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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Nicole L. Asquith, Isabelle Bartkowiak-Théron and Karl Roberts

756

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Karl A. Roberts

Police interviews with terrorist suspects are perhaps one of the most challenging interviews a police officer will experience. The purpose of this paper is to explore the social…

925

Abstract

Purpose

Police interviews with terrorist suspects are perhaps one of the most challenging interviews a police officer will experience. The purpose of this paper is to explore the social context of these interviews and the impact that this might have upon the way in which police officers carry them out, including the use of robust, even aggressive tactics.

Design/methodology/approach

Risks associated with police interview tactics are identified, including obtaining unreliable information, problems with suspect cooperation and the potential impact upon communities including problems with the perceived legitimacy of the police and community cooperation.

Findings

Ways of mitigating the risks are considered including improving police officer cultural awareness, a consideration of interview tactics and the use of ethical interview approaches such as the planning and preparation, engage and explain, account, closure, evaluation interview model and conversation management.

Originality/value

The impact of the use of ethical interviewing is considered from a procedural justice perspective, and the paper illustrates how this approach may give rise to improved reliability of information from interviews and may impact upon perceptions of police legitimacy from communities.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Content available
1098

Abstract

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Nicci J. MacLeod

The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of evidence collected during interview. Current UK national guidance on the interviewing of victims and witnesses recommends a…

308

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of evidence collected during interview. Current UK national guidance on the interviewing of victims and witnesses recommends a phased approach, allowing the interviewee to deliver their free report before any questioning takes place, and stipulating that during this free report the interviewee should not be interrupted. Interviewers, therefore, often find it necessary during questioning to reactivate parts of the interviewee's free report for further elaboration.

Design/methodology/approach

The first section of this paper draws on a collection of police interviews with women reporting rape, and discusses one method by which this is achieved – the indirect quotation of the interviewee by the interviewer – exploring the potential implications for the quality of evidence collected during this type of interview. The second section of the paper draws on the same data set and concerns itself with a particular method by which information provided by an interviewee has its meaning “fixed” by the interviewer.

Findings

It is found that “formulating” is a recurrent practice arising from the need to clarify elements of the account for the benefit of what is termed the “overhearing audience” – in this context, the police scribe, CPS, and potentially the Court. Since the means by which this “fixing” is achieved necessarily involves the foregrounding of elements of the account deemed to be particularly salient at the expense of other elements which may be entirely deleted, formulations are rarely entirely neutral. Their production, therefore, has the potential to exert undue interviewer influence over the negotiated “final version” of interviewees' accounts.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the fact that accurate re‐presentations of interviewees' accounts are a crucial tool in ensuring smooth progression of interviews and that re‐stated speech and formulation often have implications for the quality of evidence collected during significant witness interviews.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Christopher Schlembach and Susanne Kaiser

The present chapter puts one perspective center stage and looks at the relationship between TSC and its manifestation in individuals. More specifically, we are concerned with the…

Abstract

The present chapter puts one perspective center stage and looks at the relationship between TSC and its manifestation in individuals. More specifically, we are concerned with the relationship between processes of attitude formation and attitude change. The concept of attitudes is one out of several psychological constructs which are known to have mediating influence on actual behavior. Thus, it is a possible starting point to positively influence behavior in road traffic toward higher levels of (commitment to) safety. Understanding how safety culture is internalized by individuals and how it shapes safe conduct shall be theoretically described and practically exemplified to show how this approach can become useful and relevant for practitioners in the field of road safety.

The argument is developed in three parts. In the first part, Herbert Kelman’s (1958) conceptual scheme of three stages of attitude change is presented in which the levels of compliance, identification, and internalization of values are distinguished. In the second part, it is argued that these different levels of value integration correspond with three different kinds of psychological theories which address the relationship between attitudes and deliberately conducted behavior (action). It is a well-known fact in the science of human action that there is no direct relationship between attitudes, decision making, and action. Using Kelman’s three levels of value internalization as a scheme of reference, the conditions under which persons act in line with their attitudes can be conceptualized more precisely. From a normative point of view, it is argued that persons who align their actions and attitudes with reference to socially appreciated values are said to be elaborated. They orient their conduct by an ethos of safety to which they feel committed and they are able to interact in mindful ways. We discuss some of the basic constructs at each level and underpin their importance with reference to behavioral change toward higher levels of safety with empirical findings that have been published. In a third part, we present our findings in a summarizing table and suggest a list of factors and themes which mainly correspond to one of the three stages of attitudinal change and value internalization. Finally, we outline some examples of how traffic safety interventions can be conceptualized at these different levels.

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Steven Sellers and Mark R. Kebbell

The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of evidence in the interviewing of suspects.

462

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of evidence in the interviewing of suspects.

Design/methodology/approach

Analyses were made of 55 interview transcripts about the questioning of suspected sex offenders by officers of an Australian police service.

