This paper aims to propose a new node energy-efficient algorithm with energy threshold to replace cluster heads. The proposed algorithm uses node ranking to elect cluster…
This paper aims to propose a new node energy-efficient algorithm with energy threshold to replace cluster heads. The proposed algorithm uses node ranking to elect cluster heads based on energy levels and positions of the nodes in reference to the base station (BS) used as a sink for gathered information. Because the BS calculates the number of rounds a cluster head can remain for as a cluster head in advance, this reduces the amount of energy wasted on replacing cluster heads each round which is the case in most existing algorithms, thus prolonging the network lifetime. In addition, a hybrid redundant nodes duty cycle is used for nodes to take turn in covering the monitored area is shown to improve the performance further.
Authors designed and implemented the proposed algorithm in MATLAB. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared to other well-known algorithms using different evaluation metrics. The performance of the proposed algorithm was enhanced over existing ones by incorporating different mechanisms such as the use of an energy-based threshold value to replace CHs and the use of a hybrid duty-cycle on nodes.
Through simulation, the authors showed how the proposed algorithm outperformed PEGASIS by 15 per cent and LEACH by almost 70 per cent for the network life-time criterion. They found that using a fixed pre-defined energy threshold to replace CHs improved the network lifetime by almost 15 per cent. They also found that the network lifetime can be further improved by almost 7 per cent when incorporating a variable energy threshold instead of a fixed value. In addition to that, using hybrid-redundant nodes duty-cycle has improved the network lifetime by an additional 8 per cent.
The authors proposed an energy-efficient clustering algorithm for WSNs using node ranking in electing CHs and energy threshold to replace CHs instead of being replaced every round.
The purpose of this paper is to simulate and analyze accurately the multi-scale characteristics, variation periods and trends of the annual streamflow series in the Haihe…
The purpose of this paper is to simulate and analyze accurately the multi-scale characteristics, variation periods and trends of the annual streamflow series in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT).
The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) approach is adopted to decompose the original signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) in multi-scales. The Hilbert spectrum is applied to each IMF component and the localized time-frequency-energy distribution. The monotonic residues obtained by EMD can be treated as the trend of the original sequence.
The authors apply HHT to 14 hydrological stations in the HRB. The annual streamflow series are decomposed into four IMFs and a residual component, which exhibits the multi-scale characteristics. After the Hilbert transform, the instantaneous frequency, center frequency and mean period of the IMFs are obtained. Common multi-scale periods of the 14 series exist, e.g. 3.3a, 4∼7a, 8∼10a, 11-14a, 24∼25a and 43∼45a. The residues indicate that the annual streamflow series has exhibited a decreasing trend over the past 50 years.
The HHT method is still in its early stages of application in hydrology and needs to be further tested.
It is helpful for the study of the complex features of streamflow.
This paper will contribute to the sustainable utilization of water resources.
This study represents the first use of the HHT method to analyze the multi-scale characteristics of the streamflow series in the HRB. This paper provides an important theoretical support for water resources management.
In the present study, laminar steady flow of nanofluid through a trapezoidal channel is studied by using of finite volume method. The main aim of this paper is to study…
In the present study, laminar steady flow of nanofluid through a trapezoidal channel is studied by using of finite volume method. The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of changes in geometric parameters, including internal and external dimensions on the behavior of heat transfer and fluid flow. For each parameter, an optimum ratio will be presented.
The results showed that in a channel cell, changing any geometric parameter may affect the temperature and flow field, even though the volume of the channel is kept constant. For a relatively small hydraulic diameter, microchannels with different angles have a similar dimensionless heat flux, while channels with bigger dimensions show various values of dimensionless heat flux. By increasing the angles of trapezoidal microchannels, dimensionless heat flux per unit of volume increases. As a result, the maximum and minimum heat transfer rate occurs in a trapezoidal microchannel with 75° and 30 internal’s, respectively. In the study of dimensionless heat flux rate with hydraulic diameter variations, an optimum hydraulic diameter (Dh) was observed in which the heat transfer rate per unit volume attains maximum value.
This optimum state is predicted to happen at a side angle of 75° and hydraulic diameter of 290 µm. In addition, in trapezoidal microchannel with higher aspect ratio, dimensionless heat flux rate is lower. Changing side angles of the channels and pressure drop have the same effect on pressure drop. For a constant pressure drop, if changing the side angles causes an increase in the rectangular area of the channel cross-section and the effect of the sides are not felt by the fluid, then the dimensionless heat flux will increase. By increasing the internal aspect ratio (t_2/t_3), the amount of t_3 decreases, and consequently, the conduction resistance of the hot surface decreases.
The effects of geometry of the microchannel, including internal and external dimensions on the behavior of heat transfer and fluid flow for pressure ranges between 2 and 8 kPa.