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Article

Melissa A. Baker and Tiffany S. Legendre

Loyalty programs are pervasive across service industries. However, the examination of cross-customer effects represents a critical gap in the loyalty literature. To…

Abstract

Purpose

Loyalty programs are pervasive across service industries. However, the examination of cross-customer effects represents a critical gap in the loyalty literature. To address this gap, this research conducts two between-subjects experimental design studies to examine traditional versus endowed loyalty status earner attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company, switching intentions and perceived unfairness.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 conducts a 2 (self: earned vs endowed) × 2 (others: earned vs endowed) between-subjects experimental design on the direct effects of attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company and switching intentions. Study 2 builds upon these findings by examining the mediation effect of perceived unfairness on the attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company and switching intentions.

Findings

Results from Study 1 find that cross-customer comparisons exist, and traditional loyalty members have negative attitudinal loyalty intention toward the company and switching intentions when comparing their rewards to endowed earner rewards. Study 2 examines an airline context and finds that unfairness mediates the relationship.

Originality/value

The research builds upon the literature surrounding cross-customer comparisons, loyalty programs, equity theory and endowed status and discusses the unintended negative consequences related to endowed loyalty rewards on other customer intentions that have critical managerial implications.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Book part

Soo-yong Byun, Hee Jin Chung and David P. Baker

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the…

Abstract

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine the cross-national pattern of the use of shadow education by families in 64 nations and use improved statistical estimation methods. Focusing on fee-paying out-of-school classes, we find a continued, and likely an intensified pattern of the cross-national use of shadow education in the contemporary world. Approximately about one-third of all 15-year-old students from 64 countries/economies across the world use this form of shadow education. Students of higher socioeconomic status, females, and students in urban areas and general programs are more likely to use fee-paying services, while families and students turn to these services to address academic deficiencies in general. In addition, students from poorer countries more extensively rely on shadow education than students from wealthier countries after controlling for other variables. Students in South-Eastern and Eastern Asian countries are more likely to pursue shadow education than their counterparts in many other regions. Implications of these findings for theories of education and society as well as for educational policy in relation to shadow education are discussed.

Details

Research in the Sociology of Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-077-6

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Article

Youngsun Sean Kim and Melissa A. Baker

This study aims to examine the observing customer’s reactions, namely, gratitude, loyalty to the employee and tipping intention while observing other customer incivility…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the observing customer’s reactions, namely, gratitude, loyalty to the employee and tipping intention while observing other customer incivility during another customer service failure and the frontline employee’s emotional labor strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (emotional labor strategy: deep acting vs surface acting) by 2 (service consumption criticality: high vs low) experiment is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that observing an employee’s deep acting emotional labor (vs surface acting) leads to a greater level of gratitude among the affected customers and promotes their tipping and loyalty to the employee. However, there is no significant interaction effect of service consumption criticality and emotional labor strategy on customer gratitude.

Research limitations/implications

This research builds upon the social servicescape, customer misbehavior and emotional labor literature by examining previously untested relationships.

Practical implications

In cases of other customer service failure, managers should effectively communicate to their employees how their emotional labor induces positive customer feedback. Currently, emotional labor is emphasized mostly regarding its negative effects on employees, but this research suggests that serving the recovery expectation of the affected customers, especially when it is served with authentic emotional displays, can promote increased tipping and loyalty behavior.

Originality/value

No research investigates customers’ emotional and behavioral reactions to employee emotional labor in the context of other customer service failure.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Melissa A. Baker and Kawon Kim

This paper aims to examine the underlying motivations, attitudes and behaviors of exaggerated review posters and readers by examining the effect of review valence…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the underlying motivations, attitudes and behaviors of exaggerated review posters and readers by examining the effect of review valence, emotional expression and language complexity on perceived poster, website and firm trustworthiness and subsequent behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a mixed-method approach using the qualitative critical incident technique (CIT) and quantitative experimental design. Study 1 uses CIT to examine exaggerated online reviews from the poster perspective where Study 2 uses CIT to examine readers’ perceptions of exaggerated reviews. Study 3 conducts a between-subjects experimental design examining the impact of valence (positive vs negative) × emotion (low vs high) × language (vague vs detailed) on trustworthiness and behavior intention.

