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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Khalid Al-Amri, Saif Al Shidi, Munther Al Busaidi and Serkan Akguc

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of real earnings management by private and public firms in a unique institutional setting, which is the Gulf Cooperation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of real earnings management by private and public firms in a unique institutional setting, which is the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. The paper also compares the level of real earnings management between public and private firms in the GCC area.

Design/methodology/approach

The GCC area is a unique setting to investigate the use of real earnings management because of the low enforcement of reporting standards and supervisory rules, lack of sophisticated financial analysis, specialized media tools and high concentration of capital ownership. The authors use different models of real earnings management proposed by Roychowdhury, 2006, cash flow management, productions cost management and discretionary expenses management to examine the use of real earnings management.

Findings

The paper documents evidence consistent with private and public firms using real earnings management to influence their earnings figures. The paper also shows that the level of real earnings management is higher for private firms compared to public firms when cash flow management and discretionary expenses management models are used. The production cost model results show evidence consistent with public firms only engaging in real earnings management through production cost reduction.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study might not be applicable to other emerging markets.

Practical implications

The findings of this study should promote a general understanding of firms’ behavior in unique environment such as GCC countries. Regulators in the GCC region should be aware that real earnings management techniques have been used by firms and that extra caution is required when auditing or analyzing the financial information of private and public firms in the GCC market.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in many aspects. First, it provides additional evidence on the use of earnings management in unique market contexts outside the USA and Europe. The GCC markets share many common characteristics that make them interesting settings to be investigated. Second, this paper adds more evidence on the use of earnings management between public and private firms. In this regard, the paper adds additional evidence in the discussions proposed by Ball and Shivakumar (2005) and Givoly et al. (2010) who use two competing perspectives to investigate earnings quality in public and private firms: the demand hypothesis and the opportunistic behavior hypothesis.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Khalid Al-Amri

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the Takaful insurance firms in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and do a relative analysis for its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the Takaful insurance firms in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and do a relative analysis for its different units.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the technical, pure technical, cost and allocative efficiency of Takaful firms in the GCC countries using data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology.

Findings

The Takaful insurance industry in GCC is highly technical and pure technical efficient. However, it is moderately cost efficient, and there is a large opportunity for improvement. UAE and Qatar score the highest technical efficiency, while Saudi Arabia and UAE are the most cost efficient among the GCC countries.

Originality/value

The primary contribution of this paper is to provide the first DEA analysis of the Takaful industry in the GCC countries. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study on the Takaful insurance industry that uses different types of efficiency measures, namely technical, pure technical, allocative and cost efficiency, in the GCC countries. This paper also contributes in the literature of the inputs and outputs selection for the Takaful insurance efficiency calculation.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Khalid Al‐Amri, Said Gattoufi and Saeed Al‐Muharrami

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performances of the insurance sector in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and carry out a comparative analysis for its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performances of the insurance sector in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and carry out a comparative analysis for its different units.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse the technical efficiency of insurances in the GCC countries using DEA methodology and Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) to decompose the change in the efficiency into an intrinsic component reflecting the individual change in technical efficiency and a second component reflecting the impact of the change in the market technology on the individual technical efficiencies of insurance companies.

Findings

The study considers 39 insurance firms in the region, with a panel data covering the period 2005‐2007. The authors found that the insurance industry in the GCC is moderately efficient and there is large room for improvement.

Originality/value

In these very special market conditions, a deep analysis of the overall efficiency of the sector is needed and an assessment of its performance – to the authors' best knowledge so far non‐existent – becomes a must to provide insights about the realities and the future trends of the sector. This research uses DEA and MPI to assess the efficiency of the insurance sector in the GCC region and analyses its variation over the period 2005 to 2007.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Mohammad Zakir Hossain and Khalid Said Al‐Amri

The main purpose of this paper is to select the most suitable production model for measuring the production process of some major manufacturing industries in Oman.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to select the most suitable production model for measuring the production process of some major manufacturing industries in Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical paper looks into an analytical justification to use Cobb‐Douglas (C‐D) production model in order to estimate and test the coefficients of the production inputs for each of the selected manufacturing industries using annual industrial statistical data over the period 1994 through 2007 published by Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Sultanate of Oman.

Findings

The results of the paper indicate that for most of the selected industries the C‐D function fits the data very well in terms of labor and capital elasticity, return to scale measurements, standard errors, economy of the industries, high value of R2 and reasonably good Durbin‐Watson statistics. The estimated results suggest that the manufacturing industries of Oman generally seem to indicate the case of increasing return to scale. Of the nine industries, seven exhibit increasing return to scale and only the rest two show decreasing return to scale. The paper finds no industry with constant return to scale.

Research limitations/implications

The paper could not consider a good number of manufacturing industries and a long period of time series data in the study because of lack of data availability.

Practical implications

Recently, businessmen as well as industrialists are very much concerned about the theory of firm in order to make correct decisions regarding what items, how much and how to produce them. All these decisions are directly related with the cost considerations and market situations where the firm is to be operated. In this regard, this paper should be helpful in suggesting the most suitable functional form of production process for the major manufacturing industries of developing countries like Oman.

Originality/value

The paper shows originality in substance and makes a unique contribution to the literature on industrial economics in Oman.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Matthew Clarke and James Pounder

Abstract

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2014

Abstract

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Murya Habbash and Lara Haddad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between earnings management (EM) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Saudi Arabia. It is one of only a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between earnings management (EM) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Saudi Arabia. It is one of only a small number of studies to examine this relationship outside the US market, and the first in the Middle East and Arab region, particularly in Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses content analysis to extract the CSR disclosure items from annual reports of Saudi firms. A CSR disclosure index was then constructed. For EM, the residuals from Kothari et al.’s (2005) model are considered. Multivariate analysis was performed using pooled OLS-regression models to examine the direct relationship between EM and the CSR index.

