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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Rudolf Espada, Armando Apan and Kevin McDougall

The purpose of this paper was to develop an integrated framework for assessing the flood risk and climate adaptation capacity of an urban area and its critical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to develop an integrated framework for assessing the flood risk and climate adaptation capacity of an urban area and its critical infrastructures to help address flood risk management issues and identify climate adaptation strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the January 2011 flood in the core suburbs of Brisbane City, Queensland, Australia, various spatial analytical tools (i.e. digital elevation modeling and urban morphological characterization with 3D analysis, spatial analysis with fuzzy logic, proximity analysis, line statistics, quadrat analysis, collect events analysis, spatial autocorrelation techniques with global Moran’s I and local Moran’s I, inverse distance weight method, and hot spot analysis) were implemented to transform and standardize hazard, vulnerability, and exposure indicating variables. The issue on the sufficiency of indicating variables was addressed using the topological cluster analysis of a two-dimension self-organizing neural network (SONN) structured with 100 neurons and trained by 200 epochs. Furthermore, the suitability of flood risk modeling was addressed by aggregating the indicating variables with weighted overlay and modified fuzzy gamma overlay operations using the Bayesian joint conditional probability weights. Variable weights were assigned to address the limitations of normative (equal weights) and deductive (expert judgment) approaches. Applying geographic information system (GIS) and appropriate equations, the flood risk and climate adaptation capacity indices of the study area were calculated and corresponding maps were generated.

Findings

The analyses showed that on the average, 36 (approximately 813 ha) and 14 per cent (approximately 316 ha) of the study area were exposed to very high flood risk and low adaptation capacity, respectively. In total, 93 per cent of the study area revealed negative adaptation capacity metrics (i.e. minimum of −23 to <0), which implies that the socio-economic resources in the area are not enough to increase climate resilience of the urban community (i.e. Brisbane City) and its critical infrastructures.

Research limitations/implications

While the framework in this study was obtained through a robust approach, the following are the research limitations and recommended for further examination: analyzing and incorporating the impacts of economic growth; population growth; technological advancement; climate and environmental disturbances; and climate change; and applying the framework in assessing the risks to natural environments such as in agricultural areas, forest protection and production areas, biodiversity conservation areas, natural heritage sites, watersheds or river basins, parks and recreation areas, coastal regions, etc.

Practical implications

This study provides a tool for high level analyses and identifies adaptation strategies to enable urban communities and critical infrastructure industries to better prepare and mitigate future flood events. The disaster risk reduction measures and climate adaptation strategies to increase urban community and critical infrastructure resilience were identified in this study. These include mitigation on areas of low flood risk or very high climate adaptation capacity; mitigation to preparedness on areas of moderate flood risk and high climate adaptation capacity; mitigation to response on areas of high flood risk and moderate climate adaptation capacity; and mitigation to recovery on areas of very high flood risk and low climate adaptation capacity. The implications of integrating disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation strategies were further examined.

Originality/value

The newly developed spatially explicit analytical technique, identified in this study as the Flood Risk-Adaptation Capacity Index-Adaptation Strategies (FRACIAS) Linkage/Integrated Model, allows the integration of flood risk and climate adaptation assessments which had been treated separately in the past. By applying the FRACIAS linkage/integrated model in the context of flood risk and climate adaptation capacity assessments, the authors established a framework for enhancing measures and adaptation strategies to increase urban community and critical infrastructure resilience to flood risk and climate-related events.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Rodolfo Jr. Espada, Armando Apan and Kevin McDougall

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach that examines the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures using the network theory in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach that examines the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures using the network theory in geographic information system (GIS) setting in combination with literature and government reports. Specifically, the objectives of this study were to generate the network models of critical infrastructure systems (CISs), particularly electricity, roads and sewerage networks; to characterize the CISs’ interdependencies; and to outline the climate adaptation (CA) and flood mitigation measures of CIS.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated approach was undertaken in assessing the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures. A single system model and system-of-systems model were operationalized to examine the vulnerability and interdependency of the identified critical infrastructures in GIS environment. Existing CA and flood mitigation measures from government reports were integrated in the above-mentioned findings to better understand and gain focus in the implementation of natural disaster risk reduction (DRR) policies, particularly during the 2010/2011 floods in Queensland, Australia.

Findings

Using the results from the above-mentioned approach, the spatially explicit framework was developed with four key operational dimensions: conceiving the climate risk environment; understanding the critical infrastructures’ common cause and cascade failures; modeling individual infrastructure system and system-of-systems level within GIS setting; and integrating the above-mentioned results with the government reports to increase CA and resilience measures of flood-affected critical infrastructures.

