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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Adnan Malik, Karim Ullah, Shafiullah Jan, Muhammad Atiq and Ali Abdullah

This study aims to describe the role of knowledge diffusion in evolving governance principles for Islamic banking.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to describe the role of knowledge diffusion in evolving governance principles for Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops a discursive theoretical debate using the discourse analysis method on the Sharīʿah principles related to interest (Riba), excessive uncertainty (Gharrar) and profit and loss sharing and their convergence with the conventional banking principles of profitability, solvency and liquidity.

Findings

The study proposes a novel framework that describes how knowledge diffusion bridge-up the Sharīʿah and banking principles in terms of integration of banking principles by Sharīʿah scholars, integration of Sharīʿah principles by managers and the resultant, emergent principles for the governance of Islamic banking.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can inform professionals on how knowledge of banking practices and Sharīʿah can help them in governing Islamic banking. The Board of Directors may adopt a holistic approach for encouraging enhanced interactions between Sharīʿah scholars and managers. Such interaction may be increasing harmony, reducing conflicts and better coordination resulting in Sharīʿah-compliant and market wise viable products and services, thus increasing banking profitability.

Originality/value

This is the first study, which acknowledges and illustrates the role of the knowledge diffusion process in evolving governance principles for Islamic banks. This paper contributes to the theory of corporate governance by using the knowledge, aptitude and practice theory lens to examine conceptually how Islamic banking governance principles emerged through the knowledge diffusion process.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Muhammad Nouman, Muhammad Fahad Siddiqi, Karim Ullah and Shafiullah Jan

This paper aims to conceptualize the nexus between the participatory finance and the higher ethical objectives within the Islamic moral economy, also termed as Maqasid al Shari’ah.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptualize the nexus between the participatory finance and the higher ethical objectives within the Islamic moral economy, also termed as Maqasid al Shari’ah.

Design/methodology/approach

Insights from the extant Islamic economics and finance literature are integrated through an interpretative systematic review using the principles from critical interpretative synthesis (CIS).

Findings

A coherent framework is synthesized comprising the typology of the Maqasid al Shari’ah, the axioms of participatory finance and their nexus which is formulated by theorizing the common thread of meaning through the axioms of participatory finance and Maqasid al Shari’ah at the interpretative level. This framework postulates that the participatory finance fits well in the ethos and the value system of Islam. Moreover, “social well-being” invariably provides the nexus between the Maqasid al Shari’ah and participatory finance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the Islamic economics and finance literature by integrating the dissenting views from the divergent literature related to the basic philosophy of Shari’ah and participatory finance and provides grounds for policy implications, particularly, for designing the financial products. Moreover, it demonstrates an application of interpretative systematic review in Islamic banking and finance research.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2021

Md. Kausar Alam and Muhammad Shahin Miah

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the level of independence and the effectiveness of the Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) members of Islamic banks in…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the level of independence and the effectiveness of the Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) members of Islamic banks in Bangladesh. This is because only SSB members are empowered to oversee and certify the overall business functions of Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper implements qualitative case research approach to explore the research objective in the context of Bangladesh. We applied purposeful and snowball sampling tactics for selecting respondents. By using a semi-structured questionnaire and face-to-face interviews, we collect data from SSB members, central bank executives and experts in Islamic banking and Shariah governance.

