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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

José C.M. Franken, Desirée H. van Dun and Celeste P.M. Wilderom

As a problem-solving tool, the kaizen event (KE) is underutilised in practice. Assuming this is due to a lack of group process quality during those events, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

As a problem-solving tool, the kaizen event (KE) is underutilised in practice. Assuming this is due to a lack of group process quality during those events, the authors aimed to grasp what is needed during high-quality KE meetings. Guided by the phased approach for structured problem-solving, the authors built and explored a measure for enriching future KE research.

Design/methodology/approach

Six phases were used to code all verbal contributions (N = 5,442) in 21 diverse, videotaped KE meetings. Resembling state space grids, the authors visualised the course of each meeting with line graphs which were shown to ten individual kaizen experts as well as to the filmed kaizen groups.

Findings

From their reactions to the graphs the authors extracted high-quality KE process characteristics. At the end of each phase, that should be enacted sequentially, explicit group consensus appeared to be crucial. Some of the groups spent too little time on a group-shared understanding of the problem and its root causes. Surprisingly, the mixed-methods data suggested that small and infrequent deviations (“jumps”) to another phase might be necessary for a high-quality process. According to the newly developed quantitative process measure, when groups often jump from one phase to a distant, previous or next phase, this relates to low KE process quality.

Originality/value

A refined conceptual model and research agenda are offered for generating better solutions during KEs, and the authors urge examinations of the effects of well-crafted KE training.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Chijioke J. Evoh, Christopher Byalusago Mugimu and Hopestone K. Chavula

This chapter evaluates the readiness of the higher education system to contribute to the competitiveness of African countries in the knowledge economy. Using institutions…

Abstract

This chapter evaluates the readiness of the higher education system to contribute to the competitiveness of African countries in the knowledge economy. Using institutions of higher learning in Kenya and Uganda as case studies, the study demonstrates that the higher education system in Africa is ill-equipped to fulfill the role of knowledge production for the advancement of African economies. The chapter proposed promising ways through which higher education in the region can play a more fulfilling role to the global knowledge economy through the formation of relevant skills for the growth of African economies. In an era where knowledge assets are accorded more importance than capital and labor assets, and where the economy relies on knowledge as the key engine of economic growth, this chapter argues that higher education institutions in Africa can assist in tackling the continent’s challenges through research in knowledge creation, dissemination, and utilization for improved productivity. These institutions need to engage in design-driven innovation in the emerging knowledge economy. To enhance their contributions toward human capital development and knowledge-intensive economies in the region, it is imperative to employ public-private initiatives to bridge and address various challenges and gaps facing universities and research institutions in Africa.

Details

The Development of Higher Education in Africa: Prospects and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-699-6

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Mayyadah S. Abed, Payman S. Ahmed, Jawad K. Oleiwi and Basim M. Fadhil

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a…

Abstract

Purpose

Composite laminates are considered one of the most popular damage-resistant materials when exposed to impact force in civil and military applications. In this study, a comparison of composites 12 and 20 layers of fabrics Kevlar and ultrahigh-molecular-weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE)-reinforced epoxy under low-velocity impacts represented by drop-weight impact and Izod pendulum impact has been done. During the Izod test, Kevlar-based composite showed damage at the composite center and fiber breakages. Whereas delamination was observed for UHMWPE reinforced epoxy (PE). The maximum impact strength was for Kevlar-reinforced epoxy (KE) and increases with the number of laminates. Drop-weight impact test showed the highest absorbed energy for (KE) composites. The results revealed that different behavior during the impact test for composites belongs to the impact mechanism in each test.

Design/methodology/approach

Aramid 1414 Kevlar 49 and UHMWPE woven fabrics were purchased from Yixing Huaheng High-Performance Fiber Textile Co. Ltd, with specifications listed in Table 1. Epoxy resin (Sikafloor-156) is supplied from Sika AG. Sikafloor-156 is a two-part, low-viscosity, solvent-free epoxy resin, with compressive strength ∼95 N/mm², flexural strength ∼30 N/mm² and shore D hardness 83 (seven days). The mixture ratio of A/B was one-third volume ratio. Two types of laminated composites with different layers 12 and 20 were prepared by hand layup: Kevlar–epoxy and UHMWPE–epoxy composites as shown in Figure 1. Mechanical pressure was applied to remove bubbles and excess resin for 24 h. The composites were left in room temperature for seven days, and then composite plates were cut for the desired dimensions. Low-velocity impact testing, drop-weight impact, drop tower impact system INSTRON CEAST 9350 (see Figure 2) was facilitated to investigate impact resistance of composites according to ASTM D7137M (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Low-velocity impact tests have been performed at room temperature for composite with dimensions 10 × 15 cm2 utilizing a drop tower (steel indenter diameter 19.85 mm as shown in Figure 3), height (800 mm), drop mass (5 kg) and speed (3.96 m/s). Special impact equipment consisting of vertically falling impactor was used in the test. The energy is obtained from Drop tower impact systems, (2009) E = ½ mv2 (2.1). The relationship between force–time, deformation–time and energy–time and deformation was obtained. Energy–deformation and force–deformation relationships were also obtained. The depth of penetration and the radius of impactor traces were recorded. Izod pendulum impact test of plastics was applied according to ASTM D256 (Test Method for Compressive, 2005). Absorbed energy was recorded to compute the impact strength of the specimen. The specimen before the test is shown in Figure 4.

