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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Morton Beiser, Alasdair M. Goodwill, Patrizia Albanese, Kelly McShane and Parvathy Kanthasamy

Refugees integrate less successfully than other immigrants. Pre-migration stress, mental disorder and lack of human capital are the most popular explanations, but these…

Abstract

Purpose

Refugees integrate less successfully than other immigrants. Pre-migration stress, mental disorder and lack of human capital are the most popular explanations, but these propositions have received little empirical testing. The current study of Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto, Canada, examines the respective contributions of pre-migration adversity, human capital, mental health and social resources in predicting integration. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants are a probability sample of 1,603 Sri Lankan Tamils living in Toronto, Canada. The team, with a community advisory council, developed structured interviews containing information about pre- and post-migration stressors, coping strategies, and family, community, and institutional support. The questionnaire included the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview module for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Interviews were translated, back-translated and administered by bilingual interviewers.

Findings

Two dimensions of integration emerged from a factor analysis of integration-related items: economic and psychosocial. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that PTSD militated against refugee economic integration, whereas pre-migration adversity (but not PTSD) compromised psychosocial integration. On both measures, increasing length of residence in Canada, and gender (male) were predictors of good integration, whereas age at arrival had an inverse relationship with integration. Religiosity had a positive effect on psychosocial integration but a negative effect on economic. Favourable perceptions of the health care system predicted economic integration and non-family support predicted psychosocial integration.

Originality/value

Results underline the importance of studying integration as a multifaceted phenomenon, help explain why refugees integrate less successfully than other immigrants, and highlight the importance of including mental health and mental health-related issues in integration discourse.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Julie Sadler

The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effect of high and low‐level local union leaders on various forms of member participation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effect of high and low‐level local union leaders on various forms of member participation.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews and surveys of the leaders and members of an Educators Association operating in the USA were used to explore these complex relationships. Multiple regression, hierarchical regression, and path analyses were used to test direct and indirect relationship and the amount of variance explained by participatory leadership.

Findings

Survey results indicate that a member's perception of the participatory style of the local union president positively related to, and explained a significant amount of additional variance in, union activities that require moderate and high levels of effort. No support was found for the workplace representative's direct relationship with various measures of member participation. The indirect effects of the union president's and the workplace representatives’ participatory style on union involvement highlight the importance of various union leadership roles on developing various union attitudes.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the cross‐sectional nature of the study, common method bias, and a small sample size (N=113).

Practical implications

Results of the study highlight the importance of the union president in fostering union attitudes and certain forms of union participation. The findings suggest areas for leadership development and training opportunities of union officials.

Originality/value

Unique elements of the study include an exploration of multiple leadership roles on union attitudes and various forms of union participation.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Grant O’Neill, Antonio Travaglione, Steven McShane, Justin Hancock and Joshua Chang

This paper aims to investigate whether values enactment could be increased through frame-of-reference (FOR) training configured around values prototyping and behavioural…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether values enactment could be increased through frame-of-reference (FOR) training configured around values prototyping and behavioural domain training for managers within an Australian public sector organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Employees from an Australian public sector organisation were studied to ascertain the effect of values training and development via a three-way longitudinal design with a control group.

Findings

The findings indicate that FOR training can increase employee values enactment clarity and, thereby, have a positive impact upon organisational values enactment.

Practical implications

The application of FOR training constitutes a new approach to supporting the development of employee values clarity, which, in turn, can support the achievement of organisational values enactment. Through FOR training, employees can learn to apply organisational values in their decision-making and other behaviours irrespective of whether they are highly congruent with their personal values.

