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Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is a high-performance semiconductor device made of unique epitaxial layers grown on n-type GaAs or InP substrates. The…
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is a high-performance semiconductor device made of unique epitaxial layers grown on n-type GaAs or InP substrates. The VCSEL’s thermal resistance, Rth, is an essential metric that reflects its thermal properties and dependability. The purpose of this paper is to develop packaging for 1 mm2 VCSEL chips made of a variety of materials, such as ceramic, lead frame and printed circuit board (PCB)-based packaging, as well as provide an idea or design that can withstand and perform well in terms of Rth and heat dissipation during operation. SolidWorks 2017 and AutoCAD Mechanical 2017 software were used to publish all thoughts and ideas, including the size dimensions (x, y and z) and material choices for each package.
Following the modelling and material selection, the next step is to use the Ansys Mechanical Structural FEA Analysis software to simulate all packaging for Rth and determine which packaging produced the best result, therefore, determining the heat dissipation for each packing. All parameters were used based on the standard cleanroom requirement for the industrial manufacturing backend process, where the cleanroom classification is 10,000 particles (ISO 7). The results demonstrated that the ceramic and lead frame provided good Rth values of 7.3 and 7.0 K/W, respectively, when compared to the PCB, which provided more than 80 K/W; thus, the heat dissipation for PCB packaging also increased.
As a result of the research, it was determined that ceramic and lead frame packaging are appropriate and capable of delivering good Rth and heat dissipation values when compared to PCB. In comparison to PCB, which requires numerous modifications, such as adding via holes and a thermal bar in an attempt to lower the Rth value, neither packaging requires improvement. Ceramic was chosen for development based on Rth's highest performance, with the actual device consisting of a lead frame and PCB. The Zth measurement test was carried out on a ceramic package, and the Rth result was comparable to the simulation result of 7.6 K/W, indicating that simulation was already proved for research and development.
The purpose of this study is to determine which proposed packaging design would give the highest Rth performance of a 1 mm2 chip as well as the best heat dissipation. In comparison to other studies, VCSEL packaging used the header and window cap as package components with a wavelength of 850 nm, and other VCSEL packaging developments used the sub mount on ceramic package with an output power ranging from 500 mW to 2 W, whereas this study used a huge wavelength and an output power of 4 W.
This study aims to explore the corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) practices of the Islamic banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the…
This study aims to explore the corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) practices of the Islamic banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the period 2010-2014 and examines the determinants of CSRD and its effects on firm value.
Based on the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions Governance Standard No. 7 guidelines and using content analysis, the paper develops a comprehensive CSRD index for GCC Islamic banks. The study applies ordinary least squares regression analysis for hypothesis testing and for finding determinants of respective dependent variables.
The results show a very low level of CSRD among the sample Islamic banks in GCC countries. When using corporate governance characteristics to examine the determinants of CSRD, this study provides evidence of a significant positive association between board size and CSRD practice in Islamic banks and a significant negative relationship of chief executive officer (CEO) duality with CSRD, as per expectation. For the economic consequences of CSRD, the study documents an inverse performance effect of CSRD while board size, board composition and CEO duality indicate significant positive effects on firm value.
The relatively small sample size of GCC Islamic banks may limit the application of the findings to other Islamic financial institutions such as Takaful and the Islamic unit trust company.
The findings of this study initiate the global debate on the need for corporate governance reform in Islamic banks by providing insights on the role played by corporate governance mechanisms in encouraging and enhancing CSRD practices among Islamic banks. The findings also have important implications for investors, managers, regulatory bodies, policymakers and Islamic banks in the GCC countries.
The results of the study do not support the idea that Islamic banks operating on Islamic principles can meet their social responsibilities through promoting corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and by differentiating themselves from non-Islamic banks.
This is the first study to examine the determinants of CSRD in GCC Islamic banks using comprehensive CSRD and corporate governance variables and, therefore, adds value to the existing CSR literature in banking.
Malaysia has shifted from a labor-intensive, agriculture-based economy since its independence in 1957 to a knowledge and innovation-based economy. Human capital…
Malaysia has shifted from a labor-intensive, agriculture-based economy since its independence in 1957 to a knowledge and innovation-based economy. Human capital development (HCD) is a key enabler for driving and sustaining Malaysia's socioeconomic growth. The education and training system is the main platform for HCD intervention. To sustain and achieve goals, long-term survival, competitive advantage, and sustainability, the workforce is optimized through comprehensive HCD interventions to provide the necessary knowledge, skills, and competencies needed to work effectively in a rapidly changing and complex environment. Numerous efforts have been made by the government to ensure that the education and training system has the capacity to enhance the quality and availability of intellectual and skilled human capital to support the transition toward knowledge-intensive activities, sustain economic growth, and compete in the global market. The country's development plans and policies as well as the economic development which lead toward a knowledge-based economy with a knowledge-based workforce have charted out clear transformation journeys for the development of the human capital ecosystem. This chapter presents an overview of the landscape of HCD in Malaysia. Relevant reports, plans, policies, and strategies to strengthen human capital through education and training is reviewed. Finally, a few issues and challenges that Malaysia experiences are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contributing factors to E-government disruptions in Malaysia public service. Researchers have highlighted that the main…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contributing factors to E-government disruptions in Malaysia public service. Researchers have highlighted that the main factors that contribute to IT service failure are the people, process and technology. However, relatively few empirical studies examine to what extent these factors contribute to E-government service disruptions. This study explores the level of contribution of each factor to the E-government service disruptions.
The research was conducted based on the hypothetical-deductive approach. Based on the synthesized literature review, a conceptual model is proposed and several hypotheses are developed. The study was undertaken using questionnaires via convenience sampling whereby eight frontline agencies, six departments and four ministries in Malaysian public service were selected. The selected agencies are frontline agencies (agencies that deal directly with citizens) and have implemented E-government. The respondents consist of IT department employees of those agencies. The data for this research were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics analysis.
Statistically, both human error and process failure are significantly correlated with E-government service disruptions in the Malaysian public sector. More importantly for this research, the empirical results reveal that human action, decision, management, error and failure are the major causes to the E-government disruptions, followed by an improper process or procedures. In addition, it is found that technology failure is not significantly contributing to the E-government disruption frequency in the Malaysian public sector. Human error is an important factor and needs to be given more attention by the management, as human is the creator, who uses, manages and maintains the technology and process to enable the delivery of services as specified in the objectives, vision and mission of the organization. However, the approach used to address E-government disruptions is more toward technology-oriented and revolves around the recovery process.
The study only focuses on three main factors, which are people, process and technology, and the target sample focuses only front-end service agencies. Further study can be extended by incorporating the other factor such as organizational environment, and the sample size could be expanded by including all agencies in public services. As human failure is a major cause of E-government disruptions, the proposed future research should also study the causes of human failure and how to address the problem by developing a resilient organization.
The results of this study have two implications: first is the discovery of the disruption factors that affect E-government service availability, and second is that the results of this study prioritized the factors that contribute to E-government service disruptions. This information would be beneficial to local, state and national governments for further action to ensure the availability and sustainability of E-government implementation.
This study identifies the factors that contribute to the service disruption of E-government and, thus, gives the priority of each factor based on its contribution to the E-government service disruption. This is an important finding because it enables public sector agencies to plan and implement improvements as needed and at the appropriate rate for each IT service component to ensure the E-government availability guarantee.