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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Fatma Pakdil, Pelin Toktaş and Karen Moustafa Leonard

The purpose of this paper is to test the reliability and validity of the qualitative section of Lean Assessment Tool (LAT) starting from the point where a reliable and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the reliability and validity of the qualitative section of Lean Assessment Tool (LAT) starting from the point where a reliable and valid tool is needed to measure increasing leanness level of business organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire used in this study included the qualitative component of LAT developed by Pakdil and Leonard (2014). The unit of the study was individual employees who work in manufacturing firms participating in this study. This study focused on the data collected from three firms that operate in Turkey and two firms that operate in the USA. The total respondents from Turkish firms were 263 employees, while the 205 employees responded from US firms.

Findings

Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were completed to determine valid and reliable factors that compose LAT’s qualitative component. The statistical analysis showed five distinct factors, namely process, delivery, quality, customer satisfaction and human resource. In addition, the fuzzy logic showed appropriate loadings to make the argument for its use in analysis of the LAT.

Research limitations/implications

This study moves the debate about the success or failure of lean efforts forward. With the debates about lean and its potential, it is necessary to have a scientific determination of success and the areas where further work in the firm is needed. Such measurement is the backbone of management progress, and the authors believe that this paper is useful. Second, the necessity of reliable and valid tools of lean assessment is obvious in the literature and practice. The findings of this study help academicians find reliable and valid tools to measure lean success both in the literature and practice.

Practical implications

Managerial implications include the development of a way to assess the areas of success and areas requiring further work. Failure to measure success and needs for further work has been the reason for the questionable results found in investigating lean implementation efforts. If there is no way to determine what is needed to improve lean efforts, they will be seen as failure, even if part of the implementation has been successful. This tool has been found to be potentially useful for evaluation of these crucial and time-consuming efforts.

Originality/value

In this study, the qualitative section of LAT has been validated. The results demonstrated that, based on two countries’ data sets, the scale was found to be reliable and valid within itself and across sociocultural boundaries.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Brad Hittle and Karen Moustafa Leonard

The purpose of this paper is to develop a qualitative method to examine why complex supply chain crises occur, to aid in future development of a model and theory of supply…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a qualitative method to examine why complex supply chain crises occur, to aid in future development of a model and theory of supply chain crisis management. The lack of analysis of crisis events in supply chains and their underlying causes is to be addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes various types of supply chain crises and using qualitative analysis determines what key investments of time and resources would prevent crises from escalating or recurring,.

Findings

The qualitative analysis reveals key characteristics in supply chain crises. The most common is dependence on a sole supplier, while poor relationships with suppliers are also contributory, as was risk management. Several common characteristics of successful management were found, most notably capacity flexibility, but also multiple suppliers and proactive risk management.

Research limitations/implications

The nature of the study is exploratory, and future research could refine the work to determine a model and theory of supply chain crisis success and failures.

Practical implications

Maintaining capacity flexibility during non‐crisis times can be a difficult investment to make. To pay overhead and maintenance costs on underutilized equipment and a facility with no intention of using those resources for normal production appears at the outset to be counterintuitive. However, given the potential risk of a crisis, a decision to allow for diverse capacity, back‐up equipment, or alternative manufacturing locations results in a positive return on investment in a crisis.

Originality/value

The first steps toward a model for decision making during a supply chain crisis in a firm have been taken. This paper examines supply chain crises by analyzing crises and their outcomes, a method not used in previous papers. Crises management needs proactive analysis, and this paper is an initial exploration of ways to undertake the evaluation of key investments, using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 49 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Karen Rogers McDaniel, Florence Ngala and Karen Moustafa Leonard

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersection of competency and bullying behaviors, not yet reported in the literature.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersection of competency and bullying behaviors, not yet reported in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is an examination of the literature available on both topics, and development of a framework related to both.

Findings

The theory is that there is a strong mediating relationship between the victim’s self-perception of competency and outcomes (the victim’s reactions) to bullying behaviors. There are multiple impacts of bullying behaviors, but the authors believe this mediation action of competency might be crucial. There is little research on competency or expertise in terms of behaviors resulting from these self-assessments. Future research should seek to examine the link empirically, and there are implications about the competency levels of bullies themselves that might arise.

Research limitations/implications

As this is a newly developed research stream, the authors plan to continue with work on the topic.

Practical implications

By developing competency, individuals may develop some protection or coping mechanisms when confronted by bullying behaviors. Managers need to be aware of the need to allow employee development to reduce the incidence of such behaviors.

Social implications

Bullying behaviors have become rampant in society. In trying to determine where the problem might be best addressed, the authors feel that they have made a significant impact to allow managers to address competency among those victimized by these behaviors. This should have a flow-on effect for organizational and societal culture.

Originality/value

This is an intersection that has not been explored but holds significant explanatory power in the area. These bullying behaviors are on the rise; therefore, it is an exceptional opportunity to present new ideas in a forum that is well read by both academics and practitioners.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

James R. Van Scotter, Karen Moustafa, Jennifer R. Burnett and Paul G. Michael

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of acquaintance on performance rating accuracy and halo.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of acquaintance on performance rating accuracy and halo.

