This paper reviews experience with credit union demutualisation to date in the light of increasing discussion about whether demutualisation is a likely (or inevitable) future stage in the evolutionary process. It is argued that the credit union industry faces an inherent demutualisation bias which emerges as the sector develops maturity. Contributing factors include the emergence of professional management pursuing personal objectives, together with the economic realities of technological change, financial liberalisation, increased competition, and prudential regulation based on minimum capital requirements. Demutualisation incentives may partially reflect the unsuitability of the mutual form of governance in larger, more sophisticated financial institutions, but there is also a significant risk of demutualisation based on wealth expropriation motives. Alternative policies and strategies which might avoid this demutualisation bias are examined.
In this paper we present a corporate information system for untrained users to search gigabytes of unformatted data using quasi‐natural language and relevance feedback…
In this paper we present a corporate information system for untrained users to search gigabytes of unformatted data using quasi‐natural language and relevance feedback queries. The data can reside on distributed servers anywhere on a wide area network, giving the users access to personal, corporate, and published information from a single interface. Effective queries can be turned into profiles, allowing the system to automatically alert the user when new data are available. The system was tested by twenty executive users located in six cities. Our primary goal in building the system was to determine if the technology and infrastructure existed to make end‐user searching of unstructured information profitable. We found that effective search and user interface technologies for end‐users are available, but network technologies are still a limiting cost factor. As a result of the experiment, we are continuing the development of the system. This article will describe the overall system architecture, the implemented subset, and the lessons learned.
Defines terrorism and the problems of agreeing on a definition, citing the Finance of Terrorism Convention, which essentially equates terrorism with politically motivated…
Defines terrorism and the problems of agreeing on a definition, citing the Finance of Terrorism Convention, which essentially equates terrorism with politically motivated violence. Extends the emphasis on semantics to describing what it means to “finance” terrorism, again citing the Finance of Terrorism Convention ‐ and domestic legislation in the Canada, the UK and the USA, which is broader in scope than the Convention. Outlines the advantages and problems of proscribing financing of terrorism rather the terrorist activities. Assesses the prospects for international cooperation against terrorist financing, noting that the scope for this is limited to countries which regard the same acts as criminal and place the same importance on preventing them.
The purpose of this study is to explain rationale for regulatory change in Australia and New Zealand after the global financial crisis.
Outline regulatory changes and relate to crisis experience and regulatory shortcomings exposed.
Regulatory change was driven primarily by need, as capital importing nations, to comply with emerging global standards, and the different approaches in both nations are also related to domestic political considerations.
The process of regulatory change in response to the crisis is ongoing.
A number of areas for further improvement in financial regulation are identified.
Costs of poor regulation and financial crises are identified.
A comparison of regulatory approaches in two countries dominated by the same four large banks helps understand the challenges of cross-border financial regulation cooperation.
Identifies key activities that network users can perform in order to use the network effectively. Offers recommended reading, from beginner to expert user status. Explains some commonly used terms (e.g. Turbo Gopher with Veronica!). Lists useful Internet resources.
This paper seeks to examine certain important aspects of the domestic laws of Nigeria, the UK, the USA and Canada with a view to pointing out the remarkable differences…
This paper seeks to examine certain important aspects of the domestic laws of Nigeria, the UK, the USA and Canada with a view to pointing out the remarkable differences capable of affecting adversely the war on terror.
Analyses the domestic laws of all four countries with a view to pointing out the remarkable differences capable of affecting adversely the war on terror.
Despite the obvious zeal and commitment with which nations and states of the world have set out to wage a legal war on terrorism, particularly the aspect of financing it, and despite the existence of a convention of which they are members, serious disparity exists in the legal frameworks adopted for the war. Even amongst such countries as the UK, the USA and Canada, uniformity of laws and approach is still a far‐fetched idea, a situation that is capable of hurting the international collaboration against terror. There is an urgent need for closer affinity between the laws of such countries while even countries like Nigeria that may not presently consider themselves as serious targets of terrorism need to urgently shirk themselves of such impressions and reform their laws.
The paper makes suggestions as to how the differences in the laws of the four countries may be corrected or down played, and how the international objectives of uniformity of laws may be achieved.