Search results1 – 10 of 10
Drugs are hitting at the roots of our productivity and competitiveness, as their usage escalates amongst current employees and those entering full‐time work for the first…
Drugs are hitting at the roots of our productivity and competitiveness, as their usage escalates amongst current employees and those entering full‐time work for the first time. Main symptoms are rising absenteeism, injuries, damage and stealing. But employers are having difficulty in recognising their cause, mainly through ignorance, lack of trained knowledge and fear of what is still a relatively new phenomenon. The realistic answer is the development and implementation of effective substance misuse policies in full consultation with staff representatives. But this is a precise and skilled activity requiring proper training of personnel management and staff supervisors. The article exposes the breadth of the problem, discusses how to train British staff and examines how our training industry can gear up to learn this newest and most vital of training subjects.
Because addiction is a secretive activity, the first awareness outside the family is mainly at work, where rising costs of absentecism, injuries, damage to, and stealing of, company property reveal the problem, without offering alleviation. Government drugs advice centres and methadone substitution approaches have provided no lasting cures, the major reason being that true cures cost money – not as much as sustaining the habit, but enough to be politically uncomfortable. Whether employers know it or not, drugs and alcohol are already costing them heavily, and it is increasingly being recognized that such involuntary spending – if deliberately channelled into procuring real cures – can provide one of the few effective ways forward. Examines why counselling has so far achieved only limited employer acceptance and, based on field experience, shows what needs to be done.
While reducing numbers of HM Customs and Excise Officers guard ourports and airfields, and undermanned and overworked police struggle tokeep our streets and school‐yards…
While reducing numbers of HM Customs and Excise Officers guard our ports and airfields, and undermanned and overworked police struggle to keep our streets and school‐yards clear of drugs, who is tackling the increasing problem in the workplace? If the employer is not doing it – then the straight answer is: “nobody!” But it is drug addiction (including alcoholism) which is costing British businesses billions in rising absenteeism, increasing injuries, escalating damage to, and stealing of, company and employee property, plus a general deterioration in responsible staff attitudes. The first step is for the employer actually to recognize the problem, and the second is to acknowledge that the only way it will be handled is if it is tackled by the organization itself. The next step is easier – put a stop to further escalation. This, the first of two articles, indicates how this may be achieved.
Part I showed how the “drugs at work” problem may berecognized, understood and prevented. It also put drugs testing andscreening into perspective, identified the range of…
Part I showed how the “drugs at work” problem may be recognized, understood and prevented. It also put drugs testing and screening into perspective, identified the range of remedial actions which will provide a solution, and showed – as a first main step – how further escalation of the problem can be halted. This second part proceeds to the second main step – reducing the numbers of employees who are already using drugs and alcohol – and indicates the main organizations and rehabilitation programmes which are already providing effective long‐lasting answers. Also examines costs in terms of time and money and gives initial contact data.