Findings

In order to investigate two types of impact: drop-weight impact and Izod impact on damage resistance of composites, the two tests were done. Drop-weight impact is dropping a known weight and height in a vertical direction with free fall, absorbed energy can be calculated. Izod impact measures the energy required to break a specimen by striking a specific size bar with a pendulum (Test Method for Compressive, 2005; Test Methods for Determining, 2018). The results obtained with the impact test are presented. Figure 5 shows the histogram bars of impact strength of composites. It can be noticed that Kevlar–epoxy (KE) composites give higher energy strength than UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) in 12 and 20 plies. The increasing percentage is about 18.5 and 5.7%. It can be observed in Figure 6 that samples are not destructed completely due to fiber continuity. Also, the delamination occurs obviously for UHMWPE–epoxy more than for Kevlar-based composite, which may due to weak binding between UHMWPE with an epoxy relative with Kevlar.

Practical implications

The force–time curves for Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites with 12 and 20 plies are illustrated respectively in Figure 7. The contact duration between indenter and composite surface is repented by the force–time curves, so the maximum force reaches with certain displacement. It can be seen that maximum force was (13,209, 18,734.9, 23,271.07 and 19,825.38 N) at the time (3.97, 4.43, 3.791 and 4.198 ms) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. The sharp peaks of KE composite are due to the lower ductility of Kevlar compared with UHMWPE. These results agree with the results of Ahmed et al. (2016). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed lower impact force and crack propagates in the matrix with fast fiber breakage compared with PE composites, whereas the latter did not suffer from fabric breakage in 12 and 20 plies any more (see Figure 8). Figure 9 illustrates force–deformation curves, for 12 and 20 plies of Kevlar–epoxy (KE) and UHMWPE–epoxy (PE) composites. Curve's slop is considered the specimen's stiffness and the maximum displacement. To investigate the impact behavior of the four different composites, the comparison was made among the relative force–deformation curves. The maximum displacement was 5.119, 3.443, 1.173 and 1.17 mm for 12KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. It seems that UHMWPE-based composite (PE) presents lower deformation than Kevlar-based composites (KE) at a same number of laminates, although the maximum displacement is for 12 PE and 12 KE (see Figure 8). Kevlar-based composites (KE) showed more damage than UHMWPE-based composite (PE), so the maximum displacement is always higher for KE specimens with maximum indenter trace diameter (D∼11.27 mm). The onset of cracks begins along fibers on the impacted side for 20 KE and 20 PE specimens with lower indenter trace (D∼5.42 and 5.96 mm), respectively (see Table 2). These results refer to the lower stiffness of KE composites (see the slope of the curve) relative to PE composites. This result agreed with (Vieille et al., 2013) when they found that the theoretical stiffness of laminated composite during drop-weight impact depends significantly on fiber nature (Fadhil, 2013). The matrix cracking is the first type of damage that may not change stiffness of composites overall. Material stiffness changes due to the stress concentration represented by matrix cracks, delamination and fiber breakage (Hancox, 2000). Briefly, the histogram (see Figure 10) showed that the best impact behavior was for 20 KE, highest impact force with lower deformation, indenter trace diameter and contact time. Absorbed energy–time and absorbed energy–deformation curves for composites are shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The maximum absorbed energy was (36.313, 29.952, 9.783 and 6.928 J) for 12 KE, 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE, respectively. Test period time is only 8 ms, but the time in which composites reached maximum absorbed energy was (4.413, 3.636, 2.394 and 2.408 ms). The maximum absorbed energy was for 12 KE with lower rebound energy because part of kinetic energy transferred to potential energy kept in the composite as material damage (see Figures 3 and 4). This composite absorbs more energy as material damage which kept as potential energy. Whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 PE and 20 KE showed less damage, lower absorbed energy and higher rebound energy, which appeared in different peak behavior as the negative value of energy. Also from the absorbed energy–time curves, it had been noticed significantly the maximum contact time of indenter with composite was 4.413 ms for 12 KE, which exhibits higher deformation (5.119 mm), whereas other composites 12 PE, 20 KE and 20 PE showed less damage, contact time and deformation as (3.443, 1.173, 1.17 mm), respectively.

