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Article

Hisahiro Ishijima, Eliudi Eliakimu and Jonathan Mcharo Mshana

The purpose of this paper is to assess causal relations between the implementation of the 5S approach and the reduction of patients’ waiting time at out patient…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess causal relations between the implementation of the 5S approach and the reduction of patients’ waiting time at out patient departments (OPDs) of hospitals in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

Patients’ waiting time was measured under the cluster randomized control trial (c-RCT). In all, 16 hospitals were chosen and divided into treatment and control groups using block randomization. Before the intervention, a baseline study was conducted at OPDs in all 16 hospitals. After one year of the intervention, the end-line study was carried out in both the groups. A comparison of the average waiting time reduction and Difference-in-Difference (DID) analysis was carried out to see the effect of the 5S approach on the reduction of patients’ waiting time.

Findings

Statistical significance in reduction of patients’ waiting time was seen in the medical records sections (p=0.002) and consultation rooms (p=0.020) in the intervention group. The same trend was also seen using DID analysis (−15.66 min in medical record, −41.90 min in consultation rooms).

Research limitations/implications

This study has the following limitations in terms of the data. The data were collected for only three days at the time of baseline survey, and again for three days at the time of the end-line survey from 16 hospitals. Moreover, piloted areas for the implementation of the 5S approach vary from hospital to hospital. There might be a bias in the measurement of a patient’s waiting time. Caveats are therefore needed in extrapolating the study results to other settings. Despite these caveats, the findings will provide important insights for implementing quality improvement programs in Tanzania and in other African countries for improvement of time factors.

Originality/value

This study used c-RCT, and has proven the effectiveness of the 5S approach in improving the working environment and reducing patients’ waiting time at OPDs in several hospitals at district level in Tanzania.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article

Linus K. Munishi, Anza A. Lema and Patrick A. Ndakidemi

The purpose of this paper is to show how climatic change in Africa is expected to lead to a higher occurrence of severe droughts in semiarid and arid ecosystems…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how climatic change in Africa is expected to lead to a higher occurrence of severe droughts in semiarid and arid ecosystems. Understanding how crop productions react to such events is, thus, crucial for addressing future challenges for food security and poverty alleviation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explored how temperature and rainfall patterns determined maize and beans production in Hai District in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania.

Findings

Annual food crops were particularly sensitive to the drought and maize and beans yields were lower than perennial crops during the years of drought. The authors also report strong and significant association between maize and beans production with temperature and rainfall patterns.

Practical implications

This study highlights how severe droughts can dramatically affect yields of annual crops and suggests that extreme climatic events might act as a major factor affecting agriculture production and food security, delaying or preventing the realization of the Millennium Development Goals.

Originality/value

This is the first study that highlights how severe droughts can dramatically affect yields of annual crops in Hai District contributing to other climate studies done elsewhere in Tanzania and the world at large.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article

Tadeo Andrew Satta

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on performance evaluation of small firms' financing schemes with a view to assessing their potential for improving small firms'…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on performance evaluation of small firms' financing schemes with a view to assessing their potential for improving small firms' access to finance.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated methodology based on five commonly used methodologies is formulated to evaluate the performance of the three small firms financing schemes. This integrated methodology makes use of a number of selected performance indicators.

Findings

The findings reveal strong performance in favour of Kilimanjaro Cooperative Bank (KCB) compared to the other two schemes. Furthermore, KCB financing scheme is demonstrated to be an important actor in the financial sector particularly rural parts of the country where mainstream financial services are generally not available.

Research limitations/implications

Further research on performance evaluation of small firms' financing schemes could considerably extend the stock of knowledge in this area. It would be interesting for example to know what might be the findings if more financing schemes are included in a replication study given the ongoing growth in the number of these schemes in Tanzania. Coverage of a longer period, which allows for the use of more data for the same three financing schemes, might also produce a more robust set of results. Future research may also wish to focus on the development of a methodology that contains fewer shortcomings in assessing the performance of small firms financing schemes.

Practical implications

The findings reported provide evidence on the possibility of improving small firms' access to finance in Tanzania through replication of KCB scheme/approach to other areas of the country where the environment is similar to Kilimanjaro region. The same might be applicable in other parts of Sub‐Saharan Africa.

