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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Abdullahi Mohammed Usman and Kamil Abdullah

The purpose of this study is to develop a set of parameters universally acceptable for assessing design and construction strategies for reducing operational energy usage and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a set of parameters universally acceptable for assessing design and construction strategies for reducing operational energy usage and its associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Also, the parameters are intended to estimate the quantity of energy and its associated GHG emission reduction over the assessment period.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used five steps framework comprising definition of purpose, selecting the candidate parameters, criteria selection and description, selecting proposed parameters and defining the proposed parameters. The criteria used were the parameter’s prevalence, measurability, preference and feasibility toward adaptability to the relevant stakeholders.

Findings

This study consolidated 11 parameters. Seven cover designs and construction strategies comprising energy monitoring, natural lighting and ventilation design. Others are building thermal performance, efficient equipments, renewable energy and energy policy. The remaining four consider operational energy consumption, GHG emission quantification and their reduction over time.

Practical implications

Providing suitable indicators for assessing direct and indirect GHG emission with easily accessible data is essential for assessing built environment. The consolidated parameters can be used in developing rating systems, monitoring GHG inventories and activities of building related industries.

Originality/value

This study was conducted at the CEIES UTHM and used 11 existing rating systems open for research purposes, International Panel for Climate Change reports and GHG protocol report and guides and several other standards.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2022

Kamil Abdullah and Abdullahi Mohammed Usman

The purpose of the study is to consolidate a set of indicators for assessing design and construction phase strategies for reducing operational greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. They…

1107

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to consolidate a set of indicators for assessing design and construction phase strategies for reducing operational greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. They will also estimate the quantity of operational GHG emission and its associated reduction over assessment period.

Design/methodology/approach

Five steps framework adopted include defining the purpose of the indicators and selection of candidate indicators. Others are defining the criteria for indicator selection, selecting and defining the proposed indicators. Relevancy, measurability, prevalence, preference, feasibility and adaptability of the indicator were the criteria used for selecting the indicators.

Findings

The study consolidated public transport accessibility, sustainable parking space, green vehicle priority, proximity to amenities and alternative modes as indicators for design and construction phase strategies. Transportation accounting and carbon footprint (CFP) and their associated reduction are indicators for operational GHG emission while plan and policy is an indicator for policymakers and stakeholders.

Practical implications

The study shows that providing correct indicators for assessing direct and indirect GHG emission with easy to obtain data is essential for assessment of built environment. Stakeholder can use the indicators in developing new rating systems and researchers as an additional knowledge. Policy makers and stakeholders can use the study in monitoring and rewarding the sustainability and activities of building related industries and organisations.

Originality/value

The study was conducted at the Center for Energy and Industrial Environmental Studies (CEIES) Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia and utilises existing rating systems and tools, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and GHG protocol reports and guides and several other standards, which are open for research.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2021

Amy Yeo Chu May, Carmen Teoh Chia Wen and Jeffton Low Boon Tiong

This study seeks to find an interactive effect between ethical leadership (EL) and corporate governance (CG) variables and investigate whether they would affect employee…

Abstract

This study seeks to find an interactive effect between ethical leadership (EL) and corporate governance (CG) variables and investigate whether they would affect employee organizational citizenship behavior (EOCB) in a Malaysian organizational setting. The collected data from the 300 accounting/finance department employees were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Partial Least Square–Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM; SmartPLS 3.0). Several primary results confirmed a coherent significant relationship between EL and ethical climate (EC), EL and EOCB, EL and CG, and CG and organizational success. Theoretically, it implies a more enhanced EOCB literature on how it can be infused in an organization. It also offers valuable knowledge by providing organizations with several insights concerning the improvement of EOCB, enabling the organization to achieve its desired success and, more importantly, how the findings could contribute directly and indirectly to emerging markets in terms of their industrial and financial performance.