Originality/value

The main goal of the current study is to evaluate the performances of armor composite made off of Kevlar and UHMWPE fabrics reinforced epoxy thermosetting resin under the low-velocity impact. Several plates of composites were prepared by hand layup. Izod and drop-weight impact tests were facilitated to get an indication about the absorbed energy and strength of the armors.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Simplice A. Asongu and Vanessa S. Tchamyou

– This paper aims to assess how entrepreneurship affects knowledge economy (KE) in Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess how entrepreneurship affects knowledge economy (KE) in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Entrepreneurship is measured by indicators of starting, doing and ending business. The four dimensions of the World Bank’s index of KE are used. Instrumental variable panel-fixed effects are applied on a sample of 53 African countries for the period of 1996-2010.

Findings

The following are some of the findings. First, creating an enabling environment for starting business can substantially boost most dimensions of KE. Second, doing business through mechanisms of trade globalization has positive effects from sectors that are not information and communication technology (ICT) and high-tech oriented. Third, the time required to end business has negative effects on KE.

Practical implications

The findings confirm the narrative that the technology in African countries at the moment may be more imitative and adaptive for reverse engineering in ICTs and high-tech products. Given the massive consumption of ICT and high-tech commodities in Africa, the continent has to start thinking of how to participate in the global value chain of producing what it consumes.

Originality/value

This paper has a twofold motivation. First, given the ambitions of African countries of moving towards knowledge-based economies, the line of inquiry is timely. Second, investigating the nexus may have substantial poverty mitigation and sustainable development implications. These entail, inter alia, the development of technology with value-added services; enhancement of existing agricultural practices; promotion of conditions that are essential for competitiveness; and adjustment to globalization challenges.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Sue Smith, Mary Rose and Ellie Hamilton

The purpose of this paper is to tell the story of the evolution of knowledge exchange (KE) activity within a department in a university in the north west of England and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to tell the story of the evolution of knowledge exchange (KE) activity within a department in a university in the north west of England and to understand this activity through the lens of actor‐network theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying the sociology of translation to one qualitative interview shows how different actors were enrolled and mobilized into a KE actor‐network. The process of translation consists of four stages, problematisation, enrolment, interessement and mobilisation of allies which have been applied to the data to tell the story of the KE actor‐network. This is a cross‐disciplinary approach using a theoretical framework from sociology and applying it to a management/organizational context.

Findings

This framework brings fresh ways of looking at the importance of KE networks within universities. Although limited to one interview, the methodology allows for an in‐depth reading of the data and shows how resilient and flexible this actor‐network is to withstand and respond appropriately to shifts in policy and subsequent provisions for small‐ and medium‐sized enterprise business support.

Originality/value

Building from one case, the paper concludes that this account adds to an historical understanding of how universities become involved with KE activities. The inclusion of non‐human actors allows for a deeper understanding of the actor‐network and shows the importance of actors such as White Papers, pots of funding and physical buildings to the role of KE within higher education.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Wiljeana J. Glover, Wen‐Hsing Liu, Jennifer A. Farris and Eileen M. Van Aken

Despite the increased adoption and reported benefits of kaizen event (KE) programs, there is a lack of empirical research documenting their design, implementation and…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increased adoption and reported benefits of kaizen event (KE) programs, there is a lack of empirical research documenting their design, implementation and outcomes, as well as what designs may be more vs less effective. This paper aims to present an empirical study describing the characteristics, including outcomes achieved, program attributes, and implementation problems, of 16 established KE programs. Although this study is primarily exploratory and descriptive, the goal is to identify areas for future research, including attributes that appear to support or detract from program success, and the outcomes and implementation problems experienced.

Design/methodology/approach

Using semi‐structured interviews, qualitative data were collected to characterize established KE programs in 16 manufacturing, service, and government organizations. The data were examined using content analysis to identify the most frequent codes for each characteristic, which were then compared to KE program characteristics synthesized from a systematic review of published KE sources. Based on this, a set of propositions were identified to guide future research on KE programs.

Findings

The majority of the 16 organizations reported successful programs, although there was noted variation in organization success. The organizations also neglected to measure many aspects of program success which they considered to be highly important, in particular, human resource outcomes. In addition, the organizations appeared to struggle with sustainability and believe that sustainability problems could threaten long‐term KE program viability. Other potentially influential factors include the types of processes targeted, event types, catalysts for events, and KE resources. The findings were used to develop propositions for future research in these and other specific areas.