Originality/value

The findings reported on in this paper consolidate the stock of knowledge on performance evaluation of small firms' financing schemes. The possibility that replication of a scheme could improve small firms' access to finance, provide policy makers with a new dimension towards poverty reduction. Finally the use of accounting and organisational/institutional indicators as a measure of performance evaluation strengthens the role accounting could play in the future in developing a standardised methodology for assessing the performance of small firms' financing schemes.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article

Neema Florence Mosha and Paul Manda

This paper aims to investigate the level of HIV/AIDS information among undergraduate students at two university colleges in Tanzania, and its role in changing risky sexual…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the level of HIV/AIDS information among undergraduate students at two university colleges in Tanzania, and its role in changing risky sexual behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 151 undergraduate students from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College and Moshi University College of Cooperative and Business Studies were surveyed by means of a questionnaire.

Findings

Of respondents 86 per cent were aware of the pandemic and its modes of transmission. The main sources of information were books, journals, magazines, television, internet, DVD/CD, radio and research reports. A total of 32 per cent reported having tested for HIV/AIDS; 40 per cent use condoms during sexual intercourse. Among condom users 63 per cent used them consistently. Factors hindering the use of HIV/AIDS information include the time spent on studies, the unavailability of the information, and the religious, cultural and family background of respondents.

Research limitations/implications

In a country with over 30 university and university colleges, generalization is not possible on the basis of research restricted to a small number.

Practical implications

Universities should establish partnerships and networks with various stakeholders to ensure access to HIV/AIDS information and to share experiences.

Originality/value

The level of HIV/AIDS information among Tanzanian undergraduates is under‐investigated. This paper helps to fill some of the gaps in the research.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Book part

Ladislaus M. Semali

This chapter outlines the enormity of the task of achieving universal primary education in Africa with over 40 million children currently out of school in sub-Saharan…

Abstract

This chapter outlines the enormity of the task of achieving universal primary education in Africa with over 40 million children currently out of school in sub-Saharan Africa. Several questions are addressed with reference to global trends and using World Bank and national enrollment data. For example: Why does Africa seem unable to secure “education for all” for school-age children? Is it simply the relative poverty levels of African countries, or are there grounds for thinking that other factors might be at work? And, what challenges do these countries face in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic? This chapter also notes that some countries are at higher risk of not achieving universal primary completion and gender equality by 2015. What must politicians and policy-makers do to reverse these trends? As observed by Blair's Commission for Africa, the challenges are immense and if Africa continues on its current path then the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for halving poverty, universal primary education and the elimination of avoidable infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa will not be delivered in 2015 but instead between 100 and 150 years late. The challenge is to find short- and long- term policies and solutions to address this global policy.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

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Article

Edda Tandi Lwoga and Neema Florence Mosha

The aim of this paper is to assess information needs and information seeking behaviour of parents and caregivers of children with mental illness at the Kilimanjaro

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to assess information needs and information seeking behaviour of parents and caregivers of children with mental illness at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Tanzania. The study mainly assessed the information needs of parents and caregivers of children with mental illness, their preferable sources of health information, and their constraints on information seeking.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a case study research design, where 168 structured questionnaires were distributed to parents and caregivers of children with mental illness at the Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic of KCMC. The rate of response was 89.3 per cent.

Findings

The study found that health information needs of parents and caregivers were mainly associated with health care (for example, nutrition, treatment) and health education. Parents and caregivers of children with mental illness used the internet as the main source of information about their children's health, which was followed by printed books and television. Health information seeking behaviour appeared similar across gender categories, but there were differences on the use of print and electronic information sources according to age and level of education. The main factors that hindered access to health information included low level of education, lack of funds and health information illiteracy.

Practical implications

The paper provides useful suggestions that would facilitate information seeking and use among parents and caregivers of children with mental illness in Tanzania and other countries with similar conditions.

Originality/value

Previous studies on the topic are scanty and, therefore, the paper provides important insights into the information needs and information seeking behaviour of parents and caregivers of children with mental illness in a developing country setting.

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Abstract

Subject area

Social entrepreneurship.

Study level/applicability

Undergraduate or Honours students interested in Social Enterprise.

Case overview

The case describes the challenges face by Mafalda Soto, a Spanish pharmacist, who together with two albino Tanzanian colleagues, has patented and produced the first solar lotion for the albino population made in Africa. The social organization, KiliSun, and its main product have had a remarkable success in Tanzania and have received funds from BASF and the Tanzanian government for production and distribution until 2016. However, Mafalda could not help but think about how to make a viable project out of her social innovation. For how long could she keep her collaborators on board? Where will she get the funds from? What role should she give the Tanzanian government? After all, her dream was to help albinos beyond Tanzania. It was Christmas eve, and that night, Mafalda went to bed naively asking Santa to help her make possible that every albino could one day have access to her sun lotion. This way, they also, could get closer to the sun.