Details

Environmental, Social, and Governance Perspectives on Economic Development in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-895-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2023

Olatoyese Zaccheus Oni, AbdulLateef Olanrewaju and Soo Cheen Khor

The construction industry has been recording a high number of accidents without any sign of abating, the majority of which have been linked to poor health and safety practices. To…

Abstract

Purpose

The construction industry has been recording a high number of accidents without any sign of abating, the majority of which have been linked to poor health and safety practices. To reduce this menace, this study aims to evaluate the factors affecting health and safety practices on construction sites to improve health and safety practices.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this study reviewed previous studies to derive the factors affecting health and safety practices on construction sites, and based on the literature review, the 50 factors identified were used in developing the questionnaire that was administered to construction professionals. The returned questionnaire was then analysed using fuzzy synthetic evaluation (FSE).

Findings

According to the FSE results, inadequate safety planning has the highest critical value, followed by management failure, inadequate safety promotion, safety ignorance, poor supervision and enforcement, a casual attitude towards safety and insufficient experience. The analysis showed that the overall criticality of the factors to the Malaysian construction industry is high, suggesting that if addressed, the health and safety practices of the industry will be improved.

Originality/value

The study provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting health and safety practices in the construction industry using a method that has not been used by previous researchers. The findings will furnish decision makers in the construction industry with practical approaches to adapt and reinforce in the industry to improve health and safety practices.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Siti Raihana Hamzah, Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha, Abbas Mirakhor and Nurhafiza Abdul Kader Malim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of risk shifting behavior in bonds and sukuk. The examination is significant, as economists and scholars identify risk shifting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of risk shifting behavior in bonds and sukuk. The examination is significant, as economists and scholars identify risk shifting as the primary cause of the global financial crisis. Yet, the dangers of this debt-financing feature are largely ignored – one needs to only witness the record growth of global debt even after the global financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

To identify the signs of risk shifting existence in the corporations, this paper compares each corporation’s operating risk before and after issuing debt. Operating risk or risk of a firm’s activities is measured using the volatility of the operating earnings or coefficient variation of earning before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). Using EBITDA as the variable offers one distinct advantage to using asset volatility as previous research has – EBITDA can be extracted directly from firms’ accounting data and is not model-specific.

Findings

Risk shifting can be found in not only the bond system but also the debt-based sukuk system – a noteworthy finding because sukuk, supposedly in a different class from bonds, have been criticized in some quarters for their apparent similarity to bonds. On the other hand, this study thus shows that equity feature, when it is embedded in bonds (as in convertible bonds) or when a financial instrument is based purely on equity (as in equity-based sukuk), the incentive to shift the risk can be mitigated.

Research limitations/implications

Global awareness of the dangers of debt should be increased as a means of reducing the amount of debt outstanding globally. Although some regulators suggest that sukuk replace debt, they must also be aware that imitative sukuk pose the same threat to efforts to avoid debt. In short, efforts to ensure future financial stability cannot address only debts or bonds but must also address those types of sukuk that mirror bonds in their operation. In the wake of the global financial crisis, amid the frantic search for ways of protecting against future financial shocks, this analysis aims to help create future stability by encouraging market players to avoid debt-based activities.

Originality/value

This paper differs from the previous literature in two important ways, viewing risk shifting behavior not only in relation to debt or bonds but also when set against debt-based sukuk, which has been subjected to similar criticism. Indeed, to the extent that debts and bonds encourage risk shifting behavior and threaten the entire financial system, so, too, can imitation sukuk or debt-based sukuk. Second, this paper is unique in exploring the ability of equity features to curb equity holders’ incentive to engage in risk shifting behavior. Such an examination is necessary for the wake of the global financial crisis, for researchers and economists now agree that risk shifting must be a controlled behavior – and that one way of controlling risk shifting is by implementing the risk sharing feature of equity-based financing into the financial system.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Siti Raihana Hamzah, Norizarina Ishak and Ahmad Fadly Nurullah Rasedee

The purpose of this paper is to examine incentives for risk shifting in debt- and equity-based contracts based on the critiques of the similarities between sukuk and bonds.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine incentives for risk shifting in debt- and equity-based contracts based on the critiques of the similarities between sukuk and bonds.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a theoretical and mathematical model to investigate whether incentives for risk taking exist in: debt contracts; and equity contracts.