Originality/value

Empirical research into values management is limited and there is a lack of consensus to what is needed to create a values-driven organisation. The article shows that FOR training can be a beneficial component of a broader human resource strategy aimed at increasing organisational values enactment. With reference to the resource-based view of the firm, it is argued that values enactment constitutes a distinctive capability that may confer sustained organisational advantage.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Sarah Low, Kerryn Butler-Henderson, Rosie Nash and Kelly Abrams

The health information management (HIM) profession lacks clarity around leadership and leadership development. To date, little empirical research exists on this topic, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The health information management (HIM) profession lacks clarity around leadership and leadership development. To date, little empirical research exists on this topic, and it is unclear if broader approaches for healthcare leadership are suitable. This paper aims to explore which the leadership styles are relevant to the HIM profession. The findings were also used to inform a discussion on how HIM professionals could develop these leadership styles.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a systematic scoping literature review, deductive thematic analysis was undertaken to extrapolate common themes around this style of leadership based on transversal competency domains that reflect twenty-first century skills (i.e. critical thinking and innovation, interpersonal, intrapersonal and global citizenship) (Bernard, Watch and Ryan, 2016; UNESCO, 2015). This approach enabled the findings to be discussed from a leadership development perspective.

Findings

Analysis of the literature revealed that a relational leadership style through a team-based approach is required. Literature studies on how to develop leadership competencies were not found.

Research limitations/implications

Future policy and research implications include the need for research on transversal competencies to determine if they can shape HIM leadership development.

Practical implications

This leadership style and competencies proposed are relevant across many occupations and may have broader applications for leadership research, education and development.

Originality/value

This paper defines the style of leadership required in the HIM profession and identifies a succinct set of contemporary competencies to inform the development of this type of leadership.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Iona Byford

This empirical paper aims to explore the effectiveness of the organising model from a worker perspective in unionised workplaces within higher education support services.

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical paper aims to explore the effectiveness of the organising model from a worker perspective in unionised workplaces within higher education support services.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used in two university Unison branches. Three themes were used to measure the efficacy of the organising model: participation, identification with the union, and union effectiveness.

Findings

The findings were mixed in terms of the success of the organising model in this setting. In terms of the three themes of analysis, there was strong instrumental participation in union matters at the workplace but a lack of deeper penetration of the wider organising agenda in terms of identifying with the union, represented by half the respondents only feeling the salience of their union membership at the workplace. Most respondents felt their union was effective at the workplace in terms of improving pay and conditions but the effectiveness of broader union building aims as proposed by the organising model was not endorsed.

Research limitations/implications

The implications for the organising model from this research are that there need to be more resources and effort delivered at the workplace level through reps and members to make it truly effective and sustainable.

Originality/value

This research adds to a body of knowledge concerned with workers themselves and how they experience trade unionism at their place of work with the focus of their experience examined through the lens of the organising model.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Kevin P. Kearns, Jonathan Livingston, Shelley Scherer and Lydia McShane

– The purpose of this paper is to explore how chief executives of 20 nonprofit organizations construe and prioritize the skills they use to perform typical leadership tasks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how chief executives of 20 nonprofit organizations construe and prioritize the skills they use to perform typical leadership tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

The in-depth interview protocol used in the study is based on the Repertory Grid Technique, which elicits assumptions, beliefs, and values of respondents without imposing the researchers’ implicit frame of reference.

Findings

The interviews generated 285 skill constructs. Respondents in this study report that they utilize a mix of technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills. Interpersonal skills, especially communication and trust building, appear to be particularly prevalent among the many skills used by executives to perform their leadership tasks.

Research limitations/implications

Because this is an exploratory study, its findings cannot yet be generalized to other contexts. Therefore, the paper concludes with some propositions for further research.

Practical implications

The study may have implications for the design of curricula to prepare people to assume leadership positions in nonprofit organizations.

Originality/value

This study uses a distinctive methodology to elicit from nonprofit leaders their assumptions and beliefs about the skills they use to perform leadership tasks. In this respect, the findings are grounded in the frames of reference of the subjects, not those of the researchers.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Jack Fiorito, Irene Padavic and Zachary A. Russell

The question of why workers support unions is one of the most fundamental in employment relations. Using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior we conduct a selective review…

