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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Kenneth David Strang

The purpose of this study is to analyze how strategic planning is used as critical success factors (CSF’s) in not-for-profit (NFP) organizations. This was because many…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze how strategic planning is used as critical success factors (CSF’s) in not-for-profit (NFP) organizations. This was because many nonprofits had to innovate their operations owing to the global fiscal crises, the continuing international economic instability, natural disasters or the increasing man-made worldwide terrorism. Additionally, the objective is to identify what successful nonprofit organizations actually do to remain effective at the national association level of analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

A constructivist research design ideology is applied (in contrast to the customary positivist philosophy to collect quantitative). The literature is critically reviewed to identify NFP CSF’s and terms such as capacity building. NFP institutions are theoretically sampled using US-based retrospective data to identify practitioner CSF activities. Applying a constructivist research design ideology, the theoretical CSF’s from the literature review are compared to practitioner activities. Representatives of NFP organizations are invited to participate in a strategic planning exercise to identify the most important CSF’s from the literature and practice that would be needed in the future.

Findings

Seven of the nine United Nations NFP capacity building CSF’s are similar to NFP nine practitioner best practices. In comparison to the general literature, NFP practitioners applied leadership, strategic planning, innovation, documented procedures/training, human/technology resource management, financial management, accountability practices, ethical standards with professional communications policies, collaborative fundraising and marketing initiatives along with performance success evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was drawn theoretically from 44 nonprofit state-centered institutions in the USA. Although statistically the results pertain strictly to US-based nonprofits, the principles should generalize to other countries as revealed by the similarity with United Nations innovation and strategic planning recommendations.

Originality/value

The authors applied a strategic planning exercise with the 44 participants at their recommendations to prioritize the CSF’s. The result was an innovative SWOT-TOWS diagram that summarized how the nine CSF’s were prioritized and grouped into the three categories of market performance, ethical responsibility and human resources.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2017

Kenneth David Strang

The purpose of this paper is to engage African subject matter experts to assist with a needs assessment of international capacity building for developing countries in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to engage African subject matter experts to assist with a needs assessment of international capacity building for developing countries in Africa, to establish a prioritized list of capacity building keywords substantiated by a current literature review.

Design/methodology/approach

A pragmatic mixed-method research design was used which involved conducting literature reviews and applying a modified Delphi technique to determine future research needs. The credibility of these results was strengthened by selecting a Delphi subject matter expert panel from African countries including Benin, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Cameroon, Congo, Burkina Faso, Eritrea, Algeria and Nigeria. Non-parametric statistical techniques were used to objectively analyze the qualitative data and prioritize the findings.

Findings

The results clearly identified seven literature keywords which could improve future African capacity building research (in order of highest importance first): Trade Union (regional economic integration), Governance, FDI, Emigration, Education, Economic (small business stimulation), and Brain Gain. Additional keywords surfaced in the literature related to these ones, namely healthcare and brain drain (emigrating academics and scholars).

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study should generalize to government and capacity building policy administrators in Africa as well as to other researchers and practitioners in this field. The use of a novel modified Delphi technique should also be of interest to other researchers.

Originality/value

The modified Delphi technique commenced with a knowledge sharing conference where pre-selected subject matter experts collaborated to define the initial scope of questions. Another novel aspect of the customized Delphi technique was that the subject matter experts were required to conduct a literature review to substantiate their responses to questions.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Ferdinand Ndifor Che, Kenneth David Strang and Narasimha Rao Vajjhala

The purpose of this study is to uncover ground truth insights underlying the agriculture crisis from the perspectives of rural farmers in North-East Nigeria. The needs of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to uncover ground truth insights underlying the agriculture crisis from the perspectives of rural farmers in North-East Nigeria. The needs of individual farmers are otherwise not adequately reflected in national or regional economic development strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A unique sequential mixed-methods research design was adopted for this study. A grounded theory approach was used for the literature review followed by a consensual qualitative research (CQR) technique. Data were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group (FG) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers. The CQR technique included brainstorming, the nominal group technique, open discussions, sense-making and consensual agreement on the most important ideas. The FG sense-making was recorded, and discourse analysis was conducted to develop thematic concept maps using NVivo software.

Findings

Agriculture crisis ground truth insight themes were consistent with the extant literature but several different issues were also found. Rural farmers in North-East Nigeria have significant challenges with government support in six core areas, namely, farm input quality and dissemination, fair input subsidization, training, market facilitation, corruption and insecurity.

Research limitations/implications

The target population of this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria. A relatively small sample of 16 agricultural extension workers – very experienced farmers who also act as mentors and are paid incentives by the government for doing so – was used.

Practical implications

In tackling the agriculture crisis in Nigeria, policymakers will do well to recognize the realities that the rural farmers face and their needs, the government must address the areas highlighted in this study where support for farmers lacks and urgently review the current process of farm inputs dissemination.