I think that psychologically it is most important that, as long as possible, every effort should be made to maintain the supply of foods enabling dishes of an attractive character to be produced. The morale of the big cities must be maintained, and as a large proportion of the population in these cities takes at least one meal a day in a public eating‐place, and, moreover, as the housewife relies on the pastrycook for an ever increasing proportion of her non‐basic foods, not to mention the basic foods themselves, every effort must be made to maintain producers of foods in such a position that they are able to supply cakes, confectionery, biscuits and so on. And in suggesting this I am being a realist; I have experienced the depression of the “ Berliner ” when it became impossible for this kind of food to be bought except by the very rich or the very powerful. It is, in fact, not sufficient to provide the necessary calories, the necessary vitamins, the necessary “trace” elements, as the Americans have called them; the method of presentation must be studied, for this is of vital importance in the maintenance of good health. From the scientific point of view it is deplorable that six months had to pass before the Ministry of Food appointed a scientific adviser. Dr. Drummond's influence in that capacity should help to straighten out some of the muddles into which the Ministry have apparently been led. It is obvious that our vaunted preparedness did not extend to the realm of food. One important point must be borne in mind, namely, that although the Ministry did not appoint a scientific adviser until February, 1940, they had at their disposal the experts of the Food Investigation Board and of those research associations in food science which I have already mentioned. Possibly, therefore, the Ministry would consider that it was sufficiently well served, and that these bodies would have been able to produce the briefs on which the Minister could plead. But the Food Investigation Board—and I am speaking as an exmember of that body—is essentially equipped for long‐distance research work, and not for the solution of problems of immediate importance. No one has greater respect for the work of fundamental importance which the staff of the Food Investigation Board have produced than I, but except for practical problems concerned with a limited number of food products—beef tendering, bacon curing, fruit preservation—they are not in direct touch with practice. It has been a very sound policy to restrict the activities of their staffs to the solution of problems of fundamental nature, the results of which, when published, would be applied to practical problems by the chemists attached to foods producing firms. I cannot pass from this section without comment on the very admirable statement of certain aspects of the work of the Research Associations clearly expressed by the Director of the Research Associations of British Flour Millers, Dr. Moran, in the journal Milling recently. He gives in a few clear sentences his understanding of the functions of a research association. His words are: “The research association has four clear functions: (1) as a sentinel of progress and development not only in this country but throughout the world; (2) to carry out continuously research which the individual miller—certainly the small miller—could not undertake; (3) to deal with the day‐to‐day problems of members; (4) generally to improve the efficiency of the industry and the quality of its products by the greater application of scientific methods.” The degree to which these functions are realised by any association is an excellent yardstick by which to measure its success. The milling industry of the country is to be congratulated that the director of their research association has such definite ideas, and the country as a whole is to be congratulated that the council of at least one research association in food is sufficiently alive to the importance of their duties to allow such statements as I have quoted to be published. It certainly stimulates interest and confirms the faith which should be placed in science as applied to a basic industry. The food manufacturer has, naturally, been rationed in respect of raw materials, as have been the members of the public. Fats, sugar and meat have been available in decreased quantities, but with the advent of rationing a distinct lessening of wastage of food follows and no real difficulties of shortage have become apparent. The attention of chemists has however, been directed to “ alternatives.” I object to the word “ substitute,” because in the minds of the majority this suggests something inferior. In many cases the alternative is to use something more expensive, something which under normal conditions would not be used. For example, at the moment glucose, more expensive than cane sugar, has taken the place of a portion of the usual sugar; lactose, the sugar of milk, is being used although it costs about twice as much as cane sugar and has a sweetening power far below that of the usual sugar. But sugars are not only used for sweetening, as so many people seem to think. Their presence in a cake or other bakery product has a most important chemical or physicochemical action on the gelatinisation of the starch of the flour, and an adequate amount of sugar is therefore essential if the character of the product is not to be impaired. The use of alternatives is not to be confused with sophistication; the replacement of non‐available constituents must be differentiated from the dressing‐up of one thing to make it look like another. The artificial colouring of a cake with a brown colour and the description of the resultant product as a chocolate cake, is to be condemned, although such a cake may be as nutritious as the cake to which chocolate powder had been added. The caffeine of coffee and tea is of importance in giving a slight feeling of stimulation to the tired worker, and therefore roasted cereals, as supplied in Germany during the last war, and again to‐day, cannot be considered alternatives for coffee, neither can mixture of fruit leaves take the place of tea. It is to the scientist that Germany owes the development of her substitute and alternative foods. These substitutes and alternatives are far better than those Germany had in 1914–18, because very early on she enlisted her chemists, or rather those who had not been expelled, into the service of her Four Year Food Plan. Chemical research in the totalitarian states is in practice Government‐controlled—in practice only because in theory there has been no bar to private investigation—but the Four Year Plan in Germany as applied to food entailed the direction of food investigations by State officials and although not so obvious in Italy, the same thing obtained there for a number of years. The natural outcome is control of food production. An interesting example is to be found in the tomato‐growing districts in Italy. Through the research station at Parma the farmers and the factories dealing with tomatoes are definitely directed. The former are told what seed to plant, how much, how to till their land, how to manure it, when to gather their crops, how much to gather, the quantity to pack as fresh fruit, the quantity to send to the factories to be made into purée.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of sustainable development held by New Zealand “thought leaders” and “influencers” promoting sustainability, business…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of sustainable development held by New Zealand “thought leaders” and “influencers” promoting sustainability, business, or sustainable business. It seeks to compare inductively derived worldviews with theories associated with sustainability and the humanity‐nature relationship.