Expected learning outcomes

How to finance the growth of the organization; how to design a business model that helps social enterprises become self-sustaining; how to measure social impact; and how to craft and choose strategic alliances.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Article

Marjolein C.J. Caniëls and Henny A. Romijn

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which provides rich insights into the behavioural aspects of complex innovation dynamics of emerging supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

The use of the framework is illustrated by means of a case study about the development of a new biofuels supply chain in East Africa.

Findings

Three key dynamic processes are found to be at the core of new supply chain development: networking, learning and the management of actor expectations. The case analysis suggests the need to actively manage these processes and suggests possible ways of doing so.

Research limitations/implications

Generalisability is limited since the research is based on one case study. Additional case studies using the same framework would help to validate and extend the results obtained.

Practical implications

Implications for strategic managerial decision making include the need to encourage stakeholder networking and shared learning, and managing their expectations.

Originality/value

The paper uses an innovative conceptual framework to examine new supply chain development, which yields new insights into how these processes can be actively managed and supported.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article

Wineaster Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to examine how local agricultural communities are integrated into the tourism value chains and provide insights into how this can contribute…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how local agricultural communities are integrated into the tourism value chains and provide insights into how this can contribute to poverty reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed the value chain approach to gain an understanding of the linkages between tourism and agriculture. Interviews involving local suppliers of agricultural products and tourism businesses (n=195) were conducted in Lushoto, Tanzania. The livelihood portfolios (range of activities – farming, employment, tourism, etc.) were analyzed in terms of the resources (economic, natural, human, physical and social assets) available to individuals and households and how these are optimally used to achieve inclusive growth.

Findings

The findings show that the form of tourism business ownership and the presence of specific social networks between tourism businesses and local suppliers dictate the mode of buying and the strength of supply chains. Community-based tourism is dominant in the area, allowing tourists to interact with agrarian rural communities. However, the optimal local linkages have been hampered by the quantitative and qualitative mismatch between locally supplied products and the tourism sector’s requirements. The failure of many initiatives aimed at addressing the mismatch creates a need for empowering local communities to enable them to take the opportunities that tourism provides.

Practical implications

Least developed countries need to build on the lessons learned from the development of tourism in their local settings, and pursue strategies which bring hope, confidence and real benefits to the majority of the struggling population. This study gives an insight on how inter-sectoral linkages could be embraced among the strategies or means of reducing rampant poverty.

Originality/value

Linking local agricultural production to tourism has long been seen as a promising way to make tourism more economically inclusive. However, the use of value chain approach in studying the tourism-agriculture linkages for inclusive development, especially in the developing economies is not common. While employing Porter’s value chains analysis, this study provides insights into how local farmers can be incorporated in tourism food supply chains in an ethical and beneficial way.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

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Article

Martin Loeng

This paper aims to contribute to research on the interrelations between urban tourism, travelling and landscapes. It shows how young visitors to the tourism-reliant city…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to research on the interrelations between urban tourism, travelling and landscapes. It shows how young visitors to the tourism-reliant city of Arusha, northern Tanzania, experience and interpret discomfiting encounters with street sellers by drawing on stereotypes circulating in guidebooks, online forums and in the tourism industry. In turn, such re-interpreted encounters are increasingly seen as problematic for the city’s development of urban tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

The author draws on extensive ethnographic fieldwork with tourist-product street sellers in Arusha and Moshi, Tanzania in 2015–2017. With detail-oriented focus on social interaction and communication, the author has used participant observation and interviews to understand the perspectives and actions involved. Complementing this, the author draws on interviews with tour companies and local authorities to connect everyday occurrences with broader political, economic and urban transformations.

Findings

This paper explores the interrelation between changing urban landscapes, gentrification and burgeoning urban tourism by highlighting not only how streets are created and sought to be re-created but how also re-interpreted stories and stereotypes fundamentally influence how it is understood by local authorities. As the consumption of place, shopping and foreigners’ experiences take centre stage in Arusha’s urban development project, practices and people that are re-interpreted as causes of discomfort, become objects of ordering and discipline.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes that the social encounters beyond dichotomies of host–guest relationships are a fruitful and important means of investigating how “encounters” connect space to power, the street to urban planning and mundane on-the-street interactions to processes of transformation and gentrification. This paper presents a reading of “landscapes” not as a text, but as a series of encounters that catch our attention when and where they break our norms, or the norms of others.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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