Design/methodology/approach

After expert ratings were obtained, US Air Force Officers (n=104) with an average of six years experience rated the performance of four officers who delivered 6‐7 minute briefings on their research projects; 26 raters reported being acquainted with one or more of the briefers. Raters were randomly assigned to use a rating format designed to encourage between‐ratee comparisons on each dimension or a format in which each ratee was separately rated on all dimensions.

Findings

Ratings made by acquainted raters were more accurate than ratings by unacquainted raters. Accuracy was positively correlated with halo for both sets of ratings. Rating format had no discernible effect on accuracy or halo.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that the measure of acquaintance was not designed as a surrogate for familiarity. Development of a multi‐item, psychometrically‐valid measure of acquaintance should be the first step in pursuing this research. The use of a laboratory design where only a small percentage of the sample was acquainted with those being rated also limits the study's generalizability.

Practical implications

The results show that prior acquaintance with the ratee results in more accurate ratings. Ratings were also more positive when raters had prior contact with the person they rated.

Originality/value

The hypothesis is that the cognitive processes used to produce ratings are different for raters who have had no prior contact with a ratee and raters who are in some manner acquainted with a ratee. In the past, a positive halo effect from acquaintance between raters and ratees has been a concern. However, this limited study indicates that acquaintance may actually result in more accurate ratings.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Rabi S. Bhagat, Balaji Krishnan, Terry A. Nelson, Karen Moustafa Leonard, David L. Ford and Tejinder K. Billing

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating roles of two distinct styles of coping and decision latitude on the relationship between three facets of role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating roles of two distinct styles of coping and decision latitude on the relationship between three facets of role stress and psychological strain in six national contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The objective of the research is to examine the relative predictive efficacies of three theory specific moderators in six countries which differ on the cultural dimension of individualism‐collectivism. The data are analyzed using moderated regression analysis.

Findings

The results show that problem‐focused coping is a better moderator in the individualistic countries and that emotion‐focused coping is a better moderator in the collectivistic contexts. None of the three moderators moderate the relationships in Germany and South Africa – the two countries which had scores in the mid‐range of the individualism‐collectivism continuum. Findings are discussed for their significance into the interplay of cultural variations and coping with work stress in predicting psychological strain or distress on the job.

Practical implications

Practical implications for managing human resources in various subsidiaries of multinational and global organizations are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper confirms existing theories and expands the authors’ understanding of role stress and psychological strain in different cultural contexts.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Fatma Pakdil and Karen Moustafa Leonard

Lean systems thinking was widely studied using relevant variables, but there is a dearth of published theoretical or empirical evidence about the cultural aspects of lean…

Abstract

Purpose

Lean systems thinking was widely studied using relevant variables, but there is a dearth of published theoretical or empirical evidence about the cultural aspects of lean processes. The lack of conceptual development is one of the motivations for this study. Do organizational cultural variations correlate with the success and effectiveness of lean processes? What organizational infrastructures are required for effective lean implementation and continuation? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Examining literature in the area of lean production and lean management, the authors sought current literature at the intersection of organizational culture and lean processes, particularly implementation and sustainability, but found little relating to the topic. Therefore, using the Competing Values Framework taxonomy, the authors examine this intersection, relying on related research in the areas.

Findings

In this paper, a brief discussion of lean processes in relation to organizational culture leads to propositions that identify the various cultural dimensions and their purported effect on lean implementation and sustainability. A model of this interaction is developed. Those quadrants of the Competing Values Framework that might be useful in developing research directions for the future are identified.

Research limitations/implications

Future research directions include the measurement of organizational culture in firms that have implemented lean processes. This would be a step toward looking at the effect that the different quadrants in the Competing Values Framework have on various elements of lean efforts. This would take a significant amount of work, because the manufacturing industry, the leader in implementing and sustaining lean processes, may have institutionalized particular organizational cultures. It would be an interesting step forward in the understanding of how lean processes are operationalized across different firms and industries. However, there are multiple ways to examine culture; the authors believe this method allows the capture of the entire spectrum.

Practical implications

Knowing which dimensions influence lean effectiveness and the way that they wield that influence allows managers to develop the firm’s organizational culture to one that will support implementing and sustaining lean efforts. The challenge to implement and sustain lean processes lies in the need to identify the organizational culture infrastructure that will allow this system that was first used by Japanese firms to operate well in other organizational contexts. The values and norms that underlie lean processes may create conflict with the culture that already exists within the organization; such divergence retards adoption and performance.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research at the critical intersection of organizational culture and lean implementation/sustainability. Culture is key to making the changes required of lean implementation and in sustaining the drive toward lean production and management. The paper begins to fill that gap.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Abstract

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Ronald J. Burke

This paper aims to raise some important questions for cross‐cultural research on occupational stress and well‐being and sets the stage for the five papers in the special issue.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to raise some important questions for cross‐cultural research on occupational stress and well‐being and sets the stage for the five papers in the special issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews some previous literature on cross‐cultural understanding of occupational stress and well‐being, why such research is difficult to undertake, and summarizes the five original manuscripts that comprise this special issue.

Findings

Manuscripts in this special issue represent authors from several countries and report data collected from over a dozen countries. Some contributions attempt to replicate previous North American and European research findings in other countries while others undertake comparative studies of two or more countries.

Originality/value

It is important to undertake more cross‐cultural comparative research of the effects of occupational stress and well‐being to determine whether any boundary conditions exist for previous results based in North American and European samples. In addition, future research should include assessments of some national culture values.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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