Research limitations/implications

While natural DRR measures include preparation, response and recovery, this study focused on flood mitigation. Temporal analysis and application to other natural disasters were also not considered in the analysis.

Practical implications

By providing this information, government-owned corporations, CISs managers and other concerned stakeholders will allow to identify infrastructure assets that are highly critical, identify vulnerable infrastructures within areas of very high flood risk, examine the interdependency of critical infrastructures and the effects of cascaded failures, identify ways of reducing flood risk and extreme climate events and prioritize DRR measures and CA strategies.

Originality/value

The individualist or “pigeon-hole” approach has been the common method of analyzing infrastructures’ exposure to flood hazards and tends to separately examine the risk for different types of infrastructure (e.g. electricity, water, sewerage, roads and rails and stormwater). This study introduced an integrated approach of analyzing infrastructure risk to damage and cascade failure due to flooding. Aside from introducing the integrated approach, this study operationalized GIS-based vulnerability assessment and interdependency of critical infrastructures which had been unsubstantially considered in the past analytical frameworks. The authors considered this study of high significance, considering that floodplain planning schemes often lack the consideration of critical infrastructure interdependency.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Jane L. Ireland, Jackie Bates-Gaston, Kevin Markey, Leah Greenwood and Carol A. Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of a cognitive skills programme (Enhanced Thinking Skills) with adult prisoners.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of a cognitive skills programme (Enhanced Thinking Skills) with adult prisoners.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre- and post-treatment design with 171 male prisoners, using self-report psychometric measures.

Findings

Significant differences were found in the direction expected. Clinical recovery using stringent methods was not indicated, although improvement/partial response was across a number of domains.

Practical implications

Expectations for treatment outcome for short-term interventions should be more realistic; cognitive skills programmes may be best considered as precursors to longer term therapies; treatment outcome should focus on improvement and not recovery.

Originality/value

This study represents the first prison study to distinguish between levels of positive change. It questions previous interpretations of treatment outcome.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Andrew Day and Kevin Howells

Surveys of offender treatment programmes have revealed that practitioners delivering specialist programmes are often unaware of much of the theoretical and research…

Abstract

Surveys of offender treatment programmes have revealed that practitioners delivering specialist programmes are often unaware of much of the theoretical and research literature behind the interventions they deliver. For practitioners working less routinely with offenders, such as forensic nurses, this problem is likely to be more acute. In this paper, we provide a general overview of the theoretical and research literature relevant to programmes targeting sexual and aggressive offending that should be of interest to a range of professionals working with offenders in different clinical settings.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Kevin I.N. Ibeh and Stephen Young

Explores the entrepreneurial underpinning of the low export involvement level of manufacturing firms from Nigeria, a sub‐Sahara African, developing country. Using a…

Abstract

Explores the entrepreneurial underpinning of the low export involvement level of manufacturing firms from Nigeria, a sub‐Sahara African, developing country. Using a pre‐validated export‐entrepreneurial orientation construct (and a 78‐firm representative sample), a high versus low export‐entrepreneurial taxonomy was derived. High export‐entrepreneurial firms are typically more innovative in developing exporting, less averse to exporting risks, and have more proactive motivations for exporting. They perceive domestic environmental problems as much as other firms, but appear better able to adapt, hence their higher tendency to initiate exporting. Policy recommendations are presented for four groups of firms, linked to high/low export entrepreneurial orientation and exporter/non‐exporter categorisations.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 35 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Ko‐Min Kevin Tseng and Rhona E. Johnsen

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of the internet on the internationalisation process and international customer relationship interactions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of the internet on the internationalisation process and international customer relationship interactions of UK manufacturing small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). The paper is positioned at the interface of the literature on international entrepreneurship and the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the findings from multiple case studies of ten UK manufacturing SMEs from a variety of UK sectors, producing high‐, medium‐ and low‐tech offerings. In‐depth interviews with directors or managers of the SMEs were conducted. Individual and cross‐case analysis was carried out using coding frameworks to reduce and analyse the data and capture patterns in the findings.

