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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Karen Williams Middleton, Antonio Padilla-Meléndez, Nigel Lockett, Carla Quesada-Pallarès and Sarah Jack

The purpose of this paper is to explores the influence of socialization upon the constitution and integration of learning leading to the development of entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explores the influence of socialization upon the constitution and integration of learning leading to the development of entrepreneurial competence while at university, from the learner perspective. Self-reported learning is analyzed to illustrate ways in which students make use of institutional and social contributions of the university context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study investigates entrepreneurial journeys of 18 participants, either currently attending or recently graduated from three universities in three countries with both comparable and distinctive contextual elements. In depth analysis of individual life stories, focusing on self-identified critical incidents, is used to illustrate ways in which students, while at university, develop entrepreneurial competence for current and future practice.

Findings

Formal and non-formal learning remain important foundations for entrepreneurial competence development, delivered through designed content-centric structures. Informal learning – particularly mentor supported socialised learning – centring around the learner is key to solidifying learning towards entrepreneurial competence, through know-how and access to resources. The university emerges as an entrepreneurial learning space where students constitute and integrate learning gained through different forms.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-cultural analysis is limited as the paper emphasizes the individual’s learning experience relative to the immediate university context.

Practical implications

Universities play a critical role as entrepreneurial learning spaces beyond formal and non-formal learning. This includes dedicating resources to orchestrate informal learning opportunities and enabling interaction with the different agents that contribute to socialised situated learning, supporting entrepreneurial competence development. Universities need to take responsibility for facilitating the entirety of learning.

Originality/value

Socialised learning in combination with other forms of learning contributes to student development of entrepreneurial competence while situated in the university context.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Mette Lindahl Thomassen, Karen Williams Middleton, Michael Breum Ramsgaard, Helle Neergaard and Lorraine Warren

Context impacts the design and practice of entrepreneurship education, but there is limited focus on context in entrepreneurship education literature. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Context impacts the design and practice of entrepreneurship education, but there is limited focus on context in entrepreneurship education literature. The purpose of this paper is to review the entrepreneurship education literature to understand how context has been addressed, derives contextual elements from prioritized literature and explores how context can be adapted to and designed with in entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review is undertaken to explore context in entrepreneurship education literature. Context entrepreneurship education yielded 239 items. After refinement, 232 entrepreneurship education associated publications were reviewed by the team of authors. Using selection criteria, 26 prioritized publications were analyzed and categorized according to a theoretical framework.

Findings

Context has been addressed both conceptually and empirically, quantitatively and qualitatively, and can be categorized across three sociological phenomena levels – micro, meso and macro. Within these levels, more specific context elements emerge from the entrepreneurship education literature. The findings assert that while context is highly influential in relation to entrepreneurship education, it is arbitrarily described, and holds a variety of documented and diffuse elements. Educators have a limited span of control in relation to context elements, however, for the most parts elements can be adapted to or designed with. Finally, due to the influence of context it is difficult to identify a universal best practice of entrepreneurship education because there simply is no ceteris paribus.

Research limitations/implications

Contextual elements which emerged from the literature consider various subjects, spaces, structures and networks. Context is complex and has had limited treatment in entrepreneurship education literature, thus additional analysis and experimentation is necessary.

Practical implications

Context shapes understanding and influences learning. Addressing entrepreneurship education across three levels – micro, meso and macro – and through four framing questions – who, what, where and when – guides educators in how context influences and can be used when designing education.

Originality/value

The paper gives new insight into how context is addressed in entrepreneurship education literature, and how this can influence educational design.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2018

Karen Williams Middleton and Pamela Nowell

Effective internal dynamics of new venture teams is seen as a key contributor to venture success. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which new venture…

Abstract

Purpose

Effective internal dynamics of new venture teams is seen as a key contributor to venture success. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which new venture teams consisting of nascent entrepreneurs initiate trust and control during venture emergence.

Design/methodology/approach

Dimensions of trust and control are developed into an analytical framework applied to documented team norms. Coding detects frequency of trust and control dimensions. Supplementary data triangulate findings and explore follow-on effects in team dynamics and venture emergence.

Findings

Frequency of coded dimensions generates a venture team profile. Teams prime their dynamics through use of trust and/or control language in documented norms. Priming is seen to influence entrepreneurial perseverance during venture emergence, stemming either directly from team dynamics, or indirectly from key shareholder relationships or environmental conditions.

Research limitations/implications

Data are bounded to a specific contextual setting representing incubation and education, where the nascent entrepreneurs are simultaneously students. The complexity of venture emergence means that multiple factors influencing new venture teams may influence trust and control in ways currently unaccounted for.

