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Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon…
Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon various other factors in food such as the amylose:amylopectin ratio, co‐ingredients, methods of cooking, etc. which also impact its metabolic response. During days of fast, in India, potato and sago are the most commonly used food to provide quick source of energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the functional and nutritional quality of fasting foods such as potato and sago, having higher amylopectin content, with respect to their relative glycemic and insulin response in normal healthy volunteers.
The postprandial glycemic response to boiled potato and sago khichdi in relation to equal quantity of bread (reference) was compared using Relative Glycemic Potency (RGP) represented as the Glycemic Bread Equivalent (GBE) of foods. Five clinically healthy subjects were fed 100 g of test foods and standard, and their blood glucose and insulin response was recorded at fasting (0 min) and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min.
It was found that both potato and sago khichdi produced peak glucose response at 30 min and levels returned to baseline within 60 min. The higher amylopectin content which facilitates faster absorption from the gastro‐intestinal tract and into the cell results in the total area under the curve (AUC) glycemic response to potato and sago khichdi to be significantly lower than that of bread (p < 0.05). The total AUC insulin response to potato (p <0.05) and sago khichdi was also lower than that of bread.
Therefore, starch‐based foods rich in amylopectin lead to quicker absorption of sugar to supply the energy to the energy‐deprived cells common in fasting condition.
The paper shows that the starch present in these fasting foods is typically characterized by a higher amylopectin:amylose ratio.
Rice is considered a high glycemic index food. However, the overall glycemic response to whole foods differs based on the presence of co‐components, cooking or processing…
Rice is considered a high glycemic index food. However, the overall glycemic response to whole foods differs based on the presence of co‐components, cooking or processing technique, starch composition, and amount of food consumed. The purpose of this paper is to observe the relative glycemic impact (RGI) of foods based on postprandial glycemic response to equal quantities of test foods and standard‐bread expressed as glycemic bread equivalent (GBE), using rice and its products.
In total, five clinically healthy adult volunteers were fed 50 g test foods and bread on different days after an overnight fast. Blood sugar and insulin levels at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after consuming food were recorded and corresponding area under the curve was calculated.
The GBE was highest for puffed rice at 107 g, whereas same amount of rice kheer and plain boiled rice induced glycemic response equivalent to 19.5 g and 11 g of bread, respectively. RGI of puffed rice was found to be significantly higher than that of rice kheer and boiled rice (p<0.01). Similarly, the total insulinemic effect of puffed rice (71 g) was found to be significantly higher than that of rice (6 g, p<0.01) and rice kheer (19 g, p<0.05).
Despite being prepared from common raw ingredient, all the three test foods produced varied glycemic and insulin responses. This can be attributed to the different processing conditions, change in nutrient composition and total quantity consumed.
The GBE values may constitute a simple and easy‐to‐use tool for consumers to select food in terms of their predicted glycemic and insulin responses, especially in the diabetic or insulin‐resistant group.