Findings

Using panel data from all Saudi public firms listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange (Tadawul) over the 2015-2016 period, the authors find that CSR is positively and significantly related to EM practices as proxied by discretionary accruals. This implies that Saudi firms undertaking CSR actions are more likely to manipulate their earnings.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this paper have important policy implications for policy-makers, regulators, auditors and investors in their attempts to constrain EM practices and enhance the quality of financial reporting in Saudi Arabia.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the body of accounting literature by providing the first empirical evidence in the Middle East and Arab region on the positive association between EM and CSR in Saudi Arabia.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Yousef Abd-Alraheem Irshaid

This study aims to test the role of the state of occupation, represented in Israel, as one of the most significant challenges, which faces the Jordanian water security…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the role of the state of occupation, represented in Israel, as one of the most significant challenges, which faces the Jordanian water security. Where Israel expands in its policy and ideology everyday its hydro-hegemony over the Jordanian waters. Hence, its acts result in negative consequences on the Jordanian water and food security, which in turn affects the Jordanian national security as a whole.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relied on the following two approached to tackle its problem: first: descriptive approach: the descriptive approach depends on defining the apparent features and describing their nature and the type of the relationship between its variables. It aims to achieving a better and deeper understanding on the situation of its future policies and measures. And research uses the system analysis approach to handle the subject matter. Given the influence of water on the development, Jordan, as an organic or a political and social state, takes into account the reasons and causes of development. Jordan turns into an active political state, with water as an influencing factor on it. This premise represents the core of the system analysis approach.

Findings

The research concluded that the Israeli theft of the Jordanian waters is the main factor in the Jordanian water crisis. If Jordan had received its usurped water rights by Israel, it could have been able to solve its water issue represented in the increasing deficit in its water balance. Therefore, the Israeli hydro-hegemony on the Jordanian water resources caused the imbalance in its water security and, in turn, caused the development process to falter in general.

Originality/value

The value of the research lies in the fact that it addresses the most important reasons behind the water crisis in Jordan, represented in the Israeli control over the Jordanian water resources and the research shows that the amount of water stolen by Israel is enough to solve the water crisis in Jordan.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Manoj Kumar Nayak, Sachin Shaw, H. Waqas and Taseer Muhammad

The purpose of this study is to investigate the Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion, multiple slips and Darcy-Forchheimer’s effects on entropy optimized and thermally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion, multiple slips and Darcy-Forchheimer’s effects on entropy optimized and thermally radiative flow, thermal and mass transport of hybrid nanoliquids past stretched cylinder subject to viscous dissipation and Arrhenius activation energy.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented flow problem consists of the flow, heat and mass transportation of hybrid nanofluids. This model is featured with Casson fluid model and Darcy-Forchheimer model. Heat and mass transportations are represented with Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and viscous dissipation models. Multiple slip (velocity, thermal and solutal) mechanisms are adopted. Arrhenius activation energy is considered. For graphical and numerical data, the bvp4c scheme in MATLAB computational tool along with the shooting method is used.

Findings

Amplifying curvature parameter upgrades the fluid velocity while that of porosity parameter and velocity slip parameter whittles down it. Growing mixed convection parameter, curvature parameter, Forchheimer number, thermally stratified parameter intensifies fluid temperature. The rise in curvature parameter and porosity parameter enhances the solutal field distribution. Surface viscous drag gets controlled with the rising of the Casson parameter which justifies the consideration of the Casson model. Entropy generation number and Bejan number upgrades due to growth in diffusion parameter while that enfeeble with a hike in temperature difference parameter.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research study is yet to be available in the existing literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Badr Alsolami

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of residential satisfaction in facing the outbreaks of the COVID-19. It reveals the relationship between personal risk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of residential satisfaction in facing the outbreaks of the COVID-19. It reveals the relationship between personal risk perception (PRP), preventive behavior (PB), residential satisfaction (RS) and level of compliance with government recommendations to stay at home (CGRS) of Makkah residents in Saudi Arabia in its effort toward containing the COVID-19 pandemic in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional online survey design was used with a sample of 250 respondents from Makkah City selected using a simple random sampling strategy. The instrument for data collection was a developed and validated instruments tag “Risk Perception and Preventive Behavior against COVID-19 Questionnaire (RP-COVID-Q).” The data obtained through the questionnaire were screened and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Similarly, a Partial-Least Square Structural Equation Modeling procedure was adopted to test the hypotheses with a bootstrap mediation effect test.

Findings

The results revealed that Makkah residents’ level of PRP, PB and CGRS was not found to vary with gender; however, the RS of the residents differs with respect to their gender. Moreover, the level of PRP was significantly related to PB, RS and level of CGRS. RS increased the likelihood of the Makkah residents to comply with government recommendations against COVID-19 while adherence to PB, which would contribute to the reduction in the spread of the pandemic in Makkah city. Further, the RS is recognized as a significant mediating factor between PRP and CGRS during the COVID-19.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study help in understanding the role of residential satisfaction during pandemics and, hence, stressing the important of residential qualities that need improvements for better sustainable cities in the future.

Originality/value

While all countries are strategizing to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, it is equally important to access residential satisfaction in the cities with high visitor inflow. Limited research has been done in Saudi Arabia.

Details

foresight, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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