Abstract

The question of why workers support unions is one of the most fundamental in employment relations. Using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior we conduct a selective review of literature and evidence on union voting, joining, and participation. We focus primarily on the question of motivation as stemming from self-interest or from pro-social considerations. Secondary attention is given to the influence of others’ views (subjective norms) and worker perceptions that they can achieve desired behaviors (perceived control or self-efficacy). We find support for the notion that workers are concerned with neither member self-interest (“just us”) alone, nor pro-social (“justice”) alone, but rather that they are motivated to form, join, and participate by both considerations. This micro-foundation for considering unions as institutions suggests that unions are neither narrow self-interested institutions nor purely pro-social movements, but “a little bit of both.” We offer propositions and consider implications for theory, practice, and future research.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, 2017: Shifts in Workplace Voice, Justice, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution in Contemporary Workplaces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-486-8

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Toussaint Ciza Bugandwa, Eddy Balemba Kanyurhi, Deogratias Bugandwa Mungu Akonkwa and Benjamin Haguma Mushigo

This paper has two purposes. First is to operationalise the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and trust in the context of a developing country, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper has two purposes. First is to operationalise the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and trust in the context of a developing country, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Second purpose is to test in a disaggregated perspective the impact of each CSR dimension on trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 264 customers of six banks and processed with exploratory, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations using LISREL 9.1.

Findings

CSR is found to have five dimensions: legal responsibility, social needs responsibility, product responsibility, environmental responsibility and employee responsibility; trust is found to be a three-dimensional construct: integrity, compassion and partnership. Each CSR dimension has a positive impact on customers' perception of trustworthiness.

Research limitations/implications

Reliability of trust is not high enough, suggesting the need to deepen research in order to find a more adapted CSR scale for banks. The smallness of sample size might have influenced the robustness of our psychometric results. CSR and trust relationships might be analysed in a more enriched framework including service quality, reputation and banks' employee performance as moderating variables. This paper has measured the two concepts from the customers' perspective only. However, both CSR and trust are best understood in a stakeholder perspective. So, it might be insightful to extend future research in a stakeholder orientation perspective.

Practical implications

Banks from developing countries are also concerned with CSR and should invest in it. Clearly, each dimension of CSR should receive enough importance if Congolese banks are to recover their customers' trust. The findings of the study also suggest that banks' customers are aware of the necessity for banks to comply with the country's legislation. Non-compliance can have severe influence on customers' trustworthiness to banks.

Social implications

Financial institutions are generally evaluated through financial indicators. The findings suggest that banks customers and other stakeholders begin a shift towards requiring their banks to invest in social and environmental activities in order to improve their local milieu. These aspects are still very neglected, or adopted only as marketing strategies to improve image, without a true willingness to be socially responsive.

Originality/value

The two concepts are measured in a context where they did not receive enough importance (developing country), hence providing new knowledge in the field. Further, a disaggregated approach allowed understanding the way each CSR dimension impacts trust, which had not been the case in previous research.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Ginni Chawla, Tripti Singh, Rupali Singh and Sonal Agarwal

Viewed in the context of liberalization, privatization and globalization, the socio-economic and legal environment facing the unions have changed, throwing them into…

Abstract

Purpose

Viewed in the context of liberalization, privatization and globalization, the socio-economic and legal environment facing the unions have changed, throwing them into clutches of adversity and destitution. The purpose of this paper is to identify the reasons (i.e. antecedents) behind workers’ participation in union activities (such as strikes, rallies, demonstrations) in today’s scenario, and to understand how these participation tactics influence workers’ performance (i.e. worker behavior effectiveness) at work.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published sources is drawn on, including quantitative, survey based and qualitative, case-study and other evidence for building the conceptual review.

Findings

The investigation clearly indicates that contemporary challenges facing unions in the present scenario prompt industrial actions. Only specific and genuine grievances and justifiable demands motivate workers to form a strong emotional attachment to their unions and engage in union participation activities such as strike activity (Darlington, 2006; Bean and Stoney, 1986).

Originality/value

Contrary to the traditional view, which sights unions as detrimental to worker productivity, turnover, and attendance at work (via restrictive work rules, featherbedding and disruptive strikes or other adversarial tactics), the investigation, through extensive review of literature proposes that unions positively influence worker behavior at work. The model, however, requires empirical testing to validate the proposed relationships.

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