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This paper aims to present a theoretical underpinning for the fact that empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita…
This paper aims to present a theoretical underpinning for the fact that empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita income, based on credit restrictions. The implications for tax policy are also analyzed.
Using an intertemporal general equilibrium model, the authors characterize how the presence of an “inverted U-curve” relationship between emigration and per capita income will influence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad.
Among the results it is shown that if age-dependent taxes are available, the presence of an inverted-U curve provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise.
This migration model fits the empirical facts of migration better than most of the migration models previously used in the optimal taxation literature.
– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between occupational degree requirement and mortality between ethnic groups in a cohort of urban workers.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between occupational degree requirement and mortality between ethnic groups in a cohort of urban workers.
The study included 118,606 health-insured full-time workers from the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC). Mortality rates (MR) and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated for major ethnic categories. Estimates were adjusted for age, sex, and occupational degree requirement.
Prior to adjustment for degree requirement, mortality rates (MRs) by ethnic groups in the Health and Hospitals Corporation were in line with national estimates: highest for blacks, followed by whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islander (APIs). After adjustment, the MR for blacks became comparable to whites (mortality rate ratio (MRR)=1.02). The low-Hispanic MR did not change; the Hispanic advantage persisted (MRR=0.66), as did the API advantage (MRR=0.50).
Higher education may not substantially change the MR for Hispanics, and it may only account for a portion of the survival advantage among APIs. The findings also suggest that without reducing the disparity in higher education attainment between blacks and whites, equality in other socioeconomic factors may not abolish the disparity in mortality between these groups.
This study bypassed common limitations of ethnic mortality studies, with intrinsic parity for certain socio-economic status factors (full-time employment and health care access) across cohort members and consistent ethnic classification across time-points. This includes a cohort of API workers with complete self-identification of ethnicity, which has not been accomplished by previous investigations.