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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

John H Drake, Matthew Hyde, Khaled Ibrahim and Ender Ozcan

Hyper-heuristics are a class of high-level search techniques which operate on a search space of heuristics rather than directly on a search space of solutions. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Hyper-heuristics are a class of high-level search techniques which operate on a search space of heuristics rather than directly on a search space of solutions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the suitability of using genetic programming as a hyper-heuristic methodology to generate constructive heuristics to solve the multidimensional 0-1 knapsack problem

Design/methodology/approach

Early hyper-heuristics focused on selecting and applying a low-level heuristic at each stage of a search. Recent trends in hyper-heuristic research have led to a number of approaches being developed to automatically generate new heuristics from a set of heuristic components. A population of heuristics to rank knapsack items are trained on a subset of test problems and then applied to unseen instances.

Findings

The results over a set of standard benchmarks show that genetic programming can be used to generate constructive heuristics which yield human-competitive results.

Originality/value

In this work the authors show that genetic programming is suitable as a method to generate reusable constructive heuristics for the multidimensional 0-1 knapsack problem. This is classified as a hyper-heuristic approach as it operates on a search space of heuristics rather than a search space of solutions. To our knowledge, this is the first time in the literature a GP hyper-heuristic has been used to solve the multidimensional 0-1 knapsack problem. The results suggest that using GP to evolve ranking mechanisms merits further future research effort.

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Huimin Li, Keli Qin and Peng Li

The construction project is implemented under uncertainty environment, and the product of construction is very complex. Selecting a project delivery system/approach is a…

Abstract

Purpose

The construction project is implemented under uncertainty environment, and the product of construction is very complex. Selecting a project delivery system/approach is a critical task, which determines the project schedule, quality and investment objectives. The purpose of this paper is to propose a decision-making model for the selection of project delivery system which is based on information entropy and unascertained measure model.

Design/methodology/approach

A decision-making model based on information entropy and unascertained set is employed to select project delivery approach. In order to overcome the subjective evaluations from the experts, the theory of “entropy weight” is applied to modify the experts’ subjective weight. The multi-attribute unascertained measure decision making is fitted to deal with the uncertainty information for selection of project delivery system.

Findings

The proposed methodology is more comprehensive compared with the previous work, especially in the uncertainty environment.

Research limitations/implications

There is some further work that should be considered, such as how to deal with the imprecise and subjective information given by the experts; how to determine the weight of the experts’; finding a set of importance factors influencing the selection of a delivery system is a complex task to further research.

Practical implications

The proposed method can help the construction owner to select a most fitted project delivery system of a construction project.

Originality/value

A new approach to select project delivery approach is proposed based on information entropy and unascertained set.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Mohammad Ziaul Hoque

Outlines the massive loan default problems faced by the Bangladesh banking industry and discusses the importance of consistent and adequate public policy in reducing them…

Abstract

Outlines the massive loan default problems faced by the Bangladesh banking industry and discusses the importance of consistent and adequate public policy in reducing them. Critically reviews the government’s industrial, fiscal, monetary and tariff policies since independence in 1971, referring to relevant research; and relates them to the loan repayment performance of industrial borrowers. Castigates its excessive bureaucratic controls, lack of co‐ordination or consistency and over‐supply of credit; and its failure to recognize entrepreneurs’ general lack of experience. Puts at least part of the blame for industrial loan defaults down to “flawed” policies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 29 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1980

Wyseplant Ltd has supplied two of its Hy‐Ryder B10 hydraulic work platforms for operation by the Suez Shipyard in Egypt.

Abstract

Wyseplant Ltd has supplied two of its Hy‐Ryder B10 hydraulic work platforms for operation by the Suez Shipyard in Egypt.

Details

Industrial Management, vol. 80 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Thomas Olesen

This chapter offers a symbolic perspective on the Egyptian Revolution. It does so by analyzing the transformation of Khaled Said, a 28-year-old Egyptian man beaten to…

Abstract

This chapter offers a symbolic perspective on the Egyptian Revolution. It does so by analyzing the transformation of Khaled Said, a 28-year-old Egyptian man beaten to death by police on June 6, 2010, into a key visual injustice symbol. Activists were motivated by a horrifying cell phone photograph of Said taken by his family at the morgue and uploaded on the web. Although the postmortem photograph had a powerful emotional impact in itself, the transformation of Said from local/particular incident to injustice symbol with society-wide repercussions cannot be explained by its mere availability in the public sphere. The transformation required intervention and appropriation by activists who creatively and strategically universalized the case, linking it with existing injustice frames in Egypt. This chapter analyzes this interplay between photographs, activism, and society in two steps. The first provides an analysis of the genesis of the Said symbol and identifies three levels of agency in its formation. The second step analyzes the process through which Said was infused with injustice meanings by activists. Providing the first systematic analysis of Said from a social movement perspective, the chapter draws on several data sources that are subjected to interpretive analysis: visual material available on the internet, Facebook pages, and interviews with and accounts by key activists. And it calls for more attention to photographs and symbols in the analysis of activism and points to several historical and present cases with relevance for such an approach.

Details

Advances in the Visual Analysis of Social Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-636-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Ruben Suarez-Hernandez, Jose G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Gloria F. Dominguez-Patiño and Alberto Martinez-Villafañe

The purpose of this investigation is to study the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel (CS) using a “green” inhibitor, Opuntia ficus-indica, in an aerated, 0.5 M H2SO4

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to study the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel (CS) using a “green” inhibitor, Opuntia ficus-indica, in an aerated, 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at different concentrations and temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss determinations, surface studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were applied during the investigation.