Worldviews were explored through a cognitive mapping exercise. A total of 21 thought leaders and influencers constructed maps of their understanding of sustainable development. These maps were analysed to reveal commonalities and differences.
Participant maps illustrated disparate levels of detail and complexity. Those participants promoting business generally emphasized the economic domain, accepting economic growth and development as the key to sustainable development. An emphasis on the environmental domain, the future, limits to the Earth's resources, and achievement through various radical means, was more commonly articulated by those promoting sustainability. Participants promoting sustainable business held elements of both approaches, combining an emphasis on the environmental domain and achievement of sustainable development by various reformist means.
This study identified the range of worldviews expressed by 21 thought leaders and influencers across three main domains only – promoters of sustainability, business or both. Extending this sample and exploring how these and other views arise and are represented within a wider population could be the subject of further research.
Such divergence of opinion as to what connotes sustainable development across even a small sample does not bode well for its achievement. The elucidation of the worldview of promoters of sustainable business points to the need to consider more carefully the implications of environmentalism, and other aspects of sustainability, integrated into a business agenda.
This paper contributes to empirical research on environmental worldviews which has barely penetrated discussion of sustainability within the management and business literature. It shows cognitive mapping to be an effective technique for investigating the meaning of a conceptual theme like sustainable development.
The unsatisfactory conditions which are created by the total lack of official standards, or indeed of any figures or definitions relating to food and some drug products is well illustrated in the report of a prosecution which appeared in last month's issue of the Journal. This case in question was dismissed by the Bench. The Bench was tendered some highly technical and very conflicting evidence. In view of this the defendants received the benefit of the doubt ; and they received this benefit because in the absence of any standard the Bench were unable to decide what was “ the nature, substance and quality demanded by the purchaser ” of the invalid wine—non‐alcoholic meat and malt wine—which was the subject of the prosecution. Wine may be defined as the juice of the grape which has been fermented under control conditions. The term has been extended in meaning and is now applied to a variety of substances which have had nothing to do with the grape and frequently contain very little or no alcohol, but may, as in this case, contain substances entirely foreign to the idea of wine, if the term be used in its original and restricted sense. A well known variety of ginger wine has an alcohol content of about 26 per cent. of proof spirit. So far as the alcohol content goes this liquid may be correctly described as a wine. It has, within its limits, the stimulating properties that are usually associated with an alcoholic drink and its value as an aid to digestion or a warm drink in winter cold has never been questioned. It appears that non‐alcoholic meat and malt wine also has virtues peculiar to itself dependent not on alcohol, but on other substances whose nature and quantity determine its characteristics. The term “ demand ” as used in the Act connotes the idea of a purchaser who well knows what he ought to get and furthermore will vigorously insist on getting it. The fact is, as everyone knows, that the purchaser is in a state of profound ignorance as to “ the nature, substance and quality ” of what he wishes to buy, and as a result he is in a sufficiently humble state of mind to accept without hesitation almost anything that may be told him about his prospective purchase from the other side of the shop counter. It is this state of mind on the part of the average purchaser and the desire to profit by it on the part of some food vendors that led to the passing of the Food and Drugs Act. The underlying idea being to protect the ordinary man and woman in health and pocket against the result of their purchasing adulterated material or inferior material described as being of superior quality. To enable the Act to be satisfactorily administered certain officers were appointed, known as Public Analysts. They were the officials of the old Local Government Board. They are the officials of the Ministry of Health. Their wide experience, special knowledge, and impartiality combine to make their services of peculiar value to the community so that they may, without unduly stretching language, be described as part trustees for the public health. Everyone will readily admit that there is scarcely anything, if anything, more complex than any one of our ordinary and unsophisticated food products. This complexity is, so to speak, raised