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Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Kenneth L. Robey

In Schelling’s “checkerboard” model of segregation, individuals’ moderately held preferences about the proportion of their neighbors who are similar versus dissimilar to…

Abstract

Purpose

In Schelling’s “checkerboard” model of segregation, individuals’ moderately held preferences about the proportion of their neighbors who are similar versus dissimilar to them can, through an automatic and mathematical process, yield dramatic population-level segregative behaviors. The notion of such an automatic segregative process would seem to have implications for spatial dynamics when a group home for persons with disabilities is introduced into a community. This study sought to examine those implications alongside data in the research literature regarding community acceptance of group homes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an agent-based modeling approach, computer simulations were constructed to apply Schelling’s model, as well as an alternative model, to community reaction to the introduction of group homes for persons with disabilities. Simulation conditions were set to roughly correspond to the proportion of group homes or other congregate living situations, as well as vacant dwellings, in a typical community in the United States.

Design/methodology/approach

The simulations predict that group homes will, to varying degrees, become spatially isolated within their communities. These predictions conflict with previous research findings that suggest minimal relocation of neighbors and rapid adjustment of communities to the presence of group homes.

Social implications

Simulations of an automatic segregative process might offer a baseline or a “null hypothesis” of sorts, allowing us to more fully understand the extent of the social and socioeconomic forces that serve to moderate or override such an automatic process, allowing communities to adjust to group homes’ presence.

Details

Environmental Contexts and Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-262-3

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Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Abstract

Details

Environmental Contexts and Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-262-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Abstract

Details

Environmental Contexts and Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-262-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Abstract

Details

Environmental Contexts and Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-262-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Daniel Robey, Karl Hellman, Isabelle Monlouis, Kenneth Nations and Wesley J. Johnston

The purpose of this paper is to study two aspects of new product development (NPD) success – the impact of learning and the impact of structure – are studied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study two aspects of new product development (NPD) success – the impact of learning and the impact of structure – are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study method within a single setting consisting of in-depth interviews of two teams that developed successful, award-winning products and two teams that developed unsuccessful products.

Findings

Case 1: flexibility and expertise permitted learning and radical redefinition of the product mid-project and commercial success. Case 2: flexibility enabled adding expertise which was instrumental in success, iterating permitted optimizing pricing. Case 3: flexibility led to focusing on technical issues to the exclusion of commercial viability. Case 4: flexibility led to skipping market definition and partnering with a particular customer whose situation was idiosyncratic. Cross-case analysis: flexibility in teams with both technical and commercial expertise yielded success. Flexibility permitted teams consisting of narrow experts to invest development resources in products with insufficient market.

Research limitations/implications

This paper argues that the right balance between structure and flexibility is dependent on the level of expertise of the members of the NPD project teams. However, getting this balance right is not a sufficient condition for NPD success. The cases were theoretically blocked to develop theoretical insight, but additional cases are needed for a strong test of theory.

Practical implications

The more experienced team members are, the more the project benefits from flexibility. Conversely, an inexperienced team will benefit from a more structured process. Projects require iteration. The dichotomy between structure and flexibility is false: the most expert teams benefit from some structure. The most inexperienced teams must employ flexibility to learn.

Originality/value

The analysis combines the virtues of the stage-gate school and the flexibility school previously thought mutually exclusive.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2020

John F. Henry

In this chapter the author subjects some aspects of Roosevelt’s “New Deal” to critical analysis, demonstrating the limits to reform given the power of “vested interests”…

Abstract

In this chapter the author subjects some aspects of Roosevelt’s “New Deal” to critical analysis, demonstrating the limits to reform given the power of “vested interests” as articulated by Thorstein Veblen. While progressive economists and others are generally favorably disposed toward the New Deal, a critical perspective casts doubt on the progressive nature of the various programs instituted during the Roosevelt administrations. The New Deal was shaped by the institutional forces then dominant in the U.S., including the segregationist system of the South. In the end, “vested interests” dictated what transpired, but what did transpire required a modification of the understanding of the standard ideological perspective of capitalism, “liberalism.”