Findings

Based on this theoretical model, it argues that risk shifting behaviour exists in debt contracts only because debt naturally gives rise to risk shifting behaviour when the transaction takes place. In contrast, equity contracts, by their very nature, involve sharing transactional risk and returns and are thus thought to make risk shifting behaviour undesirable. Nonetheless, previous researchers have found that equity-based financing also might carry risk shifting incentives. Even so, this paper argues that the amount of capital provided and the underlying assets must be considered, especially in the event of default. Through mathematical modelling, this element of equity financing can make risk shifting unattractive, thus making equity financing more distinct than debt financing.

Research limitations/implications

Global awareness of the dangers of debt should be increased as a means of reducing the amount of debt outstanding globally. Although some regulators suggest that sukuk replaces debt, they must also be aware that imitative sukuk poses the same threat to efforts to avoid debt. In short, efforts to ensure future financial stability cannot address only debts or bonds but must also address those types of sukuk that mirrors bonds in their operation. In the wake of the global financial crisis, amid the frantic search for ways of protecting against future financial shocks, this analysis aims to help create future stability by encouraging market players to avoid debt-based activities and promoting equity-based instruments.

Practical implications

This paper’s findings are relevant for countries that feature more than one type of financial market (e.g. Islamic and conventional) because risk shifting behaviour can degrade economic and financial stability.

Originality/value

This paper differs from the previous literature in two important ways, viewing risk shifting behaviour not only in relation to debt or bonds but also when set against debt-based sukuk, which has been subjected to similar criticism. Indeed, to the extent that debts and bonds encourage risk shifting behaviour and threaten the entire financial system, so, too, can imitation sukuk or debt-based sukuk. Second, this paper is unique in exploring the ability of equity features to curb equityholders’ incentive to engage in risk shifting behaviour. Such an examination is necessary for the wake of the global financial crisis, for researchers and economists now agree that risk shifting must be controlled.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Naail Mohammed Kamil, Muthaloo Subramaniam, Halane Elmi Ali, Mohammed Borhandden Musah and Acheampong Alex

The efficiency of unit trust (UT) funds from quite number of contexts across the globe has been highlighted in previous literature. Yet, there is dearth of research that…

1183

Abstract

Purpose

The efficiency of unit trust (UT) funds from quite number of contexts across the globe has been highlighted in previous literature. Yet, there is dearth of research that empirically investigates the factors that influence the selection of UT funds by retailers, particularly in the Malaysian setting. This paper aims to narrow this research gap, whereby perception of past performance, perception of funds’ commitment to Shari’ah compliance, perception of funds’ size and perception of risk tolerance are hypothesized to exert statistically significant influences on the selection of UT funds by retail investors in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study uses a quantitative research approach whereby survey data have been sampled from 140 retail investors from around Malaysia, using simple random sampling technique. Data analysis has been carried out using multiple regression analysis employing SPSS version 20.0.

Findings

The empirical research finds that perceptions of fund size and Shari’ah compliance significantly influence the selection of UT among retail investors in Malaysia. However, there were no enough evidences to support the claims that perceptions of past performance and of risk tolerance influence the selection of UT among Malaysian retail investors.

Research limitations/implications

This research is cross-sectional and uses data from Malaysia only.

Practical implications

The findings from this research will have enormous implications for policymakers in the accounting and finance sectors of government and private financial institutions and for individual professional Malaysian investors. In particular, investors in Malaysia and potential investors abroad may be enlightened by the findings of this research. Again, Islamic financial institutions may use the findings to boost their performance improvement interventions, thus, having clear evidence of the actual factors that influence retailers in the Malaysian setting.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is among the pioneering research works that empirically explores the factors that influence Malaysian retailers to invest in UT funds. This research is expected to stimulate further research in this novel area.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2024

Emrehan Gürsoy, Hayati Kadir Pazarlioğlu, Mehmet Gürdal, Engin Gedik, Kamil Arslan and Abdullah Dağdeviren

