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Increasing use of 3D printing techniques to manufacture consumer products and open-source designs raises the question of “What is the mechanical reliability of 3D printed…
Increasing use of 3D printing techniques to manufacture consumer products and open-source designs raises the question of “What is the mechanical reliability of 3D printed parts?” Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of build orientation on the mechanical reliability of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced using 3D printing.
Tensile tests on ABS specimens were performed with and without a hole in the center, which were produced by fused deposition modeling (FDM). Seven sets of approximately 30 specimens were printed in XY, XZ and C+45 orientations to obtain reliable fracture statistics. Weibull analysis was performed to quantify the variation in the tensile strength.
The Weibull analysis showed that the reliability of FDM produced ABS can be as low as advanced ceramics. Weibull moduli of specimens without a hole were between 26 and 69, and specimens with a hole had Weibull moduli between 30 and 41. P-type deviations from the Weibull statistics were observed. The XZ orientation resulted in the highest average fracture strength for specimens with and without a hole, and C+45 orientation resulted in the lowest strength.
As the Weibull distribution relates the applied stress to probability of failure, the Weibull analysis provides a practical design criterion to achieve specific reliability levels for additively manufactured parts.
This study, for the first time, provides Weibull statistics for FDM-produced ABS parts, which can be used to predict mechanical reliability.
The purpose of this paper is to establish greater understanding of changes in gender diversity at the undergraduate, graduate and faculty levels for a small engineering…
The purpose of this paper is to establish greater understanding of changes in gender diversity at the undergraduate, graduate and faculty levels for a small engineering discipline, materials science and engineering (MSE), and how it may be related to different cultures across the variety of engineering disciplines.
The paper assesses publicly available data on the demographics of US MSE programs to explore expectations of correlation between increased gender diversity at the graduate level and among faculty versus undergraduate gender diversity.
The number and percentage of women increased substantially in graduate programs and within faculties whereas the percentage of women receiving bachelor's of science degrees in engineering (BSE) in MSE, and nearly all other engineering disciplines, was significantly lower in 2009 than in 2000. Diversity advances at graduate, postdoctoral and faculty levels in the interdisciplinary field of MSE, and likely other relatively young engineering disciplines, have been achieved via a continuous migration of individuals from other science and engineering disciplines as well as from international science and engineering programs.
The paper does not explore cause‐and‐effect, but rather provides a case study of trends occurring within a specific discipline. When evidence for a “leaky pipeline” is found within one generalized context (i.e. engineering), the assumption has been that every discipline (i.e. MSE, biomedical engineering) within that context has leaky pipelines that must be fixed. Given the present data, such assumptions may be inappropriate and perpetuate an understanding of how to improve gender diversity that is not helpful and, in fact, may be harmful to achieving diversity.
The paper provides an assessment of gender diversity for a smaller discipline and explores applicability of conventional pipeline models for career progression.
International students commonly need to adjust to an unfamiliar environment while at the same time juggling with their education without traditional family support…
International students commonly need to adjust to an unfamiliar environment while at the same time juggling with their education without traditional family support. Intercultural adjustment is often stressful for these students, thus contributing to a higher risk of a vulnerable mental and emotional state. The relocation to a foreign country presents a case of temporary migration during the time that they are away. This chapter looks at the challenges international students faced during relocation and adaptation. The study will also discuss how international students cope with mental health issues and the important role educational institutions have in mental health care. Interview data will be drawn on to present the perspectives of a group of international Singaporean university students in Melbourne, Australia, aged between 20 and 25 years old. However, the discussion about mental health issues cannot be assumed to be directly related to the challenges of relocation. Interview data will only represent the perspective of a group of international students and cannot be made generalisable to all international students. Similar to other studies, findings from this chapter reinforced the challenges international students face from their migration. While they acknowledged the importance of mental health care services, there are still barriers to seeking professional help. Future studies could look into how universities can continue to bridge this gap.
Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve…
Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve youth with complicated and often serious academic and behavioral needs. The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and practices with Best Available Evidence are necessary to increase the likelihood of long-term success for these youth. In this chapter, we define three primary categories of AES and review what we know about the characteristics of youth in these schools. Next, we discuss the current emphasis on identifying and implementing EBPs with regard to both academic interventions (i.e., reading and mathematics) and interventions addressing student behavior. In particular, we consider implementation in AES, where there are often high percentages of youth requiring special education services and who have a significant need for EBPs to succeed academically, behaviorally, and in their transition to adulthood. We focus our discussion on: (a) examining approaches to identifying EBPs; (b) providing a brief review of EBPs and Best Available Evidence in the areas of mathematics, reading, and interventions addressing student behavior for youth in AES; (c) delineating key implementation challenges in AES; and (d) providing recommendations for how to facilitate the use of EBPs in AES.
As students increasingly incur debt to finance their undergraduate education, there is heightened concern about the long-term implications of loans on borrowers…
As students increasingly incur debt to finance their undergraduate education, there is heightened concern about the long-term implications of loans on borrowers, especially borrowers from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Drawing upon the concepts of cultural capital and habitus (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977), this research explores how student debt and social class intersect and affect individuals’ trajectory into adulthood. Based on 50 interviews with young adults who incurred $30,000–180,000 in undergraduate debt and who were from varying social classes, the findings are presented in terms of a categorization schema (income level by level of cultural capital) and a conceptual model of borrowing. The results illustrate the inequitable payoff that college and debt can have for borrowers with varying levels of cultural resources, with borrowers from low-income, low cultural capital backgrounds more likely to struggle throughout and after college with their loans.
Describes the development of an integrated computerized engineeringdatabase and CAD/CAM system at Presto Tools Ltd, Sheffield, UK.Following an examination of the existing…
Describes the development of an integrated computerized engineering database and CAD/CAM system at Presto Tools Ltd, Sheffield, UK. Following an examination of the existing computer hardware and software systems the factors inhibiting the development of an integrated environment were identified. Using a suite of computer programs and application packages including Smartware II, Anvil‐5000 (CAD) and Pathtrace (CAM), an integrated system was developed with the objective of creating a more responsive and interactive manufacturing environment. Describes the original facilities, and the development of the new system.