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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Katerina Giazitzi, George Palisidis, George Boskou and Vassiliki Costarelli

This study aims to assemble and nutritionally analyze three traditional Greek hotel breakfast meals (Chalkidiki, Cyclades and Crete) and compare them with the American…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assemble and nutritionally analyze three traditional Greek hotel breakfast meals (Chalkidiki, Cyclades and Crete) and compare them with the American, English and continental breakfast.

Design/methodology/approach

The traditional local breakfast foods and beverages for the breakfast compositions were selectively chosen predominantly from the website of the “Greek breakfast” initiative by Greek Chamber of Hotels and from other sources, following a thorough review of the literature. The breakfast meals were designed to be consumed by two people. The nutritional analysis of the meals was performed with the use of specially designed spreadsheets, the US Department of Agriculture Research Service and Greek food composition database.

Findings

The nutritional analysis of the English (45.9 g), American (41.6 g) and Cretan (38.8 g) breakfast meals revealed that these breakfast meals had the highest amount of total fat (per estimated portion) with the Cretan breakfast containing the largest amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (2.9 g/100 kcal). Moreover, the Cretan breakfast had also the lowest levels of sugars (2 g/100 kcal). The highest quantity of simple sugars was contained in the continental breakfast (7.2 g/100 kcal). The English breakfast had the highest sodium content (186.3 mg/100 kcal). Finally, the Cyclades breakfast had very high levels of potassium (184.4 mg/100 kcal) and Chalkidiki’s breakfast had the highest amount of calcium (65.2 mg/100 kcal). The three traditional Greek breakfasts and the three conventional breakfasts were grouped in two categories and compared nutritionally. The results show that the content of monounsaturated fats is significantly higher in Greek breakfast meals (p-value < 0.05) compared to the conventional ones.

Originality/value

This nutritional comparison could facilitate the promotion of traditional Greek breakfast meals in tourist destinations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Katerina Giazitzi and George Boskou

The purpose of the present study was to develop a methodology for the creation of nutritionally balanced (NB) recipes and meals.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was to develop a methodology for the creation of nutritionally balanced (NB) recipes and meals.

Design/methodology/approach

Nutritional criteria were set for energy, fats, saturated fats, carbohydrates, sugars and salt. A sample of 50 main courses and 29 salads was evaluated and nutritionally reformulated to meet the criteria. One sample t-test, paired sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were performed.

Findings

The original main courses and salads did not meet the nutritional criteria for fats and energy. Both original and NB main courses had high mean protein content. The reformulation of recipes caused a significant change on the provided energy (−50.2%), fats (−57.6%), saturated fats (−58.8%), carbohydrates (−24.2%), proteins (−35.6%) and salt (−53.8%) for the salads (p = 0.001). Accordingly, reformulation of recipes caused a significant change on provided energy (−38.4%), fats (−55.2%), saturated fats (−58.3%), proteins (−25.9%) and salt (−50%) for the main courses (p < 0.001). Predictive models (linear regression analysis) for fats (R2 = 0.345), proteins (R2 = 0.876) and carbohydrates (R2 = 0.797) on the NB recipes were performed.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to improve the nutritional value of cooking recipes, based on specific nutritional criteria. A methodological procedure for the creation of NB meals is proposed. This methodology could be a useful tool for the nutritionists and chefs, which, in a context of cooperation, could create databases and cooking books with NB recipes easily accessed to public and caterers. The recipes that constitute NB meals could guarantee the standardization of the recipes' reformulation, within a certification standard for restaurants.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Andreas Souliotis, Katerina Giazitzi and George Boskou

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement methods for benchmarking the food safety and hygiene between retail outlets at the same time or at the same retail…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement methods for benchmarking the food safety and hygiene between retail outlets at the same time or at the same retail outlets at different times.

Design/methodology/approach

A tailor made questionnaire for the collection of food safety and hygiene remarks was designed to be applied in a large chain of retail outlets. The remarks were classified in the five categories of the Ishikawa model (materials, methods, personnel, equipment and environment). The retail outlets were located all over Greece and the audits were performed in a one-year term. Food safety experts were used as auditors after a six-month training period. The data collected were subject to analysis of the benchmarking scores and to cluster analysis to identify regions with similar food safety profiles.

Findings

Polar charts were used to illustrate the benchmarking scores for each of the five categories of evaluation per auditing period at the retail outlets. Another polar chart illustrates the benchmarking scores for each of the 12 regions of Greece. Cluster analysis demonstrates that some regions, like Ionian Islands and South Aegean, have similar profiles on food safety for the retail outlets.

Originality/value

The developed methodology can be used by retail companies with several outlets or by a group or an association of companies in order to identify problematic sectors and to set priorities while dealing with issues of food safety and hygiene. The work is limited to the Greek outlets but the methodology has potential application to every other country.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Andreas Souliotis, Katerina Giazitzi and George Boskou

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement methods to benchmark the food safety and hygiene of different companies, regardless the management systems applied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement methods to benchmark the food safety and hygiene of different companies, regardless the management systems applied.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected using a balanced questionnaire which was based on the fishbone model of Ishikawa. The questionnaire includes general questions about the company and 25 questions about personnel, machinery, materials, methods and environment. It was applied to 202 food industries, 42 food retail businesses and 49 food service companies. The data were collected from interviews of industry people related to food safety and from audits of business facilities. The benchmarking methods were descriptive statistics, radar charts, cluster analysis and association rules.

Findings

The radar charts were used to benchmark food companies on safety and hygiene. Food companies can be evaluated with this benchmarking tool with a balanced score of maximum 100 points.

Originality/value

This benchmarking tool could be useful for food control authorities, clusters of companies and certification bodies.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Andreas Souliotis, Katerina Giazitzi and George Boskou

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement benchmarking methods on food safety and hygiene between suppliers of fruits and vegetables, regardless the food…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement benchmarking methods on food safety and hygiene between suppliers of fruits and vegetables, regardless the food safety management systems they implement.

Design/methodology/approach

A tailor made questionnaire was prepared of 64 questions, divided into ten sectors regarding hygiene and food safety. The suppliers were selected from the inventory of a large chain of retail stores. The audits were performed by a food safety expert on the site of the company. Totally, 72 audits were conducted in several geographic regions of Greece. The data collected was statistically analyzed for benchmarking with technical, geographical or financial criteria.

Findings

The large size companies have a level from satisfactory to very satisfactory in the transport and need improvement on their packaging materials. Improvement in procedures of cleaning and disinfection is required by companies which are in the region of Attica and the Peloponnese.

Originality/value

The proposed methodology and analysis can be used to benchmark groups of food companies with common commercial profile in order to prioritize both the frequency of audits and the importance of interventions and preventive measures.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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