to the second power by the variations that naturally occur in the essential constituents of these. The process of administering the acts directed against adulteration and similar offences has been frequently enlivened by the lively controversies to which this fact has given rise in the past and which it will no doubt do in the future. Another consideration must be taken into account. It is this. Since the year 1875 when the Food and Drugs Act became law the knowledge of food chemistry, in common with other kinds of knowledge, has increased rapidly in kind and in amount. This knowledge is now freely drawn on by those whose financial and business interests are bound up with food manufacture. As a result of this all kinds of more or less elaborately processed foods in immense variety and in many cases of a kind unthought of or impossible of manufacture sixty years ago have been put on the market. Among these processed products may be counted in considerable variety foods for the use of invalids or those convalescing from illness. Very large claims are made for these by the manufacturers, and it is only fair to say that these claims are to a considerable degree substantiated in the case of the better class of these substances prepared by reputable firms. All will agree that foods and stimulants which are said to have been specially prepared for the relief and more rapid recovery of a patient during the critical period of convalescence should be in every respect of such a nature as to be above suspicion and entirely beyond challenge by reasonable and expert opinion. This is unfortunately not always the case. Trade competition is acute. Official standards are non‐existent. Practically no official definitions exist, and no official figures to declare what shall be the minimum quantity of an essential constituent. The result is that nature is “ improved ”—to borrow a term which is in frequent and objectionable use among certain manufacturers—and the variation in the proportions of essential constituents depends on the taste and fancy of the manufacturer rather than on the needs of the consumer. Hence it comes about that to obtain a footing in a lucrative branch of trade a cheap product may be put on the market. It is cheap because it is made of inferior or adulterated materials, or what may be described as a vanishing quantity of an essential constituent is introduced. The quality of this constituent need not be in question. It is probably perfectly wholesome, but almost useless in such microscopic doses. For example, a mixture called “ chicory and coffee ” may be sold. The maker may please himself as to how much or how little coffee he uses, but as long as the coffee is not a purely subjective phenomenon he is on the right side of the law if he describes it as a mixture. Cheaper jams, it has been said, may be filled up with apple pulp. We may even suggest spent apple pulp which is certainly cheap and very filling at the price. As to the amount of essential constituent in the somewhat grandiloquently named “ Full Fruit Standard ” jams we may refer readers to the back numbers of this Journal. “ In bismuth tablets the amount of bismuth may become almost negligible because the law does not demand that there should be a fixed minimum present.” Many other instances could be given, and they would be found to relate to nearly every food and drink. In every case where the prosecution alleges that the nature or the substance, which is the basis of the prosecution, is below any reasonable standard the prosecuting authority finds itself heavily penalised by having no official standards to quote. The defence, on the other hand, gains what the prosecution has lost. It finds itself in a much stronger position if the case should be dismissed than when the proceedings commenced. The local authority has been put to great and perhaps useless expense in their endeavours to protect the public. The particular case of the meat and malt wine referred to appears to be an excellent instance of this kind of practice. The Public Analyst affirmed that a wine‐glassful of this “ wine ” contained 8¾ grains of meat extract, 52½ grains of malt extract, 150 grains of sugars (invert, etc.). The concoction was diastatically inactive. It contained no vitamins. It is further pointed out that the total cost of the contents of a pint bottle would be about three half‐pence. It is sold for four shillings and sixpence ! The report of the proceedings says that this “ wine ” was declared by the vendors to contain the juice of the finest grapes. The Public Analyst, however, certified that there was no grape juice in it. These facts and figures have not been called in question, and it is really somewhat difficult to speak with restraint of a transaction of this nature, especially when it is remembered that this, and other such “ wines ” and stimulants have been compounded for the alleged benefit of convalescents and of invalids. It is regrettable that experts can be found willing to support the doubtful claims of the manufacturers so far as it appears that they relate to the proportion of meat and malt