Originality/value

Agriculture crisis problems were explored from the perspectives of rural North-East Nigerian farmers, who have not been previously sampled due to cultural, language, literacy and schedule constraints. The extension workers were better able to communicate agriculture crisis insights in modern economic planning terminology because they are well-educated farmers, knowledgeable about the problems due to their field experience and because they have more flexible work schedules. A unique sequential mixed-methods constructivist research design was used with an embedded CQR technique, which would be of interest to scholars and research institutions.

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Narasimha Rao Vajjhala and Kenneth David Strang

The researchers in this study reviewed the literature to locate the most relevant multicultural theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure Albania's national…

Abstract

Purpose

The researchers in this study reviewed the literature to locate the most relevant multicultural theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure Albania's national culture. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An innovative combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit the multicultural construct to the sample data and then estimate the national culture (n=73). The multicultural indexes were calculated for five generally accepted national culture factors to compare with the benchmarks published in the literature.

Findings

The multicultural indexes were calculated for five generally accepted national culture factors to compare with the benchmarks published in the literature. An asymmetric plot was created for critical comparison of Albania with five other theoretically selected countries, using the indexes for PDi, ICi, MFi, UAi, and LTi. Albania was found to be most similar to its Balkan and Turkish neighbors, as compared with Asian or Western cultures such as that of the USA.

Research limitations/implications

The researchers discussed the implications of knowing Albania's national culture profile with reference to how other countries might collaborate and transact with this emerging transition economy.

Practical implications

From a business standpoint, the multicultural indexes for Albania provide general indicators of the national beliefs, norms and values, which foreign organizations may compare to their own cultural profile when interacting with professionals in this country. The best use for such indexes is for benchmarking and comparison. Foreign government, private corporations, or nonprofit organizations may compare their own culture profile with that of Albania to be aware of the similarities and differences.

Originality/value

Albanian national culture was estimated for the first time in the literature, using a five-factor model adapted from the work of Hofstede.

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Kenneth David David Strang

This study aims to examine human-made oil–gas disasters to illustrate how a prescriptive model could be developed. Resilience to human-made disasters, such as oil or gas…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine human-made oil–gas disasters to illustrate how a prescriptive model could be developed. Resilience to human-made disasters, such as oil or gas spills, can be improved by using prescriptive models developed by analyzing past behavior. This type of study is useful for urban planning and monitoring, as there is a higher probability of human triggered disasters in densely populated areas.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined 10 years of more than 1,000 oil–gas disasters that were caused by humans in the upstate New York area to illustrate how a prescriptive model could be developed.

Findings

A statistically significant predictive model was developed that indicated humans in certain industry categories were approximately six times more likely to have an oil–gas accident resulting in environmental pollution.

Research limitations/implications

A prescriptive environmental protection model based on human accident behavior would generalize to all levels of government for policy planning, and it would be relevant to environmental protection groups in any region with a large population of humans using oil and gas (that covers most countries on earth).

Originality/value

The empirical risk management literature was reviewed to identify factors related to environmental accident prediction with the goal of developing an explanatory model that would fit the oil–gas human accident data.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Kenneth David Strang

Collaborative learning was examined as a pedagogy to determine if students could improve standardized exam scores when the professor led the sessions in class. The purpose…

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Abstract

Purpose

Collaborative learning was examined as a pedagogy to determine if students could improve standardized exam scores when the professor led the sessions in class. The purpose of this paper is to design a quasi-experiment to test the predictive ability of this pedagogy using a randomly allocated treatment vs control group. An externally administered standardized exam was used as the instrument.

Design/methodology/approach

A post-positivist ideology was employed, quantitative data were collected from standardized exit exams scores and from the experiment factors. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis along with a General Linear Model (GLM) ANCOVA were applied to test the hypothesis at the 95 percent confidence level.

Findings

A statistically significant model was developed using multiple regression in a Generalized Linear Model. The regression model developed in this study was able to capture 51 percent of variance on the exam score, using four predictors were (in order of importance): SAT, pedagogy, GPA, and gender.

Research limitations/implications

The GLM regression model proved that collaborative learning as pedagogy could increase standardized exam scores, since the only variation between the treatment vs control group was the pedagogy. Prior ability was still the most influential factor in the model, but when it was controlled for, pedagogy (collaborative learning) was shown to help students in the test group make a significant increase in exam score.

Practical implications

Business schools and other disciplines could apply the collaborative learning as a pedagogy to help students increase high-stakes exam scores, regardless of their gender, age, or prior ability. Several ideas were mentioned for replacing existing high-stakes exams.

Originality/value

A high degree of experimental control was imposed and the common predictors identified in the literature were tested to control for confounding influences. The researcher reflected on what really worked as techniques within the collaborative learning pedagogy process.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Kenneth David Strang

The literature was reviewed to locate the most relevant social-psychology theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure New York State resident attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature was reviewed to locate the most relevant social-psychology theories, factors, and instruments in order to measure New York State resident attitudes and social norms (SNs) concerning their intent to evacuate Hurricane Irene in the summer of 2011. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model which could be generalized to improve social policy determination for natural disaster preparation.