Practical implications

Exploration of trust and control during venture emergence emphasizes soft-skills critical to entrepreneurial perseverance and venture success. Team norms can be designed to prime toward trust or control, and can be indicative of teams’ sensitivity to external factors, enabling evidence for intervention.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates ways in which trust and control influence team dynamics during venture emergence.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Karen Williams

This article describes covert content in training courses, examines the role it can play in deciding content and methods, and addresses the issue of how important this…

Abstract

This article describes covert content in training courses, examines the role it can play in deciding content and methods, and addresses the issue of how important this influence may be. The specific concepts of differentiation, integration, a holistic approach and you get out what you put in, are described, together with the ways in which they have been identified as contributing fundamentally to the structure and content of a particular training programme, and to the methodology used in presenting it. The ways in which these concepts show in the training are described, showing how each concept links to one or more techniques used within the courses.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Martin Lackéus, Mats Lundqvist and Karen Williams Middleton

The purpose of this paper is to use entrepreneurship to bridge the traditional-progressive education rift.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use entrepreneurship to bridge the traditional-progressive education rift.

Design/methodology/approach

The rift between traditional and progressive education is first deconstructed into five dualisms. Conceptual question-based analysis is then applied to determine if and how three entrepreneurial tools could contribute to bridging this rift; effectuation, customer development and appreciative inquiry. Finally, pattern-based generalizations are drawn from this analysis.

Findings

Patterns in the analysis motivate the articulation of an overarching educational philosophy – learning-through-creating-value-for-others – grounded in entrepreneurship and capable of bridging the educational rift.

Research limitations/implications

Only three entrepreneurial tools are included in the conceptual analysis, signifying a need to explore whether other tools could also help teachers bridge the traditional-progressive education rift. Entrepreneurial tools and the new educational philosophy manifesting entrepreneurship could also need to be further contextualized in order to be useful in education.

Practical implications

The tentatively new educational philosophy has been shown to be capable of bridging five dualisms in education which are currently problematic for teachers in their daily practice, and to remedy teacher challenges such as complexity, lack of resources, assessment difficulties and student disengagement.

Originality/value

An educational philosophy grounded in entrepreneurship has arguably not been proposed previously. Contrasting existent educational philosophies, this new philosophy goes beyond learning-through to also emphasize creating-value-for-others. This could facilitate bridging between traditional and progressive education, one of the most important challenges in education. It could also be used to facilitate the infusion of entrepreneurship into general education.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2008

Karen Manges Douglas

This article summarizes and makes the case for the continued relevancy of the scholarly works of the late sociologist Norma Williams. Informed by the multicultural…

Abstract

This article summarizes and makes the case for the continued relevancy of the scholarly works of the late sociologist Norma Williams. Informed by the multicultural tradition in which Norma Williams and the author both inhabit, and drawing upon their autobiographical experiences as data, the article makes an argument for the relevancy, indeed desirability of multiculturalism (especially as an alternative to assimilation) for clarifying the multiple ways in which diversity and diverse claims promote basic human rights. Drawing extensively from the scholarly works of Herbert Blumer, we highlight how some of the assumptions upon which assimilationist arguments are constructed do not hold up empirically.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-127-5

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Martin Lackéus and Karen Williams Middleton

The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how university-based entrepreneurship programs, incorporating real-life venture creation into educational design and delivery, can bridge the gap between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer within the university environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review and snowball sampling over a two-year period, 18 entrepreneurship education programs were identified as applying a venture creation approach. Ten of these programs were selected for case study, including direct interviews and participatory observation during a two-day workshop. Empirical findings were iteratively related to theory within entrepreneurship education and technology transfer.

Findings

The paper identifies the bridging capabilities of venture creation programs (VCP) across five core themes, illustrating the potential benefits of closer collaboration between entrepreneurship education and technology transfer in a university environment.

Research limitations/implications

A definition for “VCP” is tested empirically. These programs are shown to be sophisticated laboratory environments, allowing for clinical research towards the understanding of entrepreneurship and technology transfer processes.

Practical implications

Findings identify practical benefits of combining entrepreneurship education and technology transfer activities, such as increased value creation through not only new firms, but also an entrepreneurially equipped graduate population. VCPs allow for “spin-through” of innovative ideas in the university environment, while simultaneously contributing to entrepreneurial learning.

