The on‐line concentration and temperature measurement of solutions is of great interest as a means of quality production control in many industrial processes, such as in food service industry, pharmaceuticals industry, chemical industry and environmental engineering, especially for harmful solutions or solutions that cannot be reached by the operator. This paper seeks to address these issues.
A high resolution all‐fiber multi‐parameter sensor system has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The sensor system can be used for on‐line monitoring of concentration and temperature simultaneously and dynamically. A combined long period fiber grating (CLPG) is used as the sensor head based on its resonance wavelength shifts being almost linearly with concentration and temperature, and also based on that the two applied resonance peaks have different concentration‐wavelength coefficients and different temperature‐wavelength coefficients. Two wavelength‐matched fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are used to convert resonance peak wavelengths of the CLPG into corresponding intensities for interrogation.
When the concentration and the temperature all fluctuate dynamically during experiments, a concentration resolution of 0.03 g/L has been achieved in the range of 0∼200 g/L, and a temperature resolution of 0.02C has been realized in the range of −20∼60C.
On‐line monitoring of concentration and temperature for solutions is a means of quality production control in biological, chemical and other many industrial processes, such as in food service industry, pharmaceuticals industry, chemical industry, and also in environmental engineering, especially for harmful solutions or solutions that cannot be reached by the operator. Optical fiber sensors have numerous advantages over traditional sensors, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, higher stability and sensitivity, more easiness of multiplex, being competent for application in harsh environments, “smart structures” and on‐site measurements. Long period optical fiber grating sensor is the most appropriate sensor for multi‐parameter monitoring in the fields mentioned above, which has all the advantages of optical fiber sensor. Besides, optical fiber grating sensors can be used for monitoring more accurately because its signal is coded by wavelength. The all‐fiber sensor system is suitable for remote monitoring of many solutions, such as the solutions of NaCl, glucose, alcohol, and hydrocarbon.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM).
A content analysis was conducted based on the 756 posts retrieved from Sina Weibo, the top microbloging platform in China, following the simple random sampling method. χ2 analysis was conducted to examine the relationships across the three types of organizations (governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and corporations) and the use of the HBM concepts (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action) in terms of haze and its threat to health.
The results of this study indicated that corporations posted more Weibo messages categorized as perceived benefit and most of these posts are related to their products, while governmental organizations posted fewer Weibo messages categorized as perceived severity.
This study provides health decision makers and media consumers with knowledge about how to use social media more effectively in terms of haze-related issues.
Given the severity of air pollution and the influential role microblogging takes, the study aims to fill the gap in the limited literature on haze information dissemination on social media in China. In addition, this study aims to shed theoretical light on HBM as applied to a non-westernized context.
Buildings erected in ancient China were often of wood and thatch and were particularly flammable. The ancient world developed a number of ways to minimize the damage…
Buildings erected in ancient China were often of wood and thatch and were particularly flammable. The ancient world developed a number of ways to minimize the damage caused by fire. An analysis of the architecture of ancient construction and urban planning, has revealed over a hundred fire prevention features. These items could be categorized into three groups, namely: symbolic features, building construction and urban planning. In the earlier literature of ancient China in which people had limited knowledge of fire, symbolic features based on their religious belief were emphasized. With the increase in construction experience, more tangible means of fire prevention were included in building design and urban planning. This paper briefly explores the changes of fire prevention means from early ancient period to Qing Dynasty. The reduction of damage caused by unwanted fire revealed the effectiveness of the evolution of fire prevention from symbolic features to urban planning.
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the…
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the evidence down into manageable chunks, covering: age discrimination in the workplace; discrimination against African‐Americans; sex discrimination in the workplace; same sex sexual harassment; how to investigate and prove disability discrimination; sexual harassment in the military; when the main US job‐discrimination law applies to small companies; how to investigate and prove racial discrimination; developments concerning race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; developments concerning discrimination against workers with HIV or AIDS; developments concerning discrimination based on refusal of family care leave; developments concerning discrimination against gay or lesbian employees; developments concerning discrimination based on colour; how to investigate and prove discrimination concerning based on colour; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; using statistics in employment discrimination cases; race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning gender discrimination in the workplace; discrimination in Japanese organizations in America; discrimination in the entertainment industry; discrimination in the utility industry; understanding and effectively managing national origin discrimination; how to investigate and prove hiring discrimination based on colour; and, finally, how to investigate sexual harassment in the workplace.