Findings

The study finds that majority Islamic banks' SSB's positions are similar to the Board of Directors (BOD) of the banks. Next, this study finds that in recruiting/selecting SSB members, some banks do not follow the guidelines of the central bank. This study finds mixed evidence regarding the independence of the members of the SSB. Most of the respondents opined that SSBs do not have power; in some cases, members of SSB are not independent and seeming powerless as BOD selects and recruits them. In contrast, they are dependent on management in respect of strategy implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The study significantly contributed to the national and global regulatory bodies by identifying an important governance determinant of Islamic banks that is the independence of SSB members, which is highly important for both Shariah functions, and to enhance the trust level of the stakeholders. This study makes a theoretical contribution by documenting the violation of stakeholder theory and agency theory in recruiting SSB members by BOD's choice. The lack of SSB members' independence has an impact on Shariah legitimacy of the Islamic banks which is contradictory with the notion of legitimacy theory. This study recommends the central bank to ensure the independence of the SSB and central bank should take initiatives to develop an environment for the Islamic banking sector.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature of corporate governance relating to Islamic banking and financial institutions. More specifically, this paper explores the necessity of independence of members of the monitoring body (here SSB), an important constituent of governance, to ensure high-quality governance and transparency in reporting to increase diverse stakeholders' trust/confidence. The absence of independence of SSB in performing their functions contradicts with the agency, stakeholder and legitimacy theory, which is inconsistent with global evidence, that demands further investigations.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Bader Al‐Shammari

The purpose of this study is to measure the extent of voluntary disclosure in the 2009 annual reports of 108 Shariah‐compliant companies listed on the Kuwait Stock…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the extent of voluntary disclosure in the 2009 annual reports of 108 Shariah‐compliant companies listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange. The study aims to investigate three categories of voluntary disclosure: overall, conventional and Islamic disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

Voluntary disclosure was measured using a self‐constructed index consisting of 132 items overall, 86 for conventional and 46 for Islamic information items. Annual reports were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t‐tests.

Findings

Results suggest that the mean overall voluntary disclosure by Shariah‐compliant companies is 15 percent, but 17 percent and 13 percent for the conventional and Islamic items, respectively. Voluntary disclosure of conventional items is comparable to extant studies, and higher than Islamic items.

Research limitation/implications

The study uses annual reports from 2009 because they were the most recent data available on the listed companies at the beginning of the study. Since this study was undertaken before the Shariah Advisory Council of the Capital Market Authority was established on January 1, 2012, this imposes a limitation. Future study should replicate this study to assess differences with the existence of the Council.

Practical implications

The findings provide evidence that Shariah‐complaint companies lack voluntary disclosure, especially Islamic disclosure information. As a result, the findings should be useful to lawmakers in Kuwait for improving overall disclosure practices by Shariah‐compliant companies. Preparers may use the findings to match the amount of information in their annual reports with other companies to ensure capital sourcing. Investors may use the findings for understanding disclosure behavior of Shariah‐compliant companies in Kuwait. Such findings may assist them to diversify investment portfolios.

Originality/value

This study contributes to extending the Kuwaiti literature on disclosure, and fills a gap in empirical studies on Shariah‐compliant disclosure practices.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Md. Hafij Ullah and Ruma Khanam

Shari’ah is the foundation of Islamic banks. Although all the Islamic banks required complying with the Shari’ah requirements fully, the level of compliance differs among…

Abstract

Purpose

Shari’ah is the foundation of Islamic banks. Although all the Islamic banks required complying with the Shari’ah requirements fully, the level of compliance differs among the Islamic banks. At the same time, Islamic banks have been performing well, but all do not demonstrate similar financial performance. This paper aims to explore whether Shari’ah compliance efficiency makes any difference in financial performance of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL).

Design/methodology/approach

This study used IBBL as a case. For exploring the issue of study, this paper applied an e-mail interview approach and interviewed 24 interviewees including financial analysts, IBBL clients and executives of regulatory bodies, the IBBL and other Islamic- and interest-based traditional banks. Interview opinions are then analyzed and interpreted for a deeper understanding of the topic.

Findings

The study observed that some other factors influence the financial performance of IBBL, but Shari’ah compliance is the dominant instinct of acquiring the leading position. Superior Shari’ah compliance creates internal strengths and external opportunities that facilitate IBBL in achieving higher financial performance. Most interviewees argued that Shari’ah is the only disposition that makes IBBL unique. Moreover, the bank that considerably follows Shari’ah gets better financial outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a qualitative method using interview responses only for evaluating the relationship between Shari’ah compliance and financial performance. Further study may be conducted based on a quantitative approach.

