This study identified and analyzed the 29 empirical articles which created 65 new scales that were published from 1996–2004 within the Spirituality, Religion, and Work…
This study identified and analyzed the 29 empirical articles which created 65 new scales that were published from 1996–2004 within the Spirituality, Religion, and Work (SRW) domain. Utilizing Hinkin's (1995) methodology for evaluating questionnaire scale development as a model, this study reviewed: (1) item generation issues such as inductive vs. deductive approaches; (2) scale development issues such as sampling and validity/reliability assessment; and (3) scale evaluation issues such as convergent validity testing. The study found that the vast majority of studies (86%) reported detail on the item development process for the new scales used; the primary method for item development was deductive, based on existing theory. In the area of scale development, only 45% of the studies reported using factor analysis for evaluation of constructs; of those that did, less than 25% of those reported information regarding factor retention criteria, such as eigenvalues. With regard to the internal consistency, the coefficient alpha was reported in only 45% of the studies. However, in those cases where scale development practices were described, the information was generally quite detailed and reflected statistical rigor. Few studies (38%) reported any information related to scale evaluation. Similar to Hinkin's (1995) conclusions from his review of scales in the management field, this study found scale development practices within the SRW domain to be inconsistent. The article reports detailed findings using Hinkin ‘s (1995) detailed methods and discusses practical implications for editors, reviewers and SRW researchers.
While spirituality and religion in work (SRW) as an inquiry field has been gaining interest in the popular press, it has only recently been recognized by the academic…
While spirituality and religion in work (SRW) as an inquiry field has been gaining interest in the popular press, it has only recently been recognized by the academic community. Consequently, its relevance to important research and its legitimacy in contributing scholarly work is not ensured. Part of the problem is that many SRW concepts resist being tested with “approved” positivist research models. This paper explores the tension between relevance and legitimacy, focusing on research methods, models, and traditions that may serve both well. It suggests that many methodologies and traditions that support such work already exist. It discusses some of these methods and offers operational blueprints for alternative forms of excellent research. It argues that combining such methodological underpinnings with experimental models and new forms of data representation allows for scholarly work to emerge, thus facilitating SRW's desire to stay true to important research questions while respecting sound research traditions.
Empirical research in spirituality and religion in work (SRW) offers special challenges in construct conceptualization, operationalization, and data analysis. For this…
Empirical research in spirituality and religion in work (SRW) offers special challenges in construct conceptualization, operationalization, and data analysis. For this special research methods issue, accomplished researcher and SRW champion Ian I. Mitroff shares his thoughts, criticisms, and models for current research as well as his hopes for SRW's empirical future. Mitroff, co‐author of the most prominent empirical SRW study to date (Mitroff, I.I. and Denton, E.A., A Spiritual Audit of Corporate America: A Hard Look at Spirituality, Religion, and Values in the Workplace, Jossey‐Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1999), holds trans‐disciplinarily grounded views of how SRW researchers need to overcome methodological impasses to stay interesting and relevant. This article contains excerpts from three recent interviews with Mitroff about the current and future states of SRW research, and how such research can move forward with integrity and respect for SRW's special subject matter.
The emerging research on spirituality, religion and work (SRW) poses concerns for all social scientists. Specifically, the paradigm currently employed for social…
The emerging research on spirituality, religion and work (SRW) poses concerns for all social scientists. Specifically, the paradigm currently employed for social scientific research, including measurement techniques, data analysis, and even accepted language, is inadequate for scholarship in the emerging inquiry stream. This paper discusses the current positivist model under which scholarly work derives legitimacy, and explores where the model fails to address the needs of SRW researchers from both conceptual and moral standpoints. Taking lessons from the natural sciences, we show how inquiry, modeling, and knowledge made critical leaps utilizing a post‐positivist creativity within a discipline that struggled with many of the same issues we currently face in the SRW research agenda. The paper concludes with implications for a new research methods paradigm and language that would better serve our understanding of the holistic human experience in organizations, including a discussion of the inherently moral underpinning of our work.
This paper is an introduction to the special issue on “The leading edge in research on spirituality and organizations”. The paper discusses some of the issues concerning…
This paper is an introduction to the special issue on “The leading edge in research on spirituality and organizations”. The paper discusses some of the issues concerning the outer world of worldly activities and the inner world of spirituality and religion in modern Western society, with particular emphasis on how this affects organizations. The aims of the special issue are put forward and the papers within it are briefly discussed.
This paper introduces the second issue of the special issue on research issues and research findings in spirituality in organizations. The first issue explored issues of…
This paper introduces the second issue of the special issue on research issues and research findings in spirituality in organizations. The first issue explored issues of definition and methodology, and included empirical research studies (published as Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 16 No. 4, 2003). This second issue continues and deepens that exploration, with further refinement of definitions, interdisciplinary approaches to methodology and the selection of constructs, and reports on quantitative and qualitative studies. This introduction contains an overview of the aims and themes of this special issue, summarizes the state of play in the field of organizational research and provides synopses of the papers presented.
This paper aims to understand water and wastewater industry leaders’ perceptions of the current and future role of workplace spirituality, including the challenges and…
This paper aims to understand water and wastewater industry leaders’ perceptions of the current and future role of workplace spirituality, including the challenges and benefits of incorporating workplace spirituality in government utilities.
The Delphi technique was used to gather input and gain consensus from an expert panel of executive level managers.
The panel achieved consensus that workplace spirituality is evident in a higher sense of purpose for those working in the water and wastewater industry which is likely to be the greatest future benefit of workplace spirituality in the industry. Other central themes included making a positive environmental impact, going beyond compliance, collaborating with the community, creating a connection to peers and encouraging organizational belonging. Consensus was also achieved regarding obstacles to workplace spirituality’s future role in the industry, including concerns about terminology and the need for supportive leadership.
The water and wastewater industry face challenges including climate change, rising costs, aging infrastructure, increased regulatory requirements and a rapidly changing workforce. Workplace spirituality seems likely to support the industry in facing these challenges and can be promoted through encouraging a sense of purpose and meaning, collaborating with the community and recruiting individuals with resonant values and sense of calling.
Workplace spirituality has received growing attention in the private sector. However, workplace spirituality research in the public sector is minimal. This expert panel of top leaders from US water and wastewater agencies provide insight into the role of workplace spirituality in the public sector.