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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Ken Rivers

Describes the nature, causes and incidence of stress in theMetropolitan Police and the development of the welfare service into awelfare and counselling service. The…

Abstract

Describes the nature, causes and incidence of stress in the Metropolitan Police and the development of the welfare service into a welfare and counselling service. The service is proactive and it is used by management and families as well as key individual officers who suffer the adverse effects of traumatic incidents.

Details

Employee Councelling Today, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-8217

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1901

IN order to be able to discriminate with certainty between butter and such margarine as is sold in England, it is necessary to carry out two or three elaborate and…

Abstract

IN order to be able to discriminate with certainty between butter and such margarine as is sold in England, it is necessary to carry out two or three elaborate and delicate chemical processes. But there has always been a craving by the public for some simple method of determining the genuineness of butter by means of which the necessary trouble could be dispensed with. It has been suggested that such easy detection would be possible if all margarine bought and sold in England were to be manufactured with some distinctive colouring added—light‐blue, for instance—or were to contain a small amount of phenolphthalein, so that the addition of a drop of a solution of caustic potash to a suspected sample would cause it to become pink if it were margarine, while nothing would occur if it were genuine butter. These methods, which have been put forward seriously, will be found on consideration to be unnecessary, and, indeed, absurd.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Venkatesh Dutta, Manoj Vimal, Sonvir Singh and Rana Pratap Singh

The purpose of this paper is to assess the agricultural practices in a drought-prone region of India in an effort to find out how science, technology and innovation (STI…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the agricultural practices in a drought-prone region of India in an effort to find out how science, technology and innovation (STI) measures can address the existing problems and help achieve sustainable solutions. This study has been planned with two specific objectives: to study the agricultural practices of small and marginal-holding farmers in a drought-prone region and to examine the opportunities for suitable interventions to mitigate the impacts of droughts. The study is based on primary survey conducted in Banda district of Bundelkhand region, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical survey was done in eight different blocks of a drought-prone region of India using structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was pre-tested with a group of 12 farmers during a workshop through a pilot survey conducted during April 2017. Stratified sampling based on land holdings (small farmers having 1–2 ha of land, medium farmers having 2.1–5 ha of land and large farmers having more than 5 ha of land) and irrigation types (canals and tube wells) were utilised in different blocks of the district for selecting farmers in the surveyed villages.

Findings

Findings suggest that due to various reasons like change in climatic conditions, frequent crop failure, crop diseases and high cost of production, farmers have adopted certain crops which are not suited to their agro-climatic conditions. The paper recommends that farmer’s school or “on-farm training school” have to be initiated to integrate farmers’ traditional knowledge with modern knowledge systems with amalgamation of STI tools.

Research limitations/implications

Uttar Pradesh is divided into nine agro-climatic zones; however, this study is focused on Bundelkhand and may be region specific, though the findings are important for other drought-prone areas.

Practical implications

The paper links the existing agricultural practices and further linking them with farmers’ socio-economic, cultural and environmental settings. Only 17.5 per cent of respondents owned any agricultural equipment due to high cost of farm tools, difficulty in taking equipements on rental basis and lack of sharing tools among the farmers.

Social implications

This paper targets small and marginal farmers in the drought-prone region of India who face the dual shock of climate impacts and poverty. Adoption of modern agricultural practices and use of technology is inadequate which is further hampered by ignorance of such practices, high costs and impracticality in the case of small land holdings.

Originality/value

This paper has advocated for well-organised, efficient and result-oriented STI system to mitigate the adverse impacts of drought-prone agriculture. Farming community in drough-prone areas needs adequate investment, local-specific technology, better quality inputs, real-time information on weather and most importantly latest know-how for sustaining commercial and cost effective sustainable agriculture.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Thomas W. Kent

To create a starting point for defining the processes of leading and managing in a way that enables both the separation and distinction of the concepts for study as well…

Abstract

Purpose

To create a starting point for defining the processes of leading and managing in a way that enables both the separation and distinction of the concepts for study as well as the integration of the concepts for practical application.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on research that describes specific behaviors involved in leading and in managing; and it proposed a model that might be used to think about the integration of the two processes – leading and managing. The paper further describes the specific competencies involved in both leading and in managing.