Practical implications

This paper expects to uphold the significance of Shari’ah in improving the financial performance of IBBL and simultaneously motivating the parties associated with the Islamic banks in enhancing the level of Shari’ah compliance. Moreover, this study provides new insights into the importance Islamic banks and their performance in relation to the choice of customers.

Originality/value

This study explores the significance of Shari’ah compliance in creating avenues for greater financial performance and develops a model showing the ways how Shari’ah compliance leads Islamic banks to achieve higher financial positions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Sherif El-Halaby, Sameh Aboul-Dahab and Nuha Bin Qoud

This paper aims to systematically review the existing studies for Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) standards which include…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically review the existing studies for Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) standards which include different tracks of researches and then identify the gaps to propose opportunities for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

By adopting a systematic literature review approach, 46 papers that were published between 2000 and 2020 from 23 journals concerned with AAOIFI were selected for review and analysis.

Findings

The authors combine electronic searches to identify relevant studies using keywords such as “AAOIFI” or and “Islamic standards.” In light of the existing studies’ limitations, this paper derives and summarizes five leading future research tracks: identifies the research gaps in AAOIFI and then suggests that AAOIFI still requires more empirical analyses; identifies the alternative analytical methods as meta-analysis; identifies additional measurements for macro and microeconomics factors; identifies recent tracks as corresponding to Covid-19 pandemic; and future studies should consider the role of central banks and positive criticism for AAOIFI.

Practical implications

This analysis address the literature gaps on measuring compliance, determinants and consequences of AAOIFI adoption as this study serves as a guide for the researchers, regulators and Islamic financial institutions in research associated with this area. The findings would support AAOIFI, regulators and related authorities across jurisdictions with suggestions on improving the current AAOIFI practices.

Originality/value

This literature review is a historical record and guidance for researchers who seek to examine and explore several questions about AAOIFI. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that applies systematic literature review over AAOIFI research field.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2021

Fahru Azwa Mohd Zain, Wan Amalina Wan Abdullah and Majella Percy

This paper aims to determine the role governance plays in the voluntary adoption of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the role governance plays in the voluntary adoption of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Disclosure Standards by Islamic insurance (takaful) operators in the Southeast Asia (SEA) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) regions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a sample of 44 takaful operators in the SEA and the GCC regions. While corporate governance (CG) strength is measured by the use of the frequently examined variables of the board of directors and audit committee, Shari’ah governance strength is measured by the characteristics of the Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB). Content analysis is used to extract disclosure items from the 2014 annual reports. Agency theory, stakeholder theory and political economy theory are argued to support the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that CG strength has a positive and significant effect on the voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards by takaful operators, indicating that CG plays an important role in the disclosure of information in the annual reports of takaful operators. However, the results show a lack of association between SSB strength and voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards. Our results suggest that the SSBs may not be as involved as the other CG mechanisms (such as a board of directors and audit committees) in reviewing financial reports. On another note, the level of the political right and civil liberties has a negative and significant effect on the voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards, providing an indication that stakeholders in a community with greater freedom tend to be more active in pressuring takaful operators to provide more information to justify their existence in the community. Similar to SSB strength, the legal system is also found to have no significant association with the voluntary adoption of the AAOIFI disclosure standards.

Practical implications

This study provides stakeholders with a tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the governance role in increasing the transparency of takaful operators by examining the governance factors using a self-constructed disclosure index.

Originality/value

Our study is among the first to provide an in-depth analysis of voluntary adoption of AAOIFI Disclosure Standards for takaful operators in these two regions; therefore, this study has implications for regulators and standard setters. The findings of this study are expected to provide information to regulators and standard setters on the role of governance in improving the transparency of takaful operators.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Hafij Ullah

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Shari’ah compliance status of the Islamic banks in Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Shari’ah compliance status of the Islamic banks in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on both primary and secondary materials. The primary data were gathered through sample questionnaire survey and personal interviews by the researcher; the secondary data were obtained from Qur’an, Hadiths, different circulars/letters, manuals, research books and journals, annual reports, Web sites of the sample banks. Statistical tools and techniques like weighted average, percentage, SD, variance and correlation between Shari’ah violation score and bank-specific attributes were used applying statistical software Statistical Package for Social Science (version 17.0).

