivility, providing co-worker support and how this affects employee attitudes and service they deliver to other customers.

Originality/value

The results build upon the incivility, co-worker support and service rule commitment literature, conservation of resources theory, as well as identifying key variables core to hospitality and tourism research: cynicism and depersonalization that provide important implications for actions of tourism and hospitality firms.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Melissa A. Baker and Tiffany S. Legendre

Loyalty programs are pervasive across service industries. However, the examination of cross-customer effects represents a critical gap in the loyalty literature. To…

Abstract

Purpose

Loyalty programs are pervasive across service industries. However, the examination of cross-customer effects represents a critical gap in the loyalty literature. To address this gap, this research conducts two between-subjects experimental design studies to examine traditional versus endowed loyalty status earner attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company, switching intentions and perceived unfairness.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 conducts a 2 (self: earned vs endowed) × 2 (others: earned vs endowed) between-subjects experimental design on the direct effects of attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company and switching intentions. Study 2 builds upon these findings by examining the mediation effect of perceived unfairness on the attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company and switching intentions.

Findings

Results from Study 1 find that cross-customer comparisons exist, and traditional loyalty members have negative attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company and switching intentions when comparing their rewards to endowed earner rewards. Study 2 examines an airline context and finds that unfairness mediates the relationship.

Originality/value

The research builds upon the literature surrounding cross-customer comparisons, loyalty programs, equity theory and endowed status and discusses the unintended negative consequences related to endowed loyalty rewards on other customer intentions that have critical managerial implications.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Soo-yong Byun, Hee Jin Chung and David P. Baker

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the…

Abstract

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine the cross-national pattern of the use of shadow education by families in 64 nations and use improved statistical estimation methods. Focusing on fee-paying out-of-school classes, we find a continued, and likely an intensified pattern of the cross-national use of shadow education in the contemporary world. Approximately about one-third of all 15-year-old students from 64 countries/economies across the world use this form of shadow education. Students of higher socioeconomic status, females, and students in urban areas and general programs are more likely to use fee-paying services, while families and students turn to these services to address academic deficiencies in general. In addition, students from poorer countries more extensively rely on shadow education than students from wealthier countries after controlling for other variables. Students in South-Eastern and Eastern Asian countries are more likely to pursue shadow education than their counterparts in many other regions. Implications of these findings for theories of education and society as well as for educational policy in relation to shadow education are discussed.

Details

Research in the Sociology of Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-077-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Youngsun Sean Kim and Melissa A. Baker

This study aims to examine the observing customer’s reactions, namely, gratitude, loyalty to the employee and tipping intention while observing other customer incivility…

1431

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the observing customer’s reactions, namely, gratitude, loyalty to the employee and tipping intention while observing other customer incivility during another customer service failure and the frontline employee’s emotional labor strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (emotional labor strategy: deep acting vs surface acting) by 2 (service consumption criticality: high vs low) experiment is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that observing an employee’s deep acting emotional labor (vs surface acting) leads to a greater level of gratitude among the affected customers and promotes their tipping and loyalty to the employee. However, there is no significant interaction effect of service consumption criticality and emotional labor strategy on customer gratitude.

Research limitations/implications

This research builds upon the social servicescape, customer misbehavior and emotional labor literature by examining previously untested relationships.

Practical implications

In cases of other customer service failure, managers should effectively communicate to their employees how their emotional labor induces positive customer feedback. Currently, emotional labor is emphasized mostly regarding its negative effects on employees, but this research suggests that serving the recovery expectation of the affected customers, especially when it is served with authentic emotional displays, can promote increased tipping and loyalty behavior.

Originality/value

No research investigates customers’ emotional and behavioral reactions to employee emotional labor in the context of other customer service failure.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Melissa A. Baker and Kawon Kim

This paper aims to examine the underlying motivations, attitudes and behaviors of exaggerated review posters and readers by examining the effect of review valence…

1856

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the underlying motivations, attitudes and behaviors of exaggerated review posters and readers by examining the effect of review valence, emotional expression and language complexity on perceived poster, website and firm trustworthiness and subsequent behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a mixed-method approach using the qualitative critical incident technique (CIT) and quantitative experimental design. Study 1 uses CIT to examine exaggerated online reviews from the poster perspective where Study 2 uses CIT to examine readers’ perceptions of exaggerated reviews. Study 3 conducts a between-subjects experimental design examining the impact of valence (positive vs negative) × emotion (low vs high) × language (vague vs detailed) on trustworthiness and behavior intention.

Findings

Results of the two qualitative studies (Study 1 and 2) find posters and readers use language complexity and emotions in exaggerated reviews. The results from the quantitative experimental design study (Study 3) find that language style and emotions influence customer perceptions of poster, website and firm trustworthiness, which also mediates the relationship between the qualitative aspects of review text on behavioral intentions.