Design/methodology/approach

A post-positivist ideology was employed, quantitative data were collected from an online survey (nominal, binary, interval, and ratio), and inferential statistical techniques were applied to test theory-deductive hypotheses (Strang, 2013b). Since the questions for each hypothesized factor were customized using a pilot for this study, exploratory factor analysis were conducted to ensure the item validity and reliabilities were compared to a priori benchmarks (Gill et al., 2010). Correlation analysis along with logistic and multiple regression were applied to test the hypothesis at the 95 percent confidence level.

Findings

A statistically significant model was developed using correlation, stepwise regression, ordinary least squares regression, and logistic regression. Only two composite factors were needed to capture 55.4 percent of the variance for behavioral intent (BI) to evacuate. The model predicted 43.9 percent of the evacuation decisions, with 13.3 percent undecided, leaving 42.8 incorrectly classified), using logistic regression (n=401 surveyed participants).

Research limitations/implications

Municipal planners can use this information by creating surveys and collecting BI indicators from citizens, during risk planning, in advance of a natural disaster. The concepts could also apply to man-made disasters. Planners can use the results from these surveys to predict the overall likelihood that residents with home equity (e.g. home owners) intend to leave when given a public evacuation order.

Practical implications

Once municipal planners know the indicators for personal attitudes (PAs) (in particular) and SNs, they could sort these by region, to identify areas where the PAs were too low. Then additional evacuation preparation efforts can be focussed on those regions. According to these findings, the emphasis must be focussed on a PA basis, describing the extreme negative impacts of previous disasters, rather than using credible spokespersons, to persuade individuals to leave.

Originality/value

A new model was created with a “near miss disaster” severity factor as an extension to the theory of reasoned action.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Kenneth David Strang

A quasi‐experiment compared two instructional approaches for an existing MBA online business strategy course at an accredited university to answer the question: how can…

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Abstract

Purpose

A quasi‐experiment compared two instructional approaches for an existing MBA online business strategy course at an accredited university to answer the question: how can discussion questions become more effective in online MBA courses? The treatment was an instructional approach that integrated Socratic questioning and conversation theory in a discussion forum. This paper aims to document the research.

Design/methodology/approach

Correlation and ANOVA were utilized to test the hypothesis that more online experiential knowledge interactions would increase grade. Quasi‐experimental controls included prior ability and demographic factors (gender, age, ethnic race). The test group used Socratic questions and conversation theory while the control group used the traditional peer interaction. A statistically significant ANOVA model was created, using teaching method as a factor, to measure effect on grade.

Findings

The online interactions of the test group were higher and so was the mean grade. The MANCOVA model was able to pinpoint why. Prior ability was ruled out as a moderating factor.

Research limitations/implications

The implications were cited as an increasing need to use high quality instructional methods for online courses, which requires student interaction. Experienced faculty are difficult (and expensive) to hire, and thus this represents an important requirement to identify for faculty development and selection during recruiting. The teaching method could work with other online e‐learning courses disciplines.

Originality/value

A solid scientific methodology was applied using advanced statistical techniques yet the explanations are very basic and clear. Socratic questioning and conversation theory were integrated as an instructional strategy to improve online MBA course interactions and grades.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Kenneth David Strang

Aims to examine effective and ineffective leader behaviors from direct participant observations in several cases of a large multiyear cross‐industry international research…

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Abstract

Purpose

Aims to examine effective and ineffective leader behaviors from direct participant observations in several cases of a large multiyear cross‐industry international research project to prove the hypothesis that effective team performance management requires strong transformational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Transformational and charismatic leadership theories are briefly discussed from management science to explain how their principles can apply to and be analyzed in the project domain and other fields. Several popular and proven group leader behavior measurement constructs are discussed to show how they can be applied for assessing group leader behavior in any field. Two flexible taxonomies are built for assisting in quantitatively and qualitatively explaining stakeholder perceptions of group leader behaviors and team performance. Four theoretically sampled case studies are analyzed. The taxonomies are analyzed quantitatively and the results are qualitatively evaluated.

Findings

The structured research illuminated that both effective and absent transformational leadership behaviors were practiced (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation), which can go unnoticed and un‐reflected in the everyday pandemonium of busy project schedules, competing values, and organizational crises, yet in retrospect, these results show that passive or absent leadership is noticed by the team members and sponsors; moreover it negatively impacts on both project effectiveness and stakeholder satisfaction!

Research limitations/implications

Leaders, team members, stakeholders, and managers benefit from understanding transformational leadership, since it supports better human relations and organizational change. These cases show that effective team performance can result in minimal application of transformational leadership behaviors as long as they are not absent when required, and positive (not negative such as micro‐management).

Originality/value

This research suggests that leader behavior is complex since it is situational, supported by multiple and concurrent leadership and trait theories, as well as partly driven by dominant personality.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

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Abstract

Details

Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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