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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Ashleigh I. Hodge, Keith L. Warren and Jessica V. Linley

– The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 49 incarcerated female residents tracked interactions with peers, including verbal affirmations and corrections, during a 12-hour period. Two weeks later, staff members were surveyed about their view of participants as role models. Poisson regression was used to analyze resident interactions and demographics as predictors of role model status.

Findings

The number of corrections given to peers was positively related to staff ratings of role model status (B=0.234, SE=0.088, p=0.008). The number of affirmations given was negatively related to staff ratings (B=−0.112, SE=0.051, p=0.028). Resident phase was positively related to staff ratings (B=0.256, SE=0.102, p=0.012). These values did not significantly change when controlling for affirmations and corrections received from peers, non-programmatic interactions between residents, or resident demographics.

Research limitations/implications

These results imply that TC staff judge role model status by resident actions in the community rather than demographics or peer reactions. External validity is limited by the single site, case study design, and the fact that only female TC residents were sampled.

Originality/value

This study is the first to track resident peer interactions over the course of a day and to link those interactions to role model status.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Jessica V. Linley and Keith L. Warren

Aftercare is an important predictor of outcomes following treatment for substance abuse. Despite this, there is evidence that the great majority of substance abusing…

Abstract

Purpose

Aftercare is an important predictor of outcomes following treatment for substance abuse. Despite this, there is evidence that the great majority of substance abusing clients choose not to participate in aftercare. Aftercare programs that are tied to specific residential treatment facilities, sometimes known as alumni groups or alumni clubs, might increase participation by offering former residents the opportunity to maintain treatment oriented social networks. Therapeutic communities (TCs), which emphasize mutual aid between residents, are ideal candidates for such programs. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 100 randomly chosen former TC residents were randomly surveyed regarding their contact with fellow alumni and their exchange of recovery oriented helping behaviors. A thirty day timeline follow-back methodology was used.

Findings

Contact was primarily through electronic means, particularly phone calls, texts and the alumni club Facebook page. Participants who reported more electronic contact also reported more days in which they offered and received recovery oriented help. Participants who were African American or had spent more time in TC treatment offered and received recovery oriented help on more days.

Research limitations/implications

While this is an exploratory study limited to one TC, this alumni club allows for the maintenance of a mutual aid network after termination. That network primarily consists of electronic forms of contact. A longer time spent in TC treatment may allow for the internalization of the practice of mutual aid. Further research on alumni clubs is warranted.

Originality/value

This is the first survey of TC alumni club members.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Keith L. Warren

Therapeutic communities (TCs) use social learning between peers in treating substance abuse. One mechanism for fostering social learning is peer affirmations for prosocial…

Abstract

Purpose

Therapeutic communities (TCs) use social learning between peers in treating substance abuse. One mechanism for fostering social learning is peer affirmations for prosocial behavior. The purpose of this study is to use consistency of affirmations as a test of whether social learning does occur.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the results of a social network survey of 50 women in a corrections-based TC, the authors compared affirmations and nonprogrammatic compliments exchanged between residents as two directed social networks. The authors evaluated consistency of judgment using the hubs and authorities algorithm, and tested to see whether more senior residents are more likely to be hubs, thereby showing more consistent judgment.

Findings

More senior residents show greater consistency with peers in program affirmations but not in nonprogrammatic compliments. Hub status in the network of affirmations increases most rapidly in the first 200 days of residence, with slower increases thereafter.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to one survey of the women in one TC. The external validity of the findings is therefore unclear. The results suggest that social learning of TC principles and prosocial behavior does occur and that it is not simply a function of popularity among peers. This seems to happen most rapidly in the first 200 days, suggesting that programs much shorter than six months may limit this process.

Originality/value

This is the first use of the hubs and authorities algorithm with a social network drawn from a therapeutic community and the first attempt to verify social learning through a social network analysis.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Anup Gampa, Jessica V. Linley, Brian Roe and Keith L. Warren

Therapeutic communities (TCs) assume that residents are capable of working together to overcome substance abuse and criminal behavior. Economic games allow us to study the…

Abstract

Purpose

Therapeutic communities (TCs) assume that residents are capable of working together to overcome substance abuse and criminal behavior. Economic games allow us to study the potential of cooperative behavior in TC residents. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze results from a sample of 85 corrections-based TC residents and a comparison group of 45 individuals drawn from the general population who participated in five well-known economic experiments – the dictator game, the ultimatum game, the trust game, risk attitude elicitation and time preference elicitation.

Findings

TC residents keep less money in the dictator game and return more in the trust game, and prefer short-term rewards in the time preference elicitation. In the ultimatum game, nearly half of all residents refuse offers that are either too low or too high.

Research limitations/implications

While the study involves a sample from one TC and a comparison group, the results suggest that residents are at least comparable to the general public in generosity and appear willing on average to repay trust. A substantial minority may have difficulty accepting help.

Practical implications

Rapid peer feedback is of value. Residents will be willing to offer help to peers. The TC environment may explain residents’ tendency to return money in the trust game. Residents who refuse to accept offers that are either too low or too high in the ultimatum game may also have difficulty in accepting help from peers.

Social implications

Economic games may help to clarify guidelines for TC clinical practice.

Originality/value

This is the first use of economic games with TC residents.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Qiuchang Cao, Li Liao and Keith Leverett Warren

To analyze networks of social interactions between the residents of a therapeutic community (TC) for women and the way, in which such interactions predict the discussion…

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze networks of social interactions between the residents of a therapeutic community (TC) for women and the way, in which such interactions predict the discussion of issues that arise in treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 50 residents of a corrections-based TC for women were surveyed on the peers with whom they socialized informally, shared meals, shared letters from home and discussed issues that arose in treatment over a 12 h period. The data were analyzed using exponential random graph models (ERGM).

Findings

Reciprocity occurred in all networks while transitivity (a tendency of two residents who are connected to both connect to a third peer) occurred in all networks measuring informal social interactions. When controlling for reciprocity and transitivity, residents avoided spending social time or sharing meals with the same peers. There was no evidence of homophily by race, age or years of education. Homophily by entrance time and case manager occurred in social time. Case manager homophily occurred in the discussion of treatment issues but disappeared when controlling for social time and sharing letters from home.

Research limitations/implications

Social networks in this TC arise from factors endogenous to the TC itself. It should be possible to determine the characteristics of optimal social networks in TCs. External validity is limited.

Practical implications

It should be possible to intervene to optimize the social networks of TC residents.

Originality/value

This is the first ERGM analysis of both informal and formal interactions in a TC.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 41 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Abstract

Details

Further Documents from F. Taylor Ostrander
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-354-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1983

In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…

Abstract

In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Giannina Warren and Keith Dinnie

The purpose of this paper is to explore the place branding dimensions of a city undergoing a concerted effort to build a distinctive brand for itself.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the place branding dimensions of a city undergoing a concerted effort to build a distinctive brand for itself.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, exploratory approach is adopted, applying the ICON model of place branding to the multistakeholder city branding strategy of Toronto. A combination of interviews, participant observation, content analysis and professional reflection inform the study.

Findings

Toronto’s emergence as a creative city with global standing has been achieved, in part, through a holistic and collaborative approach that is integrated, contextualized, organic and new.

Practical implications

Place and destination promoters are offered a practical application of the ICON model of place branding, informing future initiatives and offering insight into good practice.

Originality/value

Viewed through the lens of the ICON model, the paper provides insights into the collaborative and innovate practices that characterize effective city branding.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Abstract

Details

Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-377-4

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