Findings

The paper suggests that the current literature is particularly confusing as a result of the lack of agreement and specificity regarding the nature of the processes of leading and managing. The literature suffers from a proliferation of “spin off” forms of leadership – such as strategic leadership, entrepreneurial leadership, etc. – as well as from using the two terms as replacements for each other.

Originality/value

This discussion should further the research on the study of leadership competencies and leadership behaviors. It should also prove useful to those wishing to develop leadership development programs, leadership selection criteria, and more.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 43 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1973

The pattern of prosecutions forfood offences has changed very little in the past decade. Compositional offences have rarely exceeded 5 per cent and, since the 1967 batch…

Abstract

The pattern of prosecutions forfood offences has changed very little in the past decade. Compositional offences have rarely exceeded 5 per cent and, since the 1967 batch of regulations for meat products, are mostly in respect of deficient meat content. Food hygiene offences have also remained steady, with no improvement to show for all the effort to change the monotony of repulsive detail. The two major causes of all legal proceedings, constituting about 90 per cent of all cases—the presence of foreign matter and sale of mouldy food—continue unchanged; and at about the same levels, viz. an average of 55 per cent of the total for foreign matter and 35 per cent for mouldy food. What is highly significant about this changed concept of food and drugs administration is that almost all prosecutions now arise from consumer complaint. The number for adulteration as revealed by official sampling and analysis and from direct inspectorial action is small in relation to the whole. A few mouldy food offences are included in prosecutions for infringements of the food hygiene regulations, but for most of the years for which statistics have been gathered by the BFJ and published annually, all prosecutions for the presence of foreign matter have come from consumer complaint. The extent to which food law administration is dependent upon this source is shown by the fact that 97 per cent of all prosecutions in 1971 for foreign bodies and mouldy food—579 and 340 respectively—resulted from complaints; and in 1972, 98 per cent of prosecutions resulted from the same source in respect of 597 for foreign matter and 341 for mouldy food. Dirty milk bottle cases in both years all arose from consumer complaint; 41 and 37 respectively.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 75 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Ather Akhlaq and Ejaz Ahmed

The aim of this study is to find out the type of motivation that provokes an individual to trust and use the internet banking system in a low income country. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to find out the type of motivation that provokes an individual to trust and use the internet banking system in a low income country. In this paper, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation are studied that may build trust in an individual to accept internet banking technology.

Design/methodology/approach

With the sample size of 109 respondents, structural equation modeling is used to find the measurement and the structural model for this research.

Findings

Extrinsic motivation did not fit within the measurement model and was therefore excluded. Finally, the research model showed that intrinsic motivation is responsible in building user's trust in the acceptance of internet banking.

Research limitations/implications

This research is difficult to generalize because of the relatively small sample size. However, the sample has been taken from the biggest city of Pakistan, Karachi, which accommodates people from almost every region of the country suggesting that the results could be generalized to an extent. Future research can use this model to study the adoption of internet banking in other regions.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the banking industry including foreign banks that have laid the foundations and infrastructure for a robust internet banking environment but still have not reached the optimal user base due to lack of trust. Banks need to follow a strategy to work on intrinsic motivational factors such as perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment to induce trust in individuals to attract more internet banking users.

Originality/value

Despite the benefits, internet banking is not being used extensively in low income countries. The research fills the gap for the low income country by using the motivation theory and the technology acceptance model to increase the level of trust in individuals to adopt internet banking. This integrated model can also be applied to other developing countries which are relatively new to internet banking.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

J.R. Carby‐Hall

One of the common law duties owed by the employer is his duty to take reasonable care for the safety of his employee. This common law duty is an implied term in the…

Abstract

One of the common law duties owed by the employer is his duty to take reasonable care for the safety of his employee. This common law duty is an implied term in the contract of employment and is therefore contractual in nature. Because of the difficulties which may arise in bringing an action in contract for breach of the employer's duty of care, the employee who has sustained injuries during the course of his employment (although he may sue either in contract of tort will normally bring a tort action.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 31 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Musa Pinar, Tulay Girard and Cigdem Basfirinci

In response to global competitive challenges, universities recently started developing better strategies for branding. Branding has been used as a differentiation strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

In response to global competitive challenges, universities recently started developing better strategies for branding. Branding has been used as a differentiation strategy for higher education institutions. As the number of universities (public and private) has increased, so has the competition for students, the universities in Turkey have faced similar challenges. The main objective of this study is to investigate, from the students' perspective, the role of interactions of brand equity dimensions in creating a strong university brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Compiling from the literature, the study used a survey instrument to collect data at a comprehensive public university in Turkey. To assure representation of students across the campus, the sample included students at freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior and graduate levels from all major colleges.