Practical implications

The findings provide multiple practical implications on the prevalence of exaggerated online reviews and the importance of language and emotion in determining customer perceptions and behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

By focusing on both readers and posters in exaggerated eWOM, specific motivations, emotions and language, this research contributes to the literature of online reviews, customer misbehavior, trustworthiness, language use and value co-destruction in online environments.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Hyounae (Kelly) Min and Jeff Joireman

The purpose of this study is to examine how customer race (Black vs White) influences the extent to which customers attribute an ambiguous service failure (i.e. subtle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how customer race (Black vs White) influences the extent to which customers attribute an ambiguous service failure (i.e. subtle degradation of service) to discrimination and how perceived discrimination relates to customer anger and on-site coping behaviors (vindictive complaining, problem-solving complaining and avoidance). This study further investigated how customer race affects the strength of relationships among perceived discrimination, anger and these three coping behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a video-based simulation in which participants watched a subtle service failure from the customer’s viewpoint before completing a survey. A total of 421 participants – 210 Blacks and 211 Whites – were recruited through Qualtrics. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Compared with White customers, Black customers were more likely to attribute a service failure to discrimination and exhibited a stronger relationship between perceived discrimination and anger. In addition, increasing anger in White customers tended to lead to more active coping strategies (i.e. vindictive complaining, problem-solving complaining). For Black customers, increasing anger tended to lead to vindictive complaining at a similar level to White customers. However, the impact of anger on problem-solving complaining – known to be a more beneficial coping strategy – was stronger among White customers than among Black customers.

Practical implications

This study advances hospitality practitioners’ understanding of how customers respond on-site to a service failure that can be interpreted as discrimination. The varying effects of race on customer-coping behavior are also identified. In addition, this study offers practical advice to develop organizational strategies to dissuade customers from attributing service failure to discrimination and to respond effectively to customer-coping behaviors.

Originality/value

Complementing and extending past research documenting the prevalence and causes of racial discrimination in service settings, the present study advances prior work by developing and testing a comprehensive structural model linking race with coping responses via perceived discrimination and anger, and by exploring how race affects the strength of relationships among perceived discrimination, anger and coping strategies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 June 2022

YooHee Hwang, Xingyu Wang and Priyanko Guchait

Considerable research has examined the negative consequences of customer incivility on employees (e.g. turnover intention and sabotage behavior toward the customer)…

Abstract

Purpose

Considerable research has examined the negative consequences of customer incivility on employees (e.g. turnover intention and sabotage behavior toward the customer). However, there is scant research investigating how other customers, as observers, may react to incivility. This knowledge gap should be filled because hospitality services are often consumed in the public setting where customers can observe and be influenced by each other. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by examining observing customers’ willingness to revisit the company following customer incivility.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants are American consumers recruited from a crowdsourced online panel. Two scenario-based experimental studies in the restaurant setting are conducted. Customer incivility and relationship norms (communal versus exchange) are manipulated, while relationship closeness is measured.

Findings

Study 1 shows that following fellow customer incivility (vs civility), observing customers’ intention to revisit the company was lower when they perceive a distant relationship with the employee. This intention did not differ regardless of incivility and civility when they perceive a close relationship with the employee. Study 2 shows that when observing customers perceive a communal relationship with the employee, their revisit intention was even higher following customer incivility (vs civility).

Practical implications

Hospitality managers need to train employees to identify signs of customer incivility and assume appropriate actions to reduce the negative consequences on observers. Hospitality managers should also communicate their expectations for respectful customer behaviors through an organization-wide campaign. Finally, hospitality businesses should foster a close relationship with their customers, particularly a communal relationship to offset the negative consequences of customer incivility on observers.

Originality/value

This study adds to previous research by challenging the universally negative view of customer incivility. The authors do so by examining the moderating effects of relationship closeness and norms in observer reactions to customer incivility. This study contributes to previous research drawing on script theory and deontic justice theory.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

If you're awash in information you don't have time enough to analyze, invest in a data warehouse. It can give you access to data riches you didn't realize you had.

Abstract

If you're awash in information you don't have time enough to analyze, invest in a data warehouse. It can give you access to data riches you didn't realize you had.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

There's a whole lot more to Web‐based vertical marketing than simply installing a new software package.

149

Abstract

There's a whole lot more to Web‐based vertical marketing than simply installing a new software package.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

You can collect huge masses of data about your customers, but if you don't sort it, it won't do you any good. Mapping software may be just what you need.

Abstract

You can collect huge masses of data about your customers, but if you don't sort it, it won't do you any good. Mapping software may be just what you need.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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