Findings

The findings reveal how the influence of the internet in the internationalisation process and international customer relationship interactions differed in the high‐, medium‐or low‐tech SME categories. The influence of the internet differed across three main dimensions: the way in which the SMEs invested in and used different internet applications for internationalisation and customer relationship support, the SMEs' perceptions of the internet as a tool to support communication with international customers; the SMEs' reliance on more personal and interactive forms of contact with international customers.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate that the level of technological advancement of an SME's offerings has an important bearing on how these firms adopt the internet in their internationalisation process and gain advantages in their international customer interactions. The managerial implications of the study are relevant for manufacturing SMEs, their customers and government agencies involved with SMEs.

Originality/value

This research is amongst the first empirical contributions to examine the themes of the internet, internationalisation and international customer interactions in UK manufacturing SMEs and to highlight the importance of the level of technological advancement of an SME's offerings in distinguishing the ways in which the internet is used by entrepreneurial small firms in their internationalisation process.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Alexandra K. Abney, Allyn White, Kevin J. Shanahan and William B. Locander

This research investigates new innovative service models that provide opportunities for hearing and deaf individuals to switch roles within a co-created service encounter…

Abstract

Purpose

This research investigates new innovative service models that provide opportunities for hearing and deaf individuals to switch roles within a co-created service encounter to allow for an enhanced perspective-taking experience. The purpose of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of deaf individuals’ experience working within such models using their preferred language, American sign language, to interact with a primarily hearing-majority customer base.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for two studies through qualitative depth-interviews with both the deaf service employees and the hearing-majority customers from a North American restaurant founded on this innovative service model.

Findings

Results of these studies yield new insights into understanding the value generated for both the minority and majority populations within this co-creation platform. Notably, the deaf employees primarily recognize the transformative value derived from this service experience, whereas the hearing customers note the missing habitual value elements to which they are accustomed in traditional service encounters that inhibit repatronage intentions.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the interpersonal service experience of deaf and hearing individuals within these emerging service models. Further, this research represents an initial attempt to explore a co-creative service experience between two different cultures, the deaf-minority and hearing-majority populations, with differing levels of ability.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Xia Zhu and Judy Zolkiewski

– This study aims to explore how business-to-business service failures manifest in a manufacturing context.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how business-to-business service failures manifest in a manufacturing context.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical research involved two case studies: case study one included 20 interviews in the metal finishing industry; case study two included 20 interviews in the paint and coatings industry. In both case studies, suppliers and customers’ perceptions were obtained to facilitate a dyadic understanding of the phenomena.

Findings

Business-to-business service failure is a complex, dynamic and interactive process. It varies according to type of service, services supporting the products and services supporting the customers, service quality dimensions and the source of the failure. It can have a more profound impact than service failure in a consumer context because it may cause disruption to customers’ production and have a negative influence of failure on their clients in the network.

Research limitations/implications

Business customers may play a role in value co-destruction rather than value co-creation by causing service failures due to errors on their part. The consequences of the domino effects revealed in this study need to be given careful consideration by managers. The research is exploratory, and the findings may be influenced by the manufacturing sector in which the case study firms are based.

Originality/value

Business-to-business service failure has its own distinct characteristics, as it may impact widely in the business-to-business network. Domino effects implicitly dominate business-to-business service failure episodes where negative outcomes cascade downstream and affect service recipients’ customers.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Developing Africa’s Financial Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-186-5

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2007

Marcos André Mendes Primo, Kevin Dooley and M. Johnny Rungtusanatham

Manufacturing firm reaction to a supply failure is important because buyer dissatisfaction may induce related development or switching costs. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Manufacturing firm reaction to a supply failure is important because buyer dissatisfaction may induce related development or switching costs. The purpose of this paper is to ask: what is the impact of a supply failure and recovery on manufacturing firm dissatisfaction with the supplier?

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used based on interviews of key informants, examining four US manufacturers classified by industry type (aerospace and electronics) and firm size (large and small).

Findings

Manufacturing firm dissatisfaction increases relative to the accumulated impact of the supply failure, and is reduced when the manufacturer has slack to absorb the failure or shares blame for it. The supplier's failure recovery reduces dissatisfaction to the extent that it demonstrates the supplier's long‐term commitment to the relationship. The findings indicate that attributes of the failure, the failure recovery, and context must be taken into account when considering how a supplier's recovery may ameliorate the negative impact of a supply failure.

Research limitations/implications

The results are constrained by the number of cases we collected and by the limitations of retrospective interviews.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that manufacturers can over‐react to a failure because of the perceptual nature of risk, or under‐react to a failure because of excess slack or switching costs.

Originality/value

This paper adds significant detail to our understanding of how supplier failure and recovery impact a manufacturer's dissatisfaction with a supplier, the antecedent to costs involved with supplier development or switching.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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