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Through the application of Hirst’s “forms of knowledge” theory, it is shown that the Shakers’ nineteenth century management principles had many similarities to Deming’s…
Through the application of Hirst’s “forms of knowledge” theory, it is shown that the Shakers’ nineteenth century management principles had many similarities to Deming’s tenets. For example, Shakers were committed to perfection in work, taking their time in pursuit of quality. Training was accomplished through sharing community expertise, apprenticing, and rotating jobs. Also, equality and cooperation were encouraged among the “brothers” and “sisters.” This example of management history research provides a baseline from which management concepts can be understood and potential mistakes avoided.
While management is considered relatively immature compared to other social sciences, for over half the lifespan of the discipline, the field has been bombarded with…
While management is considered relatively immature compared to other social sciences, for over half the lifespan of the discipline, the field has been bombarded with “fads”. For the purposes of this manuscript, fads are defined as “managerial interventions which appear to be innovative, rational, and functional and are aimed at encouraging better organizational performance”. This definition draws on and integrates a number of theorists’ conceptualizations of fads. Notably, however, there is some point at which a fad sufficiently demonstrates its effectiveness in numerous and diverse settings to warrant an evolution from fad status to something which implies more permanence. This issue is addressed in a theoretical model which traces the process of fad adoption using historical bibliometric data. The model offers propositions concerning the precursors, moderators, and outcomes of adoption.
The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of espoused individual cultural traits on proactive behaviors within an organizational environment. While there have…
The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of espoused individual cultural traits on proactive behaviors within an organizational environment. While there have been many reports about the positive outcomes of proactivity, there is much less known about the antecedents, particularly those related to culture.
Sales employees (n=147) in a multi-national organization from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA were surveyed to assess the impact of cultural trait influences on proactive behavior at the individual level. Using linear regression and partial least squares structural equation modeling, three independent variables were found to be significant antecedents to proactive behavior.
Long-term orientation positively influenced proactive behaviors as did uncertainty avoidance. Uncertainty avoidance was hypothesized to have a negative impact on proactive behaviors, but the results of this study implied that individuals found it safer to adjust to a fluid environment rather than to remain inflexible. No relationship was found between power distance and proactivity. Masculinity was found to be positively related to proactive behaviors but collectivism was not.
The results of this study should be limited to its own population and not generalized to larger, more culturally diverse populations which were not represented in the sample.
This study provides better understanding of managerial proactive behavior related to cultural traits, particularly in the domain of field sales.
This study is unique in that it explores individual proactivity in an organizational selling environment related to cultural traits at the individual level.