extract in the “ wine.” The Public Analyst for the prosecuting authority stated that in his opinion such an article should contain a minimum of 4 per cent. of meat extract and 25 per cent. of malt extract. Another Public Analyst, called for the defence, said that in his opinion the proportions of these ingredients should be one and four respectively. Here are huge discrepancies in the ratio of about four to one in the essential constituents of an invalid food or stimulant. It is impossible, in the face of such wide differences of opinion among experts, to avoid drawing a comparison between the make up of the medical prescriptions which determine the nature of the drugs administered during illness and the nature of the stimulants, such as this “ wine,” which is to be taken during the period of convalescence. In the one case the prescription is drawn up by a medical man and the medicine compounded by a qualified pharmacist from drugs whose “ nature, substance and quality ” are rigidly defined in the pharmacopoeia. In the other case the stimulants which are presumably intended to help the patient on his road to recovery are, it appears, primarily made to sell, and have been compounded by the manufacturers to enable them to put money into their pockets. We can only say that if the same differences in composition existed in the same medicine and the same differences of opinion existed among medical men as to the efficacy of such medicine the patient would in all probability not reach the stage of convalescence at all. The only thing that might conceivably give trouble under the circumstances would be the wording of the death certificate. If medical men and analysts in official positions are to be regarded as joint trustees of the public health let them play the part. What would be thought of a trustee in the ordinary sense of the term who would recommend investment in a concern as to whose soundness there was considerable doubt? His good faith need not be called in question, but his judgment might certainly be described as faulty. It would be worse than a crime, it would be a mistake. A remedy for this unsatisfactory state may, in our opinion, be found in the setting up of standards for foods and drugs. The difficulties, of course, are great and a serious objection, or one of the objections, would be the inevitable lowering of the quality of most foods to the level of the minimum requirements of the law. There really seems to be no other way out of the difficulty, and if a beginning is to be made there seem to be very good reasons to begin with some of these invalid foods and stimulants. It is as much a matter for the medical man in cases of this kind as it is for the public analyst. If the medical man has succeeded in putting his patient after a serious illness on the high road to recovery he does not want to see him made to “ stand and deliver ” at the demand of anyone who has the necessary assurance to play such a part. With regard to standards in general a well known public analyst has recently observed : “ The Public Analyst should be umpire certainly, but if he is he should take into consideration the whole question of standards for any particular article ; long custom of the trade ; and also give weight to the needs and desires of the public.” He adds, “ The whole question of standards requires the attention of a small, but very competent, body—not a crowd.” This seems to be a complete statement of the case in few words. Some of the difficulties are suggested by the phrases “ custom of the trade ” and “ needs of the public.” It is the first of these that presents by far the most difficulty. The manufacturer well knows what “ custom ” would be of most benefit to him. He will fight for this by every means in his power. The fact that the public is extremely hazy as to its needs operates powerfully in favour of the manufacturer. It may also be added that while the manufacturers are almost always a well organised community, the members of the public are not, nor are they ever likely to be. It has been suggested that the public should be made “ food conscious.” It should “ take an interest in what it is buying ” and ask “ what do I expect to get when I buy this article? ” The meat and malt “ wine ” case is a sufficient answer. The purchaser paid four shillings and sixpence for what was stated to be “ three ha'porth of stuff ” made up to half a pint, and he was unconscious of the fact. This may be taken as a measure of the interest and knowledge shown by him when he was content to let the manufacturers make a profit of some three thousand per cent. on material that the Public Analyst is reported to have said was “ comparatively worthless.” While the magistrates were unable to accept the Public Analyst's standards as proved in view of the conflicting evidence, they added that the case had been most properly instigated by the West Riding County Council, and the defence was made to pay its own costs ! The whole case affords a clear demonstration of the urgent necessity of a small Standing Committee which could act and put its views into force without delay.