Findings

Results of the two qualitative studies (Study 1 and 2) find posters and readers use language complexity and emotions in exaggerated reviews. The results from the quantitative experimental design study (Study 3) find that language style and emotions influence customer perceptions of poster, website and firm trustworthiness, which also mediates the relationship between the qualitative aspects of review text on behavioral intentions.

Practical implications

The findings provide multiple practical implications on the prevalence of exaggerated online reviews and the importance of language and emotion in determining customer perceptions and behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

By focusing on both readers and posters in exaggerated eWOM, specific motivations, emotions and language, this research contributes to the literature of online reviews, customer misbehavior, trustworthiness, language use and value co-destruction in online environments.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Hyounae (Kelly) Min and Jeff Joireman

The purpose of this study is to examine how customer race (Black vs White) influences the extent to which customers attribute an ambiguous service failure (i.e. subtle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how customer race (Black vs White) influences the extent to which customers attribute an ambiguous service failure (i.e. subtle degradation of service) to discrimination and how perceived discrimination relates to customer anger and on-site coping behaviors (vindictive complaining, problem-solving complaining and avoidance). This study further investigated how customer race affects the strength of relationships among perceived discrimination, anger and these three coping behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a video-based simulation in which participants watched a subtle service failure from the customer’s viewpoint before completing a survey. A total of 421 participants – 210 Blacks and 211 Whites – were recruited through Qualtrics. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Compared with White customers, Black customers were more likely to attribute a service failure to discrimination and exhibited a stronger relationship between perceived discrimination and anger. In addition, increasing anger in White customers tended to lead to more active coping strategies (i.e. vindictive complaining, problem-solving complaining). For Black customers, increasing anger tended to lead to vindictive complaining at a similar level to White customers. However, the impact of anger on problem-solving complaining – known to be a more beneficial coping strategy – was stronger among White customers than among Black customers.

Practical implications

This study advances hospitality practitioners’ understanding of how customers respond on-site to a service failure that can be interpreted as discrimination. The varying effects of race on customer-coping behavior are also identified. In addition, this study offers practical advice to develop organizational strategies to dissuade customers from attributing service failure to discrimination and to respond effectively to customer-coping behaviors.

Originality/value

Complementing and extending past research documenting the prevalence and causes of racial discrimination in service settings, the present study advances prior work by developing and testing a comprehensive structural model linking race with coping responses via perceived discrimination and anger, and by exploring how race affects the strength of relationships among perceived discrimination, anger and coping strategies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

If you're awash in information you don't have time enough to analyze, invest in a data warehouse. It can give you access to data riches you didn't realize you had.

Abstract

If you're awash in information you don't have time enough to analyze, invest in a data warehouse. It can give you access to data riches you didn't realize you had.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

There's a whole lot more to Web‐based vertical marketing than simply installing a new software package.

Abstract

There's a whole lot more to Web‐based vertical marketing than simply installing a new software package.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

You can collect huge masses of data about your customers, but if you don't sort it, it won't do you any good. Mapping software may be just what you need.

Abstract

You can collect huge masses of data about your customers, but if you don't sort it, it won't do you any good. Mapping software may be just what you need.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article

Sunny Baker and Kim Baker

For the sixth year, JBS takes a look at the newest software and gadgets designed to help executives run their businesses better.

Abstract

For the sixth year, JBS takes a look at the newest software and gadgets designed to help executives run their businesses better.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article

Kim Baker and Sunny Baker

Every year, software developers release more tools that can make the business executive's life easier. Here's our third annual listing.

Abstract

Every year, software developers release more tools that can make the business executive's life easier. Here's our third annual listing.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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