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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Tim Baines, Ali Ziaee Bigdeli, Oscar F. Bustinza, Victor Guang Shi, James Baldwin and Keith Ridgway

The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the servitization knowledge base from an organizational change perspective, identifying developed, developing and undeveloped…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the servitization knowledge base from an organizational change perspective, identifying developed, developing and undeveloped topics to provide a platform that directs future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper addresses three objectives: it comprehensively examines organizational change management literature for selection of a theoretical framework; it classifies extant studies within the framework through a systemic literature review; and it analyses 232 selected papers and proposes a research agenda.

Findings

Analysis suggests increasing global awareness of the importance of services to manufacturers. However, some topics, especially related to servitization transformation, remain undeveloped.

Research limitations/implications

Although the authors tried to include all publications relevant to servitization, some might not have been captured. Evaluation and interpretation relied on the research team and subsequent research workshops.

Practical implications

One of the most significant challenges for practitioners of servitization is how to transform a manufacturing organization to exploit the opportunity. This paper consolidates literature regarding servitization, identifying progress concerning key research topics and contributing a platform for future research. The goal is to inform research to result eventually in a roadmap for practitioners seeking to servitize.

Originality/value

Although extant reviews of servitization identify themes that are examined well, they struggle to identify unanswered questions. This paper addresses this gap by focusing on servitization as a process of organizational change.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Christen Rose-Anderssen, James Baldwin and Keith Ridgway

The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the state of the art of applications of organisational systematics and manufacturing cladistics in terms of strengths…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the state of the art of applications of organisational systematics and manufacturing cladistics in terms of strengths and weaknesses and introduce new generic cladistic and hierarchical classifications of discrete manufacturing systems. These classifications are the basis for a practical web-based expert system and diagnostic benchmarking tool.

Design/methodology/approach

There were two stages for the research methods, with eight re-iterative steps: one for theory building, using secondary and observational data, producing conceptual classifications; the second stage for theory testing and theory development, using quantitative data from 153 companies and 510 manufacturing systems, producing the final factual cladogram. Evolutionary relationships between 53 candidate manufacturing systems, using 13 characters with 84 states, are hypothesised and presented diagrammatically. The manufacturing systems are also organised in a hierarchical classification with 13 genera, 6 families and 3 orders under one class of discrete manufacturing.

Findings

This work addressed several weaknesses of current manufacturing cladistic classifications which include the lack of an explicit out-group comparison, limited conceptual cladogram development, limited use of characters and that previous classifications are specific to sectors. In order to correct these limitations, the paper first expands on previous work by producing a more generic manufacturing system classification. Second, it describes a novel web-based expert system for the practical application of the discrete manufacturing system.

Practical implications

The classifications form the basis for a practical web-based expert system and diagnostic benchmarking tool, but also have a novel use in an educational context as it simplifies and relationally organises extant manufacturing system knowledge.

Originality/value

The research employed a novel re-iterative methodology for both theory building, using observational data, producing the conceptual classification, and through theory testing developing the final factual cladogram that forms the basis for the practical web-based expert system and diagnostic tool.

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Abdullah AlFaify, James Hughes and Keith Ridgway

The pulsed-laser powder bed fusion (PBF) process is an additive manufacturing technology that uses a laser with pulsed beam to melt metal powder. In this case, stainless…

Abstract

Purpose

The pulsed-laser powder bed fusion (PBF) process is an additive manufacturing technology that uses a laser with pulsed beam to melt metal powder. In this case, stainless steel SS316L alloy is used to produce complex components. To produce components with acceptable mechanical performance requires a comprehensive understanding of process parameters and their interactions. This study aims to understand the influence of process parameters on reducing porosity and increasing part density.

Design/methodology/approach

The response surface method (RSM) is used to investigate the impact of changing critical parameters on the density of parts manufactured. Parameters considered include: point distance, exposure time, hatching distance and layer thickness. Part density was used to identify the most statistically significant parameters, before each parameter was analysed individually.

Findings

A clear correlation between the number and shape of pores and the process parameters was identified. Point distance, exposure time and layer thickness were found to significantly affect part density. The interaction between these parameters also critically affected the development of porosity. Finally, a regression model was developed and verified experimentally and used to accurately predict part density.

Research limitations/implications

The study considered a range of selected parameters relevant to the SS316L alloy. These parameters need to be modified for other alloys according to their physical properties.

Originality/value

This study is believed to be the first systematic attempt to use RSM for the design of experiments (DOE) to investigate the effect of process parameters of the pulsed-laser PBF process on the density of the SS316L alloy components.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Chan Choy Peng and Keith Ridgway

Describes the development of an integrated computerized engineeringdatabase and CAD/CAM system at Presto Tools Ltd, Sheffield, UK.Following an examination of the existing…

Abstract

Describes the development of an integrated computerized engineering database and CAD/CAM system at Presto Tools Ltd, Sheffield, UK. Following an examination of the existing computer hardware and software systems the factors inhibiting the development of an integrated environment were identified. Using a suite of computer programs and application packages including Smartware II, Anvil‐5000 (CAD) and Pathtrace (CAM), an integrated system was developed with the objective of creating a more responsive and interactive manufacturing environment. Describes the original facilities, and the development of the new system.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Christen Rose‐Anderssen, James Baldwin, Keith Ridgway, Peter Allen, Liz Varga and Mark Strathern

This paper aims to address the advantage of considering an evolutionary classification scheme for commercial aerospace supply chains. It is an industry wide approach. By…

2258

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the advantage of considering an evolutionary classification scheme for commercial aerospace supply chains. It is an industry wide approach. By going beyond the performance of the single firm and considering the whole supply chain for a product a better understanding of present states and performances of the firms within the chain can be achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is presented as evolutionary steps by introduction of key supply chain characters. These steps are brought together by applying cladistics to classify the evolutionary relationships between supply chain forms.