On November 6th, 1941, in the case of Churcher v. Reeves in the High Court it was held that a farmer charged with selling milk deficient in solids‐not‐fat below the statutory limit of 8·5 per cent. could successfully plead that this deficiency was due to shortage of feeding stuffs and not to added water. (J.P. 1941 CV. 627.)
The majority of Authorities who are responsible for the enforcement of that portion of the Food and Drugs Act dealing with the hygiene of food premises have recognised that legislation, even when coupled with regular inspections, is insufficient to produce the desired result. Many of them have embarked upon lectures, others on more lengthy schemes of training for the employees, some have linked this with special standards to be adopted for premises, such as the Clean Food Guild instituted at Guildford, Holborn and other large Boroughs. These standards have met with very mixed receptions from the various organisations of the food traders; some of them adopting the view that establishments of old construction are unduly penalised, as compared with premises of modern design. The consensus of opinion, however, among both the local authorities and food traders, is the desirability of giving training facilities to those engaged in the industry. These courses may range from one to five lectures with a comprehensive syllabus, and are usually accompanied by films such as “ Another Case of Poisoning ”, “ Insect Pests in Food”, and the film strips of the Central Council for Health Education. It is interesting, at this stage, to compare the approach of the American authorities to this problem. Reviewing the United States Public Health Services booklet “ Guide to Safe Food Service ” a similar conclusion has been drawn, that, whilst the prevention of food poisoning outbreaks was at first handled almost entirely through legislation and enforcement, this often proved unsatisfactory and inadequate. Coercion at times was found to create resentment, and often postponed an understanding of correct practices until after Court action had been taken. Another approach was the physical examination of all restaurant workers, but this did not give the desired results; such inspections tending to promote a false sense of security, inasmuch as no examination can ensure freedom from communicable diseases during the period between examinations. Experience with food sanitation courses, as they are termed, soon demonstrated their practicability and effectiveness. It was found that education explained the reasons for the requirements of the laws and regulations and thereby gained acceptance for them; the decisive factor being that such courses were popular and further lectures were requested. Where co‐operation was enlisted by means of these lectures inspectors had far less difficulty in carrying out their work. Frequent inspections should be coupled with the education programme to serve as a reminder of the need to observe correct practices. The recommendations given to the lecturers could well be digested by many in this country. On regular inspections, during the course of his duties, the inspector should build up good working relations as he talks informally with the owner and employees about their problems. He should avoid a policeman's attitude, and, as a good officer of the law, he should carefully refrain from taking liberties with it, As a teacher, he should be careful not to fall into a condescending attitude, and criticisms must be brought out of the realm of fault‐finding. The Guide, a booklet of some sixty pages, gives advice to members of the Health Department on the formation of such a course, and stresses the advisability of having a representative committee to assist in this formation. It has been found, too, in this country that, if food hygiene lectures are to be successful, it is essential that the goodwill and backing be obtained, not only of the trade associations such as the hoteliers and restaurateurs, but of the branches of the respective trade unions representing the employees. In this way specialist lectures to the various groups can be organised, with previous knowledge of the scope and numbers involved. Lectures should be organised within normal working hours, with additional lectures for those for whom this is not practicable. Lectures to employers should, in all cases, be given prior to undertaking the training of their staff. The American method of approaching the problem of lectures has obviously been subject to detailed analysis, and it is felt that the three points given below can be considered with advantage by those responsible for lecturing to food handlers in this country. The methods of presentation should always take into account the fact that—
In a debate in the House of Commons on February 2nd, the following Motion was proposed and agreed : – “That this House is of opinion that further steps should be taken by His Majesty’s Government to encourage cleanliness in the preparation and serving of food in retail shops and catering establishments.”