The purpose of this study is to analyse the magnetic field effect on Fe3O4/H2O Ferrofluid flowing in a sudden expansion tube, which has specific behaviour in terms of rheology…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the magnetic field effect on Fe3O4/H2O Ferrofluid flowing in a sudden expansion tube, which has specific behaviour in terms of rheology, with convex dimple fins. Because the investigation of flow separation is a prominent application in performance, the effect of magnetic field and convex dimple on the thermo-hydraulic performance of sudden expansion tube are examined, in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

During the solution of the boundary conditions of the sudden expansion tube, finite volume method was used. Analyses have been conducted considering the single-phase solution, steady-state, incompressible fluid and no-slip condition of the wall under forced convection conditions. In the analyses, it has been assumed that the flow was developing thermally and has been fully developed hydrodynamically.

Findings

The present study focuses on exploring the influence of the magnetic field, nanofluid concentration and convex dimple fins on the thermo-hydraulic performance of sudden expansion tube. The results indicate that the strength of the magnetic field, nanofluid concentration and convex dimple fins have a positive effect on the convective heat transfer in the system.

Originality/value

The authors conducted numerical studies, determining through a literature search that no one had yet investigated enhancing heat transfer on a sudden expansion tube using combinations of magnetic fields, nanofluids and convex dimple fins. The results of the numerical analyses provide valuable information about the improvement of heat transfer and system performance in electronic device cooling and heat exchangers.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

Mazni Abdullah and Noor Sharoja Sapiei

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of religiosity, gender and Islamic educational background of Muslims on zakat compliance. It also aims to identify which…

2294

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of religiosity, gender and Islamic educational background of Muslims on zakat compliance. It also aims to identify which dimensions of religiosity are significantly related to zakat compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a self-administered questionnaire that was distributed to working Muslims individuals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Analysis of the data was based on 690 usable questionnaires.

Findings

The findings show that religiosity had a significant influence on zakat compliance and three dimensions of religiosity, namely obligation, virtues and vices, and optional ritual, were significantly related to zakat compliance. Gender was also significantly related to zakat compliance, but in a negative direction, suggesting that Muslim working females are less compliant to zakat obligations compared to their male counterparts. It is found that formal Islamic educational background had no significant influence on zakat compliance.

Practical implications

Given the importance of zakat collection to the growth of the economy and society, the findings of this paper might provide some insights to Muslim-majority countries and zakat institutions which areas require more attention to encourage zakat payment among Muslims.

Originality/value

Compared to prior zakat studies, the findings of this study were derived from a larger sample size of Muslim working respondents. Furthermore, this study also identifies which dimensions of religiosity are significantly related to zakat compliance. Hence this study enriches the scarce literature on zakat and religiosity.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2018

Fakhrozi Che Ani, Azman Jalar, Abdullah Aziz Saad, Chu Yee Khor, Roslina Ismail, Zuraihana Bachok, Mohamad Aizat Abas and Norinsan Kamil Othman

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of ultra-fine lead-free solder joints reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles in an electronic assembly.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of ultra-fine lead-free solder joints reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles in an electronic assembly.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focused on the microstructure and quality of solder joints. Various percentages of TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with a lead-free Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder paste. This new form of nano-reinforced lead-free solder paste was used to assemble a miniature package consisting of an ultra-fine capacitor on a printed circuit board by means of a reflow soldering process. The microstructure and the fillet height were investigated using a focused ion beam, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope system equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and a field emission scanning electron microscope coupled with an EDS and X-ray diffraction machine.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the intermetallic compound with the lowest thickness was produced by the nano-reinforced solder with a TiO2 content of 0.05 Wt.%. Increasing the TiO2 content to 0.15 Wt.% led to an improvement in the fillet height. The characteristics of the solder joint fulfilled the reliability requirements of the IPC standards.

Practical implications

This study provides engineers with a profound understanding of the characteristics of ultra-fine nano-reinforced solder joint packages in the microelectronics industry.

Originality/value

The findings are expected to provide proper guidelines and references with regard to the manufacture of miniaturized electronic packages. This study also explored the effects of TiO2 on the microstructure and the fillet height of ultra-fine capacitors.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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