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We analyze several dimensions of food security in Ethiopia, taking into account projected population growth, economic growth, and price information to estimate future food…
We analyze several dimensions of food security in Ethiopia, taking into account projected population growth, economic growth, and price information to estimate future food consumption by income decile. The analysis looks at the potential impact of large consumer price increases on food security metrics. We use the new USDA/ERS demand-based modeling framework in order to carry out this study. The modeling approach captures economic behavior by making food demand systematically responsive to income and price changes based on a demand specification well-grounded in microeconomic foundations. The projected change in food consumption can be apportioned to population growth, income growth, and changes in food prices and real exchange rates. We found that Ethiopia is highly food insecure, with 54% of the population consuming less than 2,100 calories a day at calibration levels. Income growth under unchanged prices mitigates food insecurity with the number of food-insecure people falling to 42.5 million in 2016. If domestic prices were free to fall with world market prices, the food-insecure population would decrease farther to 36.1 million. If domestic prices increased because of domestic supply shocks and constrained imports, the food-insecure population could rise to 64.7 million. The food gap (i.e., the amount of food necessary to eliminate Ethiopia’s food insecurity) would reach 3.6 million tons. The practical implications of this are that measures of food security are sensitive to changes in prices. Maintaining higher prices when global prices are low maintains higher levels of food insecurity than would otherwise prevail. Expanded access to lower cost imports could significantly improve food security in Ethiopia.
Although ethnicity and gender play a significant role in many types of social interaction, little research exists on their importance in mediation. An analysis of…
Although ethnicity and gender play a significant role in many types of social interaction, little research exists on their importance in mediation. An analysis of community mediation cases (N = 27,852) from New York state demonstrated that, consistent with predictions from criminal justice research, Whites were underrepresented in mediation relative to Blacks and Hispanics, and that females were more likely to participate in mediation as claimants than men. Both ethnicity and gender were related to the type of dispute, degree of violence, intimacy between disputants, source of referral, and mediation outcome. Additional analysis, taking into account source of referral, education, and income level of the claimant, did not fully account for the observed ethnic or gender differences. Results are discussed in terms of reasons why ethnic and gender differences exist in mediation, limitations of demographic data, and areas for future research.
We believe that the inclusion of people with disabilities (PWDs) in the workplace, the provision of the right of PWDs to decent work involves an exemplary field of social…
We believe that the inclusion of people with disabilities (PWDs) in the workplace, the provision of the right of PWDs to decent work involves an exemplary field of social issues that provides a firm foundation for exploring the nature and interplay of (EU and local) policies and also it could be interesting to relate this to the policy changes of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
In our chapter we decided to have a look at these relationships on a national level, but we believe that the points raised reach far beyond the borders of Hungary and Central and Eastern Europe.
First, we provide a short summary of the development of European and Hungarian policies and regulations considering the employment of PWDs and their connection to the development of EU level and Hungarian CSR policies. We identify three phases in both topics and highlight their parallel developmental shift at the beginning of the 2000s. Second, we highlight the very recent governmental policies of CSR and employment/inclusion (especially the rehabilitation contribution). Third, we argue that whilst PWDs as a topic is relevant in the declarations, guidelines and policies of international and national organizations, the rights of PWDs, their inclusion in society and the world of work are neither among the current topics of enterprises’ and corporates’ CSR practices nor in scientific debate.
Based on two case studies, we show some good practices and formalize general learning points, opportunities and the potential risks of employing PWDs as part of CSR activities.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of operations management in society. The article detects trends, raises critical questions to operations management…
The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of operations management in society. The article detects trends, raises critical questions to operations management research and articulates a research agenda to increase the value of such research in addressing societal problems.
This paper evaluates the papers presented at the EurOMA 2019 conference to detect trends and discuss the contributions of operations management research to society. It further goes to identify gaps in the research agenda.
The article finds several important streams of research in operations management: sustainable operations and supply chains, health care and humanitarian operations, innovation, digitalisation and 4.0, risk and resilience. It highlights new trends such as circular economy research and problematises when to stop implementing innovation and how to address and report their potential failure. Importantly, it shows how it is not just a question of offshoring vs reshoring but of constant change in manufacturing that operations management addresses.
The article highlights not just novel research areas but also gaps in the research agenda where operations management seeks to add value to society.