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Public Finance in the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-699-5

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Erran Carmel, Jason Dedrick and Kenneth L. Kraemer

We treat offshoring as a managerial innovation. Should it still be considered an innovation? The purpose of this paper is to use innovation theory, especially, Rogers'…

Abstract

Purpose

We treat offshoring as a managerial innovation. Should it still be considered an innovation? The purpose of this paper is to use innovation theory, especially, Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory (DOI) to examine this question.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the case of electronic data systems (EDS), a very large Information Technology Professional Services (ITPS) company, using a case study approach based on interviews, internal documents and secondary sources.

Findings

At EDS it was found that offshoring has been fully assimilated within just a few years. During the early 2000s, EDS faced the challenge of a large‐scale shift in the competitive landscape and moved a large share of its global operations to offshore locations. The paper shows how this innovation has been diffused within the firm through the creation of an assessment and migration organization that has institutionalized and routinized the process of offshoring. At EDS, each client project goes through a centralized offshoring assessment process to determine where best to send the work and how to perform the knowledge transfer quickly and effectively. Observations are made about the speed of diffusion: about 7‐10 years in this case, from initial innovation agenda setting to its routinization.

Research limitations/implications

This paper filled a gap in studying managerial innovation; made some estimates of the speed of diffusion; and applied the hypothesized stages of innovation diffusion to the context of offshore software services. The limitation is that this is a case study and therefore generalization may be qualified.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first that studies offshoring (as opposed to outsourcing) in terms of DOI theory.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2007

Julie E. Kendall and Kenneth E. Kendall

We propose a framework of positive design approaches that can be effective in creating quality systems. Quality systems are systems delivered on time, with high quality…

Abstract

We propose a framework of positive design approaches that can be effective in creating quality systems. Quality systems are systems delivered on time, with high quality, effectiveness, and user satisfaction standards. The framework is conceptualized as a 2×2 framework, where the first (or y) axis reflects the way in which positive approaches are introduced into the group or organization. At one end of the y axis is the direct approach, while the other end represents the indirect approach, which is culturally embedded. The second dimension, on the x axis, is represented by invisible changes on one end, and visible changes on the other. Invisible changes are those that are unobtrusive in nature. We explore actual examples of design that made a positive difference in the quality of a group of individuals’ work lives and well-being through the use of messages, technologies, information, and shared views. We use verbal analysis as an intuitive, reflective, and interpretive approach to examine our own and others’ narratives of systems success to trace the linkages that support the notion that positive approaches result in positive outcomes for developers of information systems. We analyze stories about introducing positive memes; empowering decision makers through information sharing; encouraging an open source philosophy; and embracing positive metaphors to positively shape the users’ subculture. In doing so, we examine stories from systems researchers who have experienced positive IS design outcomes. Our contribution is to mine the linkages between actions designers take and the positive outcomes users experience; the suggested methods that designers can use to create positive outcomes; and examining specific examples where design methods used in a positive way contributed to positive outcomes for systems, users, the adoption of new technologies, and improved organizations.

Details

Designing Information and Organizations with a Positive Lens
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-398-3

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Kenneth E. Kendall and Julie E. Kendall

In order for an information system (IS) to be sustainable, it must create value for its shareholders and for the society at large. We believe it is both possible and…

Abstract

In order for an information system (IS) to be sustainable, it must create value for its shareholders and for the society at large. We believe it is both possible and recommended that systems designers approach the design of systems thoughtfully, using a positive lens, to develop systems that not only increase profit but also add to the well-being of all. We have also observed that a systems designer can approach an organization with an open mind, accept the organization's set of values, adopt a positive design attitude, and still develop a system that is not sustainable. In this study, we looked to see whether there was an additional factor, one based in the environment created by governments that influenced the sustainability of systems. Since previous research shows that observing the predominant metaphors found in organizations can help explain the success or failure of different types of ISs, we attempted to do the same for societal metaphors. We identify the orientation, attitudes, and limits of various forms of government and demonstrate their similarities to the primary organizational metaphors. We then propose that the type of government may influence the sustainability of ISs and further argue that systems designers need to be aware of how forms of government affect the design of ISs and their sustainability.

Details

Positive Design and Appreciative Construction: From Sustainable Development to Sustainable Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-370-6

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