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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Muzna Zafar, Kashif Zia, Dinesh Kumar Saini, Arshad Muhammad and Alois Ferscha

It has been witnessed that many incidents of crowd evacuation have resulted in catastrophic results, claiming lives of hundreds of people. Most of these incidents were a result of…

Abstract

Purpose

It has been witnessed that many incidents of crowd evacuation have resulted in catastrophic results, claiming lives of hundreds of people. Most of these incidents were a result of localized herding that eventually turned into global panic. Many crowd evacuation models have been proposed with different aspects of interests. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to bring together many of these aspects to study evacuation dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed agent-based model, in a hypothetical physical environment, uses perception maps for routing decisions which are constructed from agents’ personal observations of the surroundings as well as information gathered through distant communication. Communication is governed by a trust model which measures the authenticity of the information being shared. Agents are of two types; emotional and rational. The trust model is combined with a game-theoretic model to resolve conflict of agents’ own type with that of types of agents in the neighborhood.

Findings

Evacuation dynamics in different environmental and exit strategies are evaluated on the basis of reduced herding and evacuation time. Using this integrated information sharing model, agents gain an overall view of the environment, sufficient to select the optimal path towards exits with respect to reduced herding and evacuation time.

Originality/value

The proposed model has been formulated and established using an agent-based simulation integrating important modeling aspects. The paper helps in understanding the interplay between technological and humanistic aspects in smart and pervasive environments.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 October 2018

Assad Mehmood, Kashif Zia, Arshad Muhammad and Dinesh Kumar Saini

Participatory wireless sensor networks (PWSN) is an emerging paradigm that leverages existing sensing and communication infrastructures for the sensing task. Various environmental…

Abstract

Purpose

Participatory wireless sensor networks (PWSN) is an emerging paradigm that leverages existing sensing and communication infrastructures for the sensing task. Various environmental phenomenon – P monitoring applications dealing with noise pollution, road traffic, requiring spatio-temporal data samples of P (to capture its variations and its profile construction) in the region of interest – can be enabled using PWSN. Because of irregular distribution and uncontrollable mobility of people (with mobile phones), and their willingness to participate, complete spatio-temporal (CST) coverage of P may not be ensured. Therefore, unobserved data values must be estimated for CST profile construction of P and presented in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the estimation of these missing data samples both in spatial and temporal dimension is being discussed, and the paper shows that non-parametric technique – Kernel Regression – provides better estimation compared to parametric regression techniques in PWSN context for spatial estimation. Furthermore, the preliminary results for estimation in temporal dimension have been provided. The deterministic and stochastic approaches toward estimation in the context of PWSN have also been discussed.

Findings

For the task of spatial profile reconstruction, it is shown that non-parametric estimation technique (kernel regression) gives a better estimation of the unobserved data points. In case of temporal estimation, few preliminary techniques have been studied and have shown that further investigations are required to find out best estimation technique(s) which may approximate the missing observations (temporally) with considerably less error.

Originality/value

This study addresses the environmental informatics issues related to deterministic and stochastic approaches using PWSN.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2022

Sumreen Zia, Raza Rafique, Hakeem-Ur- Rehman and Muhammad Adnan Zahid Chudhery

There is a growing trend in online shopping in developing and underdeveloped economies. Measuring web retail service quality is vital to enhance and retain online customers for…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing trend in online shopping in developing and underdeveloped economies. Measuring web retail service quality is vital to enhance and retain online customers for higher profits. As a result, it is essential to understand e-service quality and its relationship with other e-commerce-related variables identified as customer satisfaction, word-of-mouth (WOM), loyalty and repurchase intention. The main objective of this research is to validate the psychometric properties of E-TailQ and ES-Qual scales to measure e-service quality in the context of an emerging economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was administered by surveying online customers through a convenience sampling approach. The sample data consisted of 329 valid responses. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The results suggest that both the scales are valid, reliable and adequate and confirm the psychometric properties of E-TailQ and ES-Qual scales in an emerging economy context. There is a positive and significant relationship between latent variables (E-TailQ and ES-Qual) and customer outcome variables like satisfaction, loyalty, WOM and repurchase intention. Additionally, the coefficients of the E-TailQ scale have higher values than ES-Qual scales in all dimensions. The perceived quality proved to be a precedent of satisfaction to a lesser extent than other scales' constructs, and it proved to be a superior predictor of WOM for the E-TailQ scale and loyalty for the ES-Qual scale. Overall, when measured by the ES-Qual scale, perceived quality could explain much of the sample's satisfaction, loyalty and repurchase intention compared to E-TailQ.