Originality/value

This paper presents findings from the first multiple case study into entrepreneurship education specifically designed to develop real-life venture as part of the core curriculum. Findings provide basis for investigating the value of integrating entrepreneurship education and technology transfer at the university.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 57 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Mats A. Lundqvist and Karen L. Williams Middleton

Several types of entrepreneurship with a societal purpose coincide in Sweden today, some stemming from older domestic traditions, others being more recent foreign…

Abstract

Purpose

Several types of entrepreneurship with a societal purpose coincide in Sweden today, some stemming from older domestic traditions, others being more recent foreign influences. This paper aims to interrelate social, civic, community, and other entrepreneurships in search of a more unifying concept of societal entrepreneurship for Sweden and beyond.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a larger study, Swedish researchers and practitioners promoting some kind of entrepreneurship with societal purpose, are interviewed and asked for examples and literature references. Altogether 176 actors are identified and 59 are interviewed. The main distinguishing factors between different discourses of entrepreneurship are accounted for as well as results from workshops where actors representing different discourses partook.

Findings

Seven societally oriented entrepreneurship discourses are distinguished, with different foreign or domestic origins. Key characteristics for interrelating different discourses are the type of actor (individual and/or collective) and purpose (social/ecological and/or economic) emphasized in a discourse. Interactions documented from workshops indicate a potential in unifying different entrepreneurships within a widened understanding of societal entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

The field of entrepreneurship emphasizing societal utility is fragmented with many parallel discourses. The conceptual analysis and empirical findings imply that there is potential in a more unifying concept. Furthermore, in the limited Swedish setting, collective dimensions of entrepreneurship stand out. This nevertheless implies that collective engagements into entrepreneurship of any kind are worthy of more research and recognition.

Practical implications

Implications are primarily limited to societal entrepreneurship within uncontested welfare states, such as Sweden, where most established societal needs are taken care of through taxes utilized by a public sector. Societal entrepreneurship in such a setting becomes a mechanism for renewal and experimentation.

Originality/value

The paper is original in its approach to identifying and interrelating current discourses in Sweden.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2013

Mats A. Lundqvist and Karen L. Williams Middleton

Venture creation is often seen as the form of academic entrepreneurship least compatible with the role of university scientists. The purpose of the article is to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

Venture creation is often seen as the form of academic entrepreneurship least compatible with the role of university scientists. The purpose of the article is to explore the changing role of university scientists towards venture creation, and understand the influence of university‐driven initiatives for venture creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based on a qualitative study of two venture creation cases: one from a US university, and one building from two universities in Sweden. The cases and associated university environments were selected due to their venture creation activity. University venture creation data of the three universities complements the cases.

Findings

Venture creation at universities can be more compatible with the traditional role of the university scientist. Centers and laboratories concerned with entrepreneurship and action‐based education are identified as key university resources allowing university scientists to engage in venture creation in more compatible ways, and not having to become the lead venture creator.

Research limitations/implications

The study underlying the article is limited to three university environments (in two countries) where venture creation activity is relatively frequent.

Originality/value

The article shows that venture creation can be more compatible with the role of the university scientist due to more collective entrepreneurial activity at universities. Furthermore, university scientists, in synergizing between different entrepreneurial roles, are important for venture creation without taking the lead venture entrepreneur role. Involving students in venture creation together with scientists is proposed as one such important entrepreneurial role that has not previously been recognized.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

David A. Hutt, Karen Williams, Paul P. Conway, Fuad M. Khoshnaw, Xiaoyun Cui and Deepa Bhatt

To present the aims and preliminary findings of a research project to investigate the manufacture of multilayer glass substrates built up from thin glass sheets.

Abstract

Purpose

To present the aims and preliminary findings of a research project to investigate the manufacture of multilayer glass substrates built up from thin glass sheets.

Design/methodology/approach

The approaches that may be taken to create glass substrates and the challenges involved are described. Excimer laser machining was used for the formation of microvias and other features in individual glass sheets. In addition, methods for the electroless copper metallisation of the smooth glass surfaces were studied. Finally, a technique for the lamination of the glass layers using low temperature, pressure assisted bonding was investigated.

Findings

Microvias with 100 μm diameter entry holes were successfully machined in 100 μm thick glass sheets and process windows were identified to reduce debris and hole taper. Using appropriate pre‐treatment steps, electroless copper coatings could be deposited uniformly over the smooth glass surface, however, further improvements in adhesion were found to be necessary. The direct lamination of glass layers was found to be possible using pressure and temperature applied over long periods of time. Improvements to the lamination process were made to reduce the initiation of cracks which were assessed using fatigue testing.

Research limitations/implications

The feasibility of the individual steps in the fabrication of glass substrates has been demonstrated. Further work is necessary to control the processes in order to limit microcrack formation, improve copper coating adhesion and ensure uniform lamination of multiple glass layers.

Originality/value

The use of glass materials could enable the manufacture of substrates for high density electrical interconnect with integrated optical waveguides.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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