Findings

Based on 1,300 usable surveys from students across all colleges of a major state university, the PLS-SEM model revealed significant relationships among the brand equity dimensions of brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association, learning environment, emotional environment, brand trust, brand loyalty and university reputation. These brand dimensions collectively and/or individually influence the students' university learning experiences that may result in creating strong university brand equity.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted at a government-owned university in Turkey capturing only students' perceptions. Future research could benefit from perceptions of other stakeholders like faculty, staff, alumni, and parents and testing the relationships for different types of universities. This study discusses the implications for developing university branding strategies.

Originality/value

The study empirically tests the validity and effects of the university brand equity dimensions with Turkish university students using structural equation modeling (SEM). It confirms that the measures of brand equity dimensions are also applicable in a different country.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2007

Bernhard Swoboda, Frank Haelsig, Dirk Morschett and Hanna Schramm‐Klein

The purpose of this research is to try to show the relevance of service quality in building a strong retail brand. It addresses how retailer attributes affect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to try to show the relevance of service quality in building a strong retail brand. It addresses how retailer attributes affect customer‐based retail brand equity, when considering retailers as brands. These attributes are compared with one another, and the importance of service is set in proportion to the other retailer attributes, both intersectorally and sector‐specifically. An integrated model is used here.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study across five retail sectors (grocery, textiles, DIY, consumer electronics and furniture retailing) based on a survey with 2,000 face‐to‐face interviews. Structural equation modelling is used to illustrate the impact of central dimensions of the perception of retailer service and of the other retailer attributes on customer‐based retail brand equity.

Findings

In retailing, service quality appears to be the most important retailer attribute in building a strong retail brand – as demonstrated in four out of five sectors. The integrated model developed in this study can make a significant contribution to a field of knowledge which at present is not well developed.

Research limitations/implications

A more detailed analysis of the cross‐sectoral differences is undoubtedly necessary. Furthermore, a more exact analysis of retailer service is certainly required, but it must also incorporate other retailer attributes in order to achieve dimensions of comparison.

Practical implications

The importance of service in retailing is intersectorally underlined in comparison to the other retailer attributes/retail marketing instruments. Even in sectors that characteristically use self‐service, the importance of service quality and particularly of friendly and competent staff is evident. Compared to the other retailer attributes, service is one strategic element that can be used effectively by retailers of almost any size. A small or medium sized retailer usually cannot distinguish itself from its competitors by means of price, but with a service‐oriented business.

Originality/value

Unlike other investigations, a model is applied in this paper to five retail sectors, so both general and also sector‐specific conclusions can be drawn on the importance of customer service and the other retailer attributes. Furthermore, customer service is not analysed in isolation, thus we have dimensions of comparison, unlike many other authors who look at service alone.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Veronika V. Tarnovskaya and Leslie de Chernatony

This paper aims to explore the mechanism of brand internalisation when a brand transcends national borders. It focuses on the ways international and local managers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the mechanism of brand internalisation when a brand transcends national borders. It focuses on the ways international and local managers interpret the brand, develop brand understanding and enact it through communication with other colleagues.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a case study of IKEA in Russia and China during 2003‐2004.

Findings

The processes of brand conceptualising, comprehending and activating are identified, characterised by a weakening collective sense making amongst employees locally. Brand activating represents a discontinuity stage of brand internalisation when a shared brand understanding by employees becomes increasingly difficult to achieve. As such managers should broaden their brand contexts to include cultural elements and cues, involve local staff as well as adopt roles which facilitate collective sense‐making processes.

Research limitations/implications

New research should explore local employees' brand experiences throughout their brand internalisation. It should also delve deeper into the ways they enact their brand in relationships with other local stakeholders.

Practical implications

The study argues that international managers need greater awareness of theirs' and local employees' roles in brand internalisation. Managers need to create common frameworks for sense making and work towards partnership relationships with local stakeholders.

Originality/value

This is an original paper of value to global retailers and other branded organisations.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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