Findings

Shari’ah compliance status of the Islamic banks in Bangladesh is in a vulnerable condition, Shari’ah compliance status highly varies among the Islamic banks, and Shari’ah violation is high in investing activities because of lack of knowledge, lack of sincerity in complying Shari’ah, poor attention in Shari’ah audit and Shari’ah research and lack of strong Shari’ah supervisory board comprising full-time skillful members.

Practical implications

Among others, the major policy implications of this study are as follows: regulatory bodies and Shari’ah board members are expected to have guidelines from this study to find their limitations and to determine their future responsibilities; executives and Employees are expected to get the idea of present state of Shari’ah compliance and to identify their weaknesses in this regard; clients and other stakeholders are expected to have guidelines to choose the better Islamic banks to perform banking transactions; and the researchers in Islamic banking may usefully use the issues raised in this article for more comprehensive studies in Islamic banking and Shari’ah compliance.

Originality/value

The paper opens a new avenue in justifying the status of Shari’ah compliance with a new dataset and correlating Shari’ah violation score with bank-specific attributes.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Hazel Hall, Peter Cruickshank and Bruce Ryan

The purpose of this paper is to report the results from a study that investigated the extent to which an intervention to develop a community of library and information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the results from a study that investigated the extent to which an intervention to develop a community of library and information science (LIS) researchers – the Developing Research Excellence and Methods (DREaM) project – was successful in meeting its main objective three years after its implementation. Of particular interest are factors that support or hinder network longevity.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by online survey/telephone and focus group. From quantitative data, a social network analysis (SNA) and network diagrams were generated. Focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed, and data from these were analysed manually.

Findings

Three years after the end of its formal funding period, DREaM endured as a loose but persistent network. Social ties were more important than work ties, and network members with the highest network centrality held roles in academic institutions. Physical proximity between members was important to the maintenance of network ties. Actor status did not appear to have a bearing on network centrality.

Research limitations/implications

Discussion is limited to consideration of community development amongst core members of the network only. The “manufactured” nature of the DREaM network and unique context in which it was formed have implications for the generalisibility of the findings reported.

Practical implications

Social infrastructure is key to the long-term health of a network initiative. Continued ad hoc support would strengthen it further.

Originality/value

The findings add to understanding of factors important to the development of scholarly and learning communities. They extend contributions of earlier work that has deployed SNA techniques in LIS research and research in other fields.

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Sitara Karim

This study aims to investigate the relationship between remuneration packages [chief executive officer (CEO) and director] and independent corporate social responsibility…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between remuneration packages [chief executive officer (CEO) and director] and independent corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices (marketplace, environment, community, workplace and money spent on CSR) of 588 Malaysian listed firms during 2006–2017. Further, the study explored the moderating effect of board gender diversity on the remuneration-CSR nexus.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic estimator; namely, the system generalized method of moments given by Arellano and Bover (1995) has been used on the data set to control dynamic endogeneity, unobserved heterogeneity and simultaneity problems.

Findings

Findings indicate a weak relationship between remuneration and CSR where prior CEO remuneration negatively influences marketplace activities, environment-related activities and workplace practices. However, directors’ remuneration leaves no effect on socially responsible activities. Moreover, board gender diversity negatively moderates the CEO remuneration-CSR relationship and an insignificant moderating effect has been observed for directors’ remuneration-CSR nexus.

Practical implications

This study is particularly significant for regulatory bodies of Malaysia e.g. Securities Commission Malaysia, Bursa Malaysia, policymakers, investors and managers. For academia, this study fetches support from agency theory and overinvestment hypothesis to explain the relationships.

Originality/value

This paper is novel in providing empirical evidence on the moderating effect of board gender diversity on the relationship between remuneration and independent CSR activities for the first time. Moreover, this study has sourced several theoretical and practical implications. Then, the study uses a dynamic estimator that caters to the problems of endogeneity, simultaneity and heterogeneity.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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