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A survey was undertaken to identify the ways in which small businesses in Lincolnshire used public relations. For many of the 51 activities, techniques and skills…
A survey was undertaken to identify the ways in which small businesses in Lincolnshire used public relations. For many of the 51 activities, techniques and skills examined, it is found that only a minority of small firms practise them. Analysis of the results of the survey highlight an interesting connection between those businesses with a high rate of growth and use of certain public relations activities and techniques. Specifically, based on Mann‐Whitney tests and using a restrictive level of significance (0.1 per cent), it is found that managing government relations (local or central), mounting exhibitions (consumer), providing media news releases, and writing letters to the media are associated with growth. As these four are not commonly used it is suggested that these, among other uses of PR, should be included in skills programmes for small business development.
The purpose of this paper is to test the relative contribution of work environment factors as well as individual difference variables on the degree of work interfering…
The purpose of this paper is to test the relative contribution of work environment factors as well as individual difference variables on the degree of work interfering with family (WIF) and other mental health outcomes, namely, emotional exhaustion, life satisfaction, and family interfering with work (FIW).
Self‐report measures of the constructs of interest will be completed by a random sample of 539 health care professionals (Study 1: n=314; Study 2: n=128). In Study 1, it is hypothesized that work environment factors namely, work stressors and a supportive work environment characterized by perceived support from the supervisor, the organization, and co‐workers' supportive behaviors will be positively and negatively associated with WIF, respectively.
Findings document positive links between task‐related stressors and WIF and negative links between perceived support from the organization and WIF. In addition, both task‐related stressors and WIF are positive predictors of emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, the relative impact of two individual difference variables (i.e. time management and global self‐determination) on WIF and other mental health outcomes are examined, above and beyond the impact of the work environment factors. Task‐related stressors remainean important predictor of WIF and global self‐determination accounts for additional variance in this outcome variable.
Theoretical and practical implications that may guide future theory and research in this domain are discussed.
Findings from both studies provide insight as to potential sources, namely work environment factors and individual difference variables, which may accentuate or mitigate the degree of WIF.
Purpose – This chapter offers an integrative review of psychological and neurobiological differences between younger and older adults that might impact economic behavior…
Purpose – This chapter offers an integrative review of psychological and neurobiological differences between younger and older adults that might impact economic behavior. Focusing on key health economic challenges facing the elderly, it offers perspectives on how these psychological and neurobiological factors may influence decision-making over the life course and considers future interdisciplinary research directions.
Methodology/approach – We review relevant literature from three domains that are essential for developing a comprehensive science of decision-making and economic behavior in aging (psychology, neuroscience, and economics), consider implications for prescription drug coverage and long-term care (LTC) insurance, and highlight future research directions.
Findings – Older adults face many complex economic decisions that directly affect their health and well-being, including LTC insurance, prescription drug plans, and end of life care. Economic research suggests that many older Americans are not making cost-effective and economically rational decisions. While economic models provide insight into some of the financial incentives associated with these decisions, they typically do not consider the roles of cognition and affect in decision-making. Research has established that older age is associated with predictable declines in many cognitive functions and evidence is accumulating that distinct social motives and affect-processing profiles emerge in older age. It is unknown how these age differences impact the economic behaviors of older people and implies opportunities for path-breaking interdisciplinary research.
Originality/value of the chapter – Our chapter looks to develop interdisciplinary research to better understand the causes and consequences of age-related changes in economic decision-making and guide interventions to improve public programs and overall social welfare.
The Internet and social media have fundamentally transformed the ways in which individuals find jobs. Relatively little is known about how demand-side market actors use…
The Internet and social media have fundamentally transformed the ways in which individuals find jobs. Relatively little is known about how demand-side market actors use online information and the implications for social stratification and mobility. This study provides an in-depth exploration of the online recruitment strategies pursued by human resource (HR) professionals. Qualitative interviews with 61 HR recruiters in two southern US metro areas reveal two distinct patterns in how they use Internet resources to fill jobs. For low and general skill work, they post advertisements to online job boards (e.g., Monster and CareerBuilder) with massive audiences of job seekers. By contrast, for high-skill or supervisory positions, they use LinkedIn to target passive candidates – employed individuals who are not looking for work but might be willing to change jobs. Although there are some intermediate practices, the overall picture is one of an increasingly bifurcated “winner-take-all” labor market in which recruiters focus their efforts on poaching specialized superstar talent (“purple squirrels”) from the ranks of the currently employed, while active job seekers are relegated to the hyper-competitive and impersonal “black hole” of the online job boards.
Purpose – This chapter focuses on individual differences in anxiety, by reviewing its neurobiology, cognitive effects, with an emphasis on decision-making, and recent…
Purpose – This chapter focuses on individual differences in anxiety, by reviewing its neurobiology, cognitive effects, with an emphasis on decision-making, and recent developments in neuroeconomics.
Methodology – A review and discussion of anxiety and decision-making research.
Practical implications – This chapter argues that by making the step from emotional states to individual differences in emotion, neuroeconomics can extend its neurobiological roots and outreach its current clinical relevance.
Value of chapter – This chapter contributes to the literature on individual differences in emotion and their effects on decision-making, which is increasingly important in mainstream behavioral economics and neuroeconomics.
– The purpose of this paper is to explore how chief executives of 20 nonprofit organizations construe and prioritize the skills they use to perform typical leadership tasks.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how chief executives of 20 nonprofit organizations construe and prioritize the skills they use to perform typical leadership tasks.
The in-depth interview protocol used in the study is based on the Repertory Grid Technique, which elicits assumptions, beliefs, and values of respondents without imposing the researchers’ implicit frame of reference.
The interviews generated 285 skill constructs. Respondents in this study report that they utilize a mix of technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills. Interpersonal skills, especially communication and trust building, appear to be particularly prevalent among the many skills used by executives to perform their leadership tasks.
Because this is an exploratory study, its findings cannot yet be generalized to other contexts. Therefore, the paper concludes with some propositions for further research.
The study may have implications for the design of curricula to prepare people to assume leadership positions in nonprofit organizations.
This study uses a distinctive methodology to elicit from nonprofit leaders their assumptions and beliefs about the skills they use to perform leadership tasks. In this respect, the findings are grounded in the frames of reference of the subjects, not those of the researchers.