Discusses the transfer of undertakings in the UK, referring to the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations of 1981, the Employment Rights Act 1996, and the Acquired Rights Directive 1977. Provides the raison d’etre of the Acquired Rights Directive and outlines how it was implemented in the UK. Talks about the confusing jurisprudence of the European and British courts, mentioning the European Court of Justice’s challenges to the directive, the 1994 proposals, amended 1997 proposals, the Commission’s memorandum of 1997 and the UK government’s consultation papers. Describes how the European Directive is applied and interpreted in relation to the Acquired Rights Directive and transfer of undertakings. Outlines the regulations controlling compulsory competitive tendering. Points out the obligation to inform and consult on the transfer of an undertaking and how the directive is enforced if this fails to occur. Notes the effect a relevant transfer has on existing collective agreements and the legal implications of dismissing employees by reason of the relevant transfer. Looks at the European Commission’s proposal for a directive on safeguarding employees’ rights in the event of transfer and the implications that would have on UK business. Concludes that a new directive is needed, building on the 1977 Directive but ironing out its inconsistencies.
Suggests cubist methodology as a possible approach to studying the management of organizational change; the result of having gleaned data on organizational change…
Suggests cubist methodology as a possible approach to studying the management of organizational change; the result of having gleaned data on organizational change processes from many different sources over five years. Quotes the cost of organizational change and the frequency of failure. Puts forward this cubist methodology as a means of rationalizing an intuitive approach. Refers to literature on research strategy, research methodology and research method, combining it into one synthesized view (a la Picasso and Braque). Claims that the advantage of the cubist methodology is its ability to turn many diverse components into one holistic picture.
Looks at organizational relocation and the stages experienced by individuals when an enforced move becomes necessary. Considers, from the company’s viewpoint, links…
Looks at organizational relocation and the stages experienced by individuals when an enforced move becomes necessary. Considers, from the company’s viewpoint, links between individuals coping, managing change and the management of group moves. Lists practical consideration which should be considered.
Examines the European Union (EU) countries’ uncertainty avoidance measures (based on Hofstede’s work) and proposes the degree of formalization (high, moderate or low…
Examines the European Union (EU) countries’ uncertainty avoidance measures (based on Hofstede’s work) and proposes the degree of formalization (high, moderate or low) applied by organizations in the EU countries. Proposes that high formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain; that low formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland and Sweden; and that moderate formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Finland and The Netherlands. Claims that these propositions can be tested at the organizational level using the Aston study instrument but warns that cultural factors are only an element among a number of other contextual variables such as the subsidiary’s local context (environmental complexity and the amount of local resources available to it), the size and age of the organization, type of organizational function, the way in which organizations confront a crisis, and management preferences for control. Indicates that it should not be assumed that this research can be applied to Confucian‐based Far East cultures. Mentions also that a country’s cultural values can change over time so should be periodically updated using Hofstede’s Value Survey Module.
Considers the implications of 30 per cent quota innovation for women politicians in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) and other area of India since the 1990’s. Uses a survey to…
Considers the implications of 30 per cent quota innovation for women politicians in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) and other area of India since the 1990’s. Uses a survey to explore the influence of women on policy and compares this with some previous research in London. Suggest ways this representation may be sustained.
Sexual harassment law addresses hostile environments by evaluating whether the workplace environment would be considered hostile by a “reasonable woman”. But who is a…
Sexual harassment law addresses hostile environments by evaluating whether the workplace environment would be considered hostile by a “reasonable woman”. But who is a reasonable woman? Defendant‐employers may present one group of women employees as representative “reasonable” women and assert that any of these women’s co‐workers who have had different experiences with regard to sexual harassment are not “reasonable”. However, when male employees categorize various groups of female coworkers differently and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from an other group. This “selective sexual harassment” was present in the workplace I studied: while both groups of women were “reasonable”, they had very different experiences, only one of which might be confirmed by a court as the perspective of “reasonable” women. This article advocates for a version of the “reason ble victim” standard to facilitate a closer analysis of hostile environment sexual harassment suits.