Practical implications

The study provides a better understanding of the characteristics of established KE programs, as well as common areas in need of improvement even in these programs, and can be used by practitioners in establishing or improving their KE programs.

Originality/value

By documenting established KE programs across organizations and comparing actual practices to published sources, this study contributes to the development of KE theory and also provides direction for future empirical research.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 33 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

David Pickernell, Alessio Ishizaka, Shuangfa Huang and Julienne Senyard

Prior research shows that universities differ in the knowledge exchange (KE) activities they pursue, but little is known about universities’ strategies regarding their…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research shows that universities differ in the knowledge exchange (KE) activities they pursue, but little is known about universities’ strategies regarding their portfolio of KE activities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the KE strategy of UK universities in specific relation to their portfolio of KE activities with small- and medium-sized enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the 2015–2016 Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey data set, this study employs the Preference Ranking Organisation METHod for the Enrichment of Evaluations to assess the KE activities from 162 UK higher education institutions.

Findings

The study reveals that entrepreneurial universities valorise university knowledge assets through five SME-focussed KE activities most beneficial to measuring the entrepreneurial university. It also uncovers four different archetypal categories (groupings) of universities based on their strategic focus of KE activities.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the entrepreneurial university literature by considering universities’ overall KE portfolio rather than examining individual KE activity in isolation. It provides a clearer understanding of universities’ KE strategies that help define and delineate entrepreneurial universities regarding their range, focus and the combination of KE activities.

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Gergana Staykova and Jason Underwood

How knowledge exchange (KE) can be used for the continuous assessment and improvement of collaborative performance of project-based organisations in construction is…

Abstract

Purpose

How knowledge exchange (KE) can be used for the continuous assessment and improvement of collaborative performance of project-based organisations in construction is explored. Collaboration on construction projects must be facilitated by people alongside practice of continuous performance assessment and improvement. Currently available assessment tools fail to explicitly define appropriate behaviours and actions due to a poor understanding of what it means for people to collaborate. In contrast, it is established that KE is the focus of collaborative efforts on construction projects; therefore, as most knowledge resides with people, it represents their role in collaboration. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a phenomenological/interpretivist and qualitative methodology, how KE can be used for the continuous assessment and improvement of collaborative performance in project-based organisations in construction is explored. A single case study of a UK rail strategic alliance was adopted and six semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed through a thematic analysis.

Findings

An assessment tool is proposed based on a set of 20 characteristics of KE, divided into seven categories and linked to indicators of collaboration. The tool can be applied to highly collaborative projects where BIM and Lean are implemented, and project participants are collocated. By measuring their performance against the set criteria, project teams can assess which of their behaviours and actions are inappropriate, and focus their efforts on correcting them.

Originality/value

Defining the abstract indicators traditionally used to assess collaboration in terms of characteristics pertinent to day-to-day communication amongst participants on collaborative projects to facilitate the continuous assessment and improvement of collaborative performance.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Nurul Fadly Habidin, Suzaituladwini Hashim, Nursyazwani Mohd Fuzi and Mad Ithnin Salleh

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between total productive maintenance (TPM), kaizen event (KE) and innovation performance (IP) for Malaysian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between total productive maintenance (TPM), kaizen event (KE) and innovation performance (IP) for Malaysian automotive industry using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were selected from the list of Proton and Perodua automotive industry. The number of collected respondents was 238 respondents. An SEM technique was used in the study. In order to test the reliability and validity of the instrument, reliability analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted.

Findings

Based on the results, KE does not affect the relationship between TPM and IP. However, the impact of TPM on IP increases with mediating of KE for Malaysian automotive industry. Thus, this study has shown that empirical test results prove that the implementation of TPM and KE has improved the IP for Malaysian automotive industry.

Research limitations/implications

This study only focused on the Malaysian automotive industry. The other limitation in this research is the number of factors and limited measurement in this study. Only a few TPM, KE and IP measurements were considered. By using the SEM technique, four TPM constructs, three for KE constructs and three for IP measures were developed and verified. Therefore, this study can assist the researchers and practitioners to the practice of TPM, KE and IP for Malaysian automotive industry.

Originality/value

This research provides fundamental knowledge and direction for researchers in further research as well as practitioners to constantly improve IP through the implementation of TPM and KE for Malaysian automotive industry.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Ross Rynehart

Abstract

Details

Boosting Impact and Innovation in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-833-6

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