Research limitations/implications

One of the significant limitations of this study is related to the data collection, as individual responses were collected at one particular point in time. Thus, it is impossible to verify the development of perceived service quality outcomes over a specific time. Another possible limitation is the selection of only two widely used scales, although other options are available in the literature. Finally, developing a new scale to address future challenges might be another alternative.

Practical implications

The results obtained in the study will help managers assess customer satisfaction, the reputation of the business through WOM, and customer intentions for the repurchase that will lead to loyalty by emphasizing e-service quality. It will enable them to design strategies for improving business performance. The developed instrument will assist in identifying the gaps and describing how service quality can achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

Several studies in the literature have used E-TailQ and ES-Qual scales to measure e-service quality in developed countries. Only a few studies addressed the validity of these widely used competing scales in an emerging economy like Pakistan. This study addresses the literature gap by addressing the reliability and validity of these scales and assesses the impact of e-commerce-related variables. Besides, the study reveals insights into the literature by addressing multiple dimensions of e-service quality and summarizes a deep understanding of each scale item that affects the perceived quality in a developing economy like Pakistan.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Jawad Ali, Zia Bashir and Tabasam Rashid

The purpose of the development of the paper is to construct probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the development of the paper is to construct probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) model and to improve some preliminary aggregation operators such as probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy averaging (PIVHFA) operator, probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy geometric (PIVHFG) operator, probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy weighted averaging (PIVHFWA) operator, probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (PIVHFOWA) operator, probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric (PIVHFWG) operator and probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (PIVHFOWG) operator to cope with multicriteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems in an efficient manner.

Design/methodology/approach

(1) To design probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy TOPSIS model. (2) To improve some of the existing aggregation operators. (3) To propose the Hamming distance, Euclidean distance, Hausdorff distance and generalized distance between probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy sets (PIVHFSs).

Findings

The results of the proposed model are discussed in comparison with the aggregation-based method from the related literature and found the effectiveness of the proposed model and improved aggregation operators.

Practical implications

A case study concerning the healthcare facilities in public hospital is addressed.

Originality/value

The notion of the proposed distance measure is used as rational tool to extend TOPSIS model for probabilistic interval-valued hesitant fuzzy setting.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 May 2023

Md. Al Amin, Md. Abdul Ahad Mia, Tapas Bala, Mohammed Masum Iqbal and Md. Shariful Alam

The study aims to examine the green finance customers' post-usage continuance behavior based on an extended social support theory (SST). Remarkably, this study explores five…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the green finance customers' post-usage continuance behavior based on an extended social support theory (SST). Remarkably, this study explores five indirect predictors of green finance continuance behavior (GFCB) (i.e. environmental consciousness (EC), green bank marketing initiatives (GBMI), informational supports, emotional supports (EST) and psychological reactance) and a mediator (i.e. customer satisfaction).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study data were collected from 362 respondents from Bangladesh using a purposive sampling method with a structured self-administrative questionnaire and analyzed by partial least square structural equation and modeling using SMART PLS 3.0 software.

Findings

The results depict that the five predictors, i.e. information supports (ß = 0.367, t-statistics = 2.463, p < 0.001), EST (ß = 0.206, t-statistics = 2.315, p < 0.000), EC (ß = 0.324, t-statistics = 3.484, p < 0.000), GBMI (ß = 0.288, t-statistics = 2.028, p < 0.000), psychological reactance (ß = 0.126, t-statistics = 0.969, p < 0.052) influence GFCB while satisfaction is predicted by four predictors except psychological reactance (ß = 0.126, t-statistics = 0.969, p < 0.052). In addition, customer satisfaction (ß = 0.638, t-statistics = 6.317, p < 0.005) also has an impact on continuance behavior. Besides, the study understood that four predictors indirectly influence GFCB through satisfaction except psychological reactance ((ß = 0.080, t-statistics = 964, z = 0.958p < 0.338). Finally, the coefficient of determinations (R2) indicates that the five predictors explained 65.3% of changes in satisfaction, whereas 72.8% of changes are described by the five predictors and customer satisfactions.

Practical implications

Finally, this study highlights the social and managerial implications for the implementers of the green finance industry. It is recommended to emphasize green finance practice as it plays a crucial role in promoting environmental protection, ensuring social equity and driving economic growth. The green banking service providers, industry analysts, green consumers and respective government authorities can generalize green finance activities as an essential aspect of sustainable development to equalize the economic growth with a view to protecting environmental collapse and promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable agriculture and other environmentally friendly activities.

Originality/value

The study will enormously contribute to the existing literature validating the proposed holistic framework applying SST along with EC, GBMI and psychological reactance in green finance continuance behavior.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Kamran Mohy-Ud-din, Muhammad Azam, Hamad Ul Haq and Shakeel Aslam

This study aims to investigate the determinants of localised corporate social responsibility (LCSR) activities in Pakistan. The present study explores factors influencing the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the determinants of localised corporate social responsibility (LCSR) activities in Pakistan. The present study explores factors influencing the corporate sector to promote the welfare of local areas where the company has located its manufacturing plants.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors selected 100 companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. Data were collected from the companies’ financial reports issued from 2012 to 2017 (N = 700). The authors analysed the data using fixed- and random-effects regression models to test the factors influencing LCSR activities.

Findings

The findings indicate that directors’ ancestry significantly enhances LCSR. This implies that boards with a greater number of directors whose names indicate their relevant ancestry are more likely to engage in LCSR. Moreover, environmental-protection activity by the corporate sector promotes LCSR initiatives. However, Pakistan’s corporate sectors are not promoting the essential aspects of their workers’ welfare, e.g. health and education.

Research limitations/implications

The present study was limited to the directors’ ancestry, environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR), CSR for factory workers and donation. Other factors, such as culture and language, may play an important role in determining LCSR.

Practical implications

The results suggest that the Security and Exchange Commission of Pakistan should emphasise the importance of LCSR to develop rural areas and devise meaningful policy for CSR. These findings provide substantial evidence that regulators and policymakers should encourage the inclusion of LCSR by firms listed on the stock exchange to increase environmental protection through CSR policy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to explore the determinants of LCSR. Moreover, the present study investigates for the first time the influence of directors’ ancestry on rural development in any of Asia’s developing countries, including Pakistan. The findings of this study contribute theoretically and empirically to the literature.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 October 2022

Tamoor Azam, Wang Songjiang, Khalid Jamil, Sobia Naseem and Muhammad Mohsin

In the modern business world, the main focus of the organizations is to improve the quality of the products and minimize the wastage of raw material. Keeping in view the green…

1176

Abstract

Purpose

In the modern business world, the main focus of the organizations is to improve the quality of the products and minimize the wastage of raw material. Keeping in view the green theory and improve the efficiency of the organization, the focus of the current study is to investigate the relationship between total quality management (TQM) and green innovation (GI), and examine how TQM practices can facilitate firms to achieve GI objectives. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is also an important factor for organizations, and this study also focuses on the mediating role of CSR between the relationship of TQM and GI.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study. Data were gathered from the top management of 355 SMEs working in Pakistan through a questionnaire survey; the PLS-SEM approach was used to analyse the data.

Findings

Results of the study show that TQM has significant impacts on two aspects of GI namely green product innovation and green process innovation. Moreover, results also reveal that CSR partially mediates the relationship between TQM and GI.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to manufacturing SMEs and future research should test this model on non-manufacturing sector too. The findings of the study provide significant roadmap to the management of small and medium-sized manufacturing firms that how they can reduce wastage and improve the product and process innovation in their organizations through TQM and CSR.

Originality/value

This study contributes to bridging research gaps in the literature and advances how TQM, directly and indirectly, help firms improve green innovation via mediating roles of CSR.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2023

Maqsood Ahmad and Qiang Wu

This study aims to use a qualitative approach to explore and clarify the mechanism by which heuristic-driven biases influence the decisions and performance of individual investors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use a qualitative approach to explore and clarify the mechanism by which heuristic-driven biases influence the decisions and performance of individual investors actively trading on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). It also aims to identify how to overcome the negative effect of heuristic-driven biases, so that finance practitioners can avoid the expensive errors which they cause.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts an interpretative approach. Qualitative data was collected in semistructured interviews, in which the target population was asked open-ended questions. The sample consists of five brokers and/or investment strategists/advisors who maintain investors’ accounts or provide investment advice to investors on the PSX, who were selected on a convenient basis. The researchers analyzed the interview data thematically.

Findings

The results confirm that investors often use heuristics, causing several heuristic-driven biases when trading on the stock market, specifically, reliance on recognition-based heuristics, namely, alphabetical ordering of firm names, name memorability and name fluency, as well as cognitive heuristics, such as herding behavior, disposition effect, anchoring and adjustment, repetitiveness, overconfidence and availability biases. These lead investors to make suboptimal decisions relating to their investment management activities. Due to these heuristic-driven biases, investors trade excessively in the stock market, and their investment performance is adversely affected.

Originality/value

This study provides a practical framework to explore and clarify the mechanism by which heuristic-driven biases influence investment management activities. To the best of authors’ knowledge, the current study is the first to focus on links between heuristic-driven biases, investment decisions and performance using a qualitative approach. Furthermore, with the help of a qualitative approach, the investigators also highlight some factors causing an increased use of heuristic variables by investors and discuss practical approaches to overcoming the negative effects of heuristics factors, so that finance practitioners can avoid repeating the expensive errors which they cause, which also differentiates this study from others.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Maqsood Ahmad

This article aims to systematically review the literature published in recognized journals focused on cognitive heuristic-driven biases and their effect on investment management…

2406

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to systematically review the literature published in recognized journals focused on cognitive heuristic-driven biases and their effect on investment management activities and market efficiency. It also includes some of the research work on the origins and foundations of behavioral finance, and how this has grown substantially to become an established and particular subject of study in its own right. The study also aims to provide future direction to the researchers working in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

For doing research synthesis, a systematic literature review (SLR) approach was applied considering research studies published within the time period, i.e. 1970–2021. This study attempted to accomplish a critical review of 176 studies out of 256 studies identified, which were published in reputable journals to synthesize the existing literature in the behavioral finance domain-related explicitly to cognitive heuristic-driven biases and their effect on investment management activities and market efficiency as well as on the origins and foundations of behavioral finance.

Findings

This review reveals that investors often use cognitive heuristics to reduce the risk of losses in uncertain situations, but that leads to errors in judgment; as a result, investors make irrational decisions, which may cause the market to overreact or underreact – in both situations, the market becomes inefficient. Overall, the literature demonstrates that there is currently no consensus on the usefulness of cognitive heuristics in the context of investment management activities and market efficiency. Therefore, a lack of consensus about this topic suggests that further studies may bring relevant contributions to the literature. Based on the gaps analysis, three major categories of gaps, namely theoretical and methodological gaps, and contextual gaps, are found, where research is needed.

Practical implications

The skillful understanding and knowledge of the cognitive heuristic-driven biases will help the investors, financial institutions and policymakers to overcome the adverse effect of these behavioral biases in the stock market. This article provides a detailed explanation of cognitive heuristic-driven biases and their influence on investment management activities and market efficiency, which could be very useful for finance practitioners, such as an investor who plays at the stock exchange, a portfolio manager, a financial strategist/advisor in an investment firm, a financial planner, an investment banker, a trader/broker at the stock exchange or a financial analyst. But most importantly, the term also includes all those persons who manage corporate entities and are responsible for making their financial management strategies.

Originality/value

Currently, no recent study exists, which reviews and evaluates the empirical research on cognitive heuristic-driven biases displayed by investors. The current study is original in discussing the role of cognitive heuristic-driven biases in investment management activities and market efficiency as well as the history and foundations of behavioral finance by means of research synthesis. This paper is useful to researchers, academicians, policymakers and those working in the area of behavioral finance in understanding the role that cognitive heuristic plays in investment management activities and market efficiency.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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