Findings

Key character states define the change of supply chain forms in the evolutionary adaptation to market realities and to proactive responses to increased competition.

Originality/value

The potential benefits of this approach include a benchmark of best practice, a strategic tool for policy development, and the creation of future scenarios.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

C.Y.D. Liu and Keith Ridgway

Argues that the mathematical techniques embodied in existingcomputer‐based inventory management systems software have not kept pacewith developments. Describes the…

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Abstract

Argues that the mathematical techniques embodied in existing computer‐based inventory management systems software have not kept pace with developments. Describes the development of ABC‐classified stock analysis and demand forecasting modules, to be integrated into an existing materials management system, which enable a major cutting‐tool manufacturer to minimize its stockholding costs while providing a high level of customer service.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

C.Y.D. Liu and Keith Ridgway

Describes the second stage in the development of a computer‐aidedinventory management system (CAIMS) for PRESTO Tools Ltd, Sheffield.Describes the development of modules…

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Abstract

Describes the second stage in the development of a computer‐aided inventory management system (CAIMS) for PRESTO Tools Ltd, Sheffield. Describes the development of modules for calculating the re‐order level and economic batch quantity. Reviews the inventory control policies of the company and discusses the various options available to the company. The final part of the article describes and evaluates the operation of the system.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Gustavo Escobar‐Palafox, Rosemary Gault and Keith Ridgway

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of shaped metal deposition (SMD). SMD is an additive manufacturing process which uses a robotic cell to create fully…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of shaped metal deposition (SMD). SMD is an additive manufacturing process which uses a robotic cell to create fully dense, near‐net shape, metallic parts directly from computer‐aided design files.

Design/methodology/approach

Research into optimising the SMD process was carried out as part of the 6th Framework RAPOLAC project. This included developing both robotic and weld models, creating a weld controller, and using a design of experiments approach to optimise parameters based on the resultant component microstructure and material properties. Extensive metallurgical analysis and mechanical testing was carried out.

Findings

A mechatronic model of the robot was produced and integrated with a novel controller to allow parts to be manufactured with little or no operator intervention. Computational models of the temperature field, microstructure, strain and stresses that occur during deposition were also developed. Variation in weld parameters was linked to part microstructure and mechanical properties.

Research limitations/implications

This research focussed on a common titanium aerospace alloy (Ti‐6Al‐4V).

Practical implications

The SMD process is applicable to a variety of parts in a range of industrial sectors. It is cost‐effective for low‐volume parts and prototypes, but it is envisaged that its main use will be to add material to previously forged or cast components and therefore SMD will allow companies to reduce both the size of forgings and material waste. SMD as a repair technique is also being investigated.

Originality/value

The paper provides a summary of the latest advances in robotic manufacturing by SMD.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

Christen Rose‐Anderssen, James Baldwin and Keith Ridgway

This paper seeks to explore the effects of communicative interaction on integration and coordination of a commercial aerospace supply chain.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore the effects of communicative interaction on integration and coordination of a commercial aerospace supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

A perspective of supply chains as complex activity networks is used for data analysis based on in‐depth interviews in a global setting. Themes for interviews were identified through literature research.

Findings

The paper finds that integration through risk‐sharing partnerships is chosen for co‐developing expertise and innovative capacity. Practices of integration and coordination through communicative interaction are emerging while they are producing innovative solutions and competitive advantage. The multi‐voiced interaction between partners in the supply chain is assisting in moving the product beyond what the airframe manufacturer could have created alone.

Originality/value

The paper provides evidence of changing interactive practices in commercial aerospace supply chains. By applying concepts of supply chains as he interaction of multiple work activities this assists in comprehending the forces of change. Communicative interaction within the supply chain is used for co‐construction of meaning to enhance change and development.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

James S. Baldwin, Peter M. Allen and Keith Ridgway

The purpose of this is to add both to the development of complex systems thinking in the subject area of operations and production management and to the limited number of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this is to add both to the development of complex systems thinking in the subject area of operations and production management and to the limited number of applications of computational models and simulations from the science of complex systems. The latter potentially offer helpful decision‐support tools for operations and production managers.

Design/methodology/approach

A mechanical engineering firm was used as a case study where a combined qualitative and quantitative methodological approach was employed to extract the required data from four senior managers. Company performance measures as well as firm technologies, practices and policies, and their relation and interaction with one another, were elicited. The data were subjected to an evolutionary complex systems (ECS) model resulting in a series of simulations.

Findings

The findings highlighted the effects of the diversity in management decision making on the firm's evolutionary trajectory. The CEO appeared to have the most balanced view of the firm, closely followed by the marketing and research and development managers. The manufacturing manager's responses led to the most extreme evolutionary trajectory where the integrity of the entire firm came into question particularly when considering how employees were utilised.

Research limitations/implications

By drawing directly from the opinions and views of managers, rather than from logical “if‐then” rules and averaged mathematical representations of agents that characterise agent‐based and other self‐organisational models, this work builds on previous applications by capturing a micro‐level description of diversity that has been problematical both in theory and application.

Practical implications

This approach can be used as a decision‐support tool for operations and other managers providing a forum with which to explore: the strengths, weaknesses and consequences of different decision‐making capacities within the firm; the introduction of new manufacturing technologies, practices and policies; and the different evolutionary trajectories that a firm can take.

Originality/value

With the inclusion of “micro‐diversity”, ECS modelling moves beyond the self‐organisational models that populate the literature but has not as yet produced a great many practical simulation results. This work is a step in that direction.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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