Findings

It was observed that Opuntia ficus-indica extract can decrease the corrosion rate of CS, and its efficiency increases with increasing concentration up to 1,000 ppm and with time, but decreases with increasing the temperature from 25 to 600C. The inhibitory activity is due to the presence of phenolic compounds in its chemical structure.

Research limitations/implications

The work was done under static conditions, whereas in acid cleaning conditions, there is a dynamic system. However, the findings may apply to both the systems.

Practical implications

CS is used in acidic environments in the acid cleaning industry.

Social implications

Results of this work show that it is possible to reduce the cost of repair of equipment and the environmental impact of corrosion.

Originality/value

There are very few investigations on the study of Opuntia ficus-indica leaf extract as a green inhibitor in an acidic environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Awad Elsayed Awad Ibrahim, Tarek Abdelfattah and Khaled Hussainey

The authors examine whether managers switch from artificial income smoothing using discretionary accruals to real income smoothing around corporate governance reform in Egypt.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors examine whether managers switch from artificial income smoothing using discretionary accruals to real income smoothing around corporate governance reform in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises 61 non-financial companies listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange for the years 2004–2011. The authors use discretionary accruals as a proxy for artificial income smoothing and income/loss from asset sales as a proxy for real income smoothing.

Findings

The authors offer a significant contribution to accounting literature by providing new empirical evidence on the trade-off between real smoothing technique (e.g. income/loss from asset sales) and discretionary accruals around governance reform in a developing country.

Research limitations/implications

This study suffers from some limitations. First, the study sample is limited to only 338 observations. However, this is due to collecting the data manually and to the small number of listed firms during the study period. Second, the study period ended in 2011 due to the unprecedented political instability after the 2011 Egyptian people revolution. Third, although this study examines the effect of corporate governance, not all the governance aspects have been examined in the study models due to the lack of data.

Practical implications

First, the results of the total samples reveal that managers prefer real income smoothing than accruals income smoothing. This result may confirm the literature arguments on the advantages of REM methods over AEM methods. Cohen et al. (2008) find that firms switch to manage earnings using REM methods and explain that REM methods are harder to detect because they depend on operating decisions (Schipper, 1989). REM can be undertaken anytime during the year (Gunny, 2010). Besides, REM could not be deemed a violation of accounting standards or regulations (MyVay, 2006).

Originality/value

The authors offer a significant contribution to accounting literature by providing new empirical evidence on the trade-off between real smoothing technique (e.g. income/loss from asset sales) and discretionary accruals around governance reform in a developing country.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Sherwat Elwan Ibrahim and Khaled Farouk Mohamed Altahawi

This study aims to investigate the effect of power and dependence as separate constructs on opportunism. Power-dependence studies have been previously used to explain…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of power and dependence as separate constructs on opportunism. Power-dependence studies have been previously used to explain opportunistic behavior in strategic outsourcing relationships. However, there have been no clear distinctions about the separate effects of each regardless of the different theoretical dispositions each construct uses with respect to the dynamics of strategic outsourcing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used multiple theoretical perspectives to analyze the courses of six dyadic strategic outsourcing relationships from the pharmaceutical industry in Egypt. The study employed an exploratory research approach to retrospectively examine the development of dependency and power-balance variables throughout the pre- and post-contractual phases.

Findings

The paper concludes with a time-phased theoretical framework and a set of propositions that further segment the post-contractual relationship phase. The segmentation allows for better studying the outsourcing phenomenon and differentiates between having power, recognizing power and exercising power.

Research limitations/implications

The paper theorizes that buffering against opportunism requires a certain state of power-balance awareness, as power was found to be dynamic, relative and arguably “perceptual”. This awareness would not be needed if the outsourcing relationship was static, but given the time argument in this study, awareness of the power-balance shifts becomes necessary in managing strategic outsourcing relations.

Practical implications

The comprehensive framework represents a guiding tool for managers who are planning to, or are currently involved in, strategic outsourcing relationships.

Originality/value

This study applied a time dimension to studying opportunism in strategic outsourcing relationships, and used this perspective to examine the length of the period of mutual dependency and power-balance between buyers and suppliers. The notions of power-balance awareness and latent sources of power are introduced.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

M.M. Rahman, Hakan F. Öztop, R. Saidur, A.G. Naim, Khaled S. Al-Salem and Talaat A. Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to make a numerical analysis on unsteady analysis of natural convection heat and mass transfer to obtain flow field, temperature distribution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make a numerical analysis on unsteady analysis of natural convection heat and mass transfer to obtain flow field, temperature distribution, and concentration distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite element method is applied to solve governing equations of natural convection in curvilinear-shaped system for different parameters as thermal Rayleigh numbers (103=RaT=106), inclination angle (0°=φ=60°) and Hartmann numbers (0=Ha=100).

Findings

Both magnetic field and inclination angle can be used as control parameter on heat and mass transfer. Flow strength decreases almost 100 percent between Ha=0 and Ha=100 on behalf of the higher values of thermal Rayleigh number.

Originality/value

The originality of this work is to application of magnetic field on time-dependent natural convection flow, heat and mass transfer for curvilinear geometry.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Jason Nunzio Dorio

In this chapter, I will first conceptualize social movement theory before examining the importance of student movements and student activism. I then will link social…

Abstract

In this chapter, I will first conceptualize social movement theory before examining the importance of student movements and student activism. I then will link social movement theory to the university in Egypt. Next, I will contextualize university activism by describing the authoritarian structures of Egypt’s university system. Then, using secondary data sources, I will characterize university activism during the three transitional political periods (under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SACF), under President Morsi, and after the ousting of Morsi), and conclude with a discussion on the implications of student activism on future university reform.

Details

The Power of Resistance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-462-6

Keywords

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