Findings

In 22 per cent of these interviews the suspect actively attempted to discover what the evidence against them was and in 9 per cent the interviewer attempted to learn of the suspect's knowledge of this evidence. Interviewers tended to favour a strategy of first asking the suspect to provide a free account of their role in the alleged crime. If this approach failed to elicit a confession, interviewers would then disclose at least some of the evidence against that suspect. In 93 per cent of the interviews some form of evidence disclosure was made by the interviewer; this was usually achieved by referring to the evidence indirectly rather than explicitly.

Originality/value

Although such disclosures of information seemed to have little impact on suspects' decisions to confess, this study illustrates the important role of evidence in the suspect interviewing process.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Sam Poyser and Becky Milne

The purpose of this paper is to consider a major cause of miscarriages of justice worldwide, namely the police investigative and interviewing process.

2129

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider a major cause of miscarriages of justice worldwide, namely the police investigative and interviewing process.

Design/methodology/approach

This phenomenon is examined through the lens of psychiatric and psychological research findings and subsequent recommendations that have made a significant impact in term of changes to legislation, policy, and practice in the UK.

Findings

The paper shows that despite major improvements in this area in the UK there is still no room for complacency, as miscarriages of justice continue to occur both here and worldwide.

Research limitations/implications

This paper calls for researchers to continue to identify the weaknesses in the police investigative and interview process and to propose reform based on their scientific findings.

Originality/value

The paper highlights what remains a somewhat neglected piece of the investigative jigsaw, namely the interviewing of adult victims and witnesses, pinpointing this as an area where transparency and further research is required.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Nina J. Westera, Mark R. Kebbell and Becky Milne

Legislation in many developed nations allows for the video‐recorded interview of a witness made during the investigation to be used as his or her evidence‐in‐chief at trial. The…

2677

Abstract

Purpose

Legislation in many developed nations allows for the video‐recorded interview of a witness made during the investigation to be used as his or her evidence‐in‐chief at trial. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges for the criminal justice system of trying to make one interview meet both investigative and evidential purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Advances in effective police interviewing strategies are outlined and evaluated with regards the implications of presenting evidence elicited in this manner in court.

Findings

As with any significant change, the move towards this method of evidence presents challenges. However, using this video record as evidence will ensure that the best evidence is preserved and the jury has access to a transparent record that is more accurate and complete than previously experienced.

Originality/value

The paper acknowledges that concerns over any extra time taken by using video recording must be taken into account, but also balanced against the likely long‐term benefits, not only in fairness to the proceedings but also by easing the process for victims and witnesses.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Gavin E. Oxburgh and Coral J. Dando

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two distinct but interrelated areas, namely witness/victim and suspect interviewing, and to argue that both must continue to evolve…

2021

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss two distinct but interrelated areas, namely witness/victim and suspect interviewing, and to argue that both must continue to evolve, suggest how they might do so, and that this process must be driven by emergent theory and contemporary empirical research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines the impact of psychological theory and empirical research to investigative interviewing in recent decades.

Findings

It is argued that in order to stay ahead of the game, the field of investigative interviewing (suspect and witness) must continue to evolve in such a manner that not only protects and fosters the important practitioner/academic relationship, but also ensures that future directions are driven by empirical research, with recourse to emergent theory.

Originality/value

The paper outlines the impact of psychological theory and empirical research on investigative interviewing and the consequent enhancement of the interviewing of both suspected offenders and witnesses. The paper demonstrates that working closely together academic research can make a difference, and influence law, policy decisions and training guidelines in order to improve practice.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2011

Jade A. Hill and Stephen Moston

In the last decade, Australia has seen a series of high‐profile criminal cases come under court and public scrutiny due to improper interviewing practices, prompting a need to…

2170

Abstract

Purpose

In the last decade, Australia has seen a series of high‐profile criminal cases come under court and public scrutiny due to improper interviewing practices, prompting a need to review and revise training in interviewing skills. This pattern echoes that seen in the UK in the 1970s and 1980s. What followed in the UK was a plethora of research examining different aspects of police interviewing. To date, there has been limited research in Australia on interviewing suspects. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into a large sample of current Australian police officers' attitudes and practices regarding investigative interviewing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved a survey of current police officers from the Queensland Police Service (n=2,769), collecting data on attitudes with current training and supervision, importance of investigative interviewing and operational skills and competence.

Findings

These are discussed in relation to the need for further systematic research into police interviews, improved training and the need for law enforcement organisations and agencies in Australia to implement organisational investigative interviewing strategies.

Originality/value

The paper shows that further systematic research is required to examine “operational” investigative interviewing practices (as opposed to perceptions) in Australia. Consideration also needs to be given to the development of investigative interviewing training frameworks that focus on the experience, skills and previous training of each officer. Moreover, interviewing needs to be recognised as a skill requiring